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Mediterranean Coastal Lagoons: The Importance of Monitoring in Sediments the Biochemical Composition of Organic Matter
Monia Renzi, Francesca Provenza, Sara Pignattelli, Lucrezia Cilenti, Antonietta Specchiulli, Milva Pepi, 2019, original scientific article

Abstract: Transitional water ecosystems are targeted by the European Union (EU) Water Framework Directive (WFD, CE 2000/60) monitoring programs in coastal zones. Concerning sediments, activities performed for the WFD focus on a few variables concerning the biochemical composition of organic matter. Our research reports the effects of oxygen availability on the biochemical composition of organic matter in sediments to highlight levels of targeted variables in time and, according to the depth of sediment layer, both under oxygenated and anoxic conditions in a mesocosm study on sediment cores. Results provide evidence that tested factors of interest (i.e., disturbance type, oxygenic versus anoxic conditions; persistence time of disturbance, 0–14 days; penetration through sedimentary layers, 0–10 cm depth) are able to significantly affect the biochemical composition of organic matter in sediments. Large part of the variables considered in this study (total organic carbon (TOC), total phosphorous (TP), total sulphur (TS), Fe, carbohydrates (CHO), total proteins (PRT), biopolymeric carbon (BPC), chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) are significantly affected and correlated to the oxygenation levels and could be good early indicators of important changes of environmental conditions. Monitoring activities performed under WFD guidelines and management strategies of Mediterranean coastal lagoon ecosystems shall include the biochemical composition of organic matter in sediment to provide an exhaustive picture of such dynamic ecosystems.
Found in: osebi
Keywords: decomposition, transitional water ecosystems, organic loads, mesocosm, monitoring programs
Published: 20.04.2020; Views: 1090; Downloads: 0
.pdf Fulltext (2,22 MB)

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Performance of microAethalometers: Real-world Field Intercomparisons from Multiple Mobile Measurement Campaigns in Different Atmospheric Environments
Honey Alas, Thomas Mueller, Kay Weinhold, Sascha Pfeifer, Kristina Glojek, Asta Gregorič, Griša Močnik, Luka Drinovec, Francesca Costabile, Martina Ristorini, A. Wiedensohler, 2020, original scientific article

Abstract: Small aethalometers are frequently used to measure equivalent black carbon (eBC) mass concentrations in the context of personal exposure and air pollution mapping through mobile measurements (MM). The most widely used is the microAethalometer (AE51). Its performance in the laboratory and field is well documented, however, there is not sufficient data in the context of its performance in different environments. In this investigation, we present the characterization of the performance of the AE51 through field unit-to-unit intercomparisons (IC), and against a reference absorption photometer from three MM campaigns conducted in drastically different environments. Five IC parameters were considered: i) study area, ii) location of IC, iii) time of day, iv) duration of IC, and v) correction for the filter-loading effect. We can conclude that it is crucial where and how long the IC have been performed in terms of the correlation between the mobile and reference instruments. Better correlations (R2 > 0.8, slope = 0.8) are achieved for IC performed in rural, and background areas for more than 10 minutes. In locations with more homogenous atmosphere, the correction of the loading effect improved the correlation between the mobile and reference instruments. In addition, a newer microAethalometer model (MA200) was characterized in the field under extreme cold conditions and correlated against another MA200 (R2 > 0.8, slope ≈ 1.0), AE51(R2 > 0.9, slope ≈ 0.9), and a stationary Aethalometer (AE33) across all wavelengths (R2 > 0.8, slope ≈ 0.7). For MA200, the loading effect was more pronounced, especially at the lower wavelengths, hence the correction of the loading effect is essential to improve the correlation against the AE33. The MA200 and AE51 proved to be robust and dependable portable instruments for MM applications. Real-world quality assurance of these instruments should be performed through field IC against reference instruments with longer durations in areas of slowly changing eBC concentration.
Found in: osebi
Keywords: Portable instruments, Mobile monitoring, Black carbon, Instrument intercomparisons
Published: 15.09.2020; Views: 976; Downloads: 47
.pdf Fulltext (3,54 MB)

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The peppermint breath test: a benchmarking protocol for breath sampling and analysis using GC-MS
Laura Di Francesco, Denise Biagini, Tommaso Lomonaco, Francesca G. Bellagambi, Sven Schuchardt, Olaf Holz, Katie Hamshere, Iain R White, Maxim Wilkinson, Stephen J. Fowler, 2020, original scientific article

Abstract: Exhaled breath contains hundreds of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) which offers the potential for diagnosing and monitoring a wide range of diseases. As the breath research field has grown, sampling and analytical practices have become highly varied between groups. Standardisation would allow meta-analyses of data from multiple studies and greater confidence in published results. The Peppermint Consortium has been formed to address this task of standardisation. In the current study we aimed to generate initial benchmark values for thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS) analysis of breath samples containing peppermint-derived VOCs. Headspace analysis of peppermint oil capsules was performed to determine compounds of interest. Ten healthy participants were recruited by three groups. Each participant provided a baseline breath sample prior to taking a peppermint capsule, with further samples collected at 60, 90, 165, 285 and 360 min following ingestion. Sampling and analytical protocols were different for each institution, in line with their usual practice. Samples were analysed by TD-GC-MS and benchmarking values determined for the time taken for detected peppermint VOCs to return to baseline values. Sixteen compounds were identified in the capsule headspace. Additionally, 2,3-dehydro-1,8-cineole was uniquely found in the breath samples, with a washout profile that suggested it was a product of peppermint metabolism. Five compounds (α-pinene, β-pinene, eucalyptol, menthol and menthone) were quantified by all three groups. Differences in recovery were observed between the groups, particularly for menthone and menthol. The average time taken for VOCs to return to baseline was selected as the benchmark and were 441, 648, 1736, 643 and 375 min for α-pinene, β-pinene, eucalyptol, menthone and menthol respectively. An initial set of easy-to-measure benchmarking values for assessing the performance of TD-GC-MS systems for the analysis of VOCs in breath is presented. These values will be updated when more groups provide additional data.
Found in: osebi
Keywords: Volatile organic compounds, breath, diagnostics, standardisation
Published: 11.12.2020; Views: 819; Downloads: 0
.pdf Fulltext (1,10 MB)

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La Bulgaria in piazza in difesa del parco naturale di Pirin
Giustina Selvelli, Francesca Vaglio, radio or television broadcast

Abstract: Racconto delle proteste nelle varie città bulgare contro l'espansione dell'area edificabile all'interno del parco naturale di Pirin.
Found in: osebi
Keywords: Parco naturale di Pirin, proteste ambientaliste, movimento Verde in Bulgaria
Published: 06.01.2021; Views: 613; Downloads: 3
URL Fulltext (0,00 KB)

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