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Does Grammatical Structure Accelerate Number Word Learning? Evidence from Learners of Dual and Non-Dual Dialects of Slovenian
Franc Marušič, Rok Žaucer, Vesna Plesničar, Tina Razboršek, Jessica Sullivan, David Barner, 2016, original scientific article

Abstract: How does linguistic structure affect children’s acquisition of early number word meanings? Previous studies have tested this question by comparing how children learning languages with different grammatical representations of number learn the meanings of labels for small numbers, like 1, 2, and 3. For example, children who acquire a language with singular-plural marking, like English, are faster to learn the word for 1 than children learning a language that lacks the singular-plural distinction, perhaps because the word for 1 is always used in singular contexts, highlighting its meaning. These studies are problematic, however, because reported differences in number word learning may be due to unmeasured cross-cultural differences rather than specific linguistic differences. To address this problem, we investigated number word learning in four groups of children from a single culture who spoke different dialects of the same language that differed chiefly with respect to how they grammatically mark number. We found that learning a dialect which features “dual” morphology (marking of pairs) accelerated children’s acquisition of the number word two relative to learning a “non-dual” dialect of the same language.
Found in: osebi
Keywords: števila, številke, slovnično število, dvojina, narečja, usvajanje, učenje, slovenščina, angleščina, numbers, grammatical number, dual, dialects, acquisition, learning, Slovenian, English
Published: 10.08.2016; Views: 2345; Downloads: 170
.pdf Fulltext (1,38 MB)

Do children use language structure to discover the recursive rules of counting?
Petra Mišmaš, Priyanka Biswas, Rok Žaucer, Franc Marušič, Jessica Sullivan, Rose M. Schneider, Vesna Plesničar, David Barner, 2020, original scientific article

Abstract: We test the hypothesis that children acquire knowledge of the successor function — a foundational principle stating that every natural number n has a successor n + 1 — by learning the productive linguistic rules that govern verbal counting. Previous studies report that speakers of languages with less complex count list morphology have greater counting and mathematical knowledge at earlier ages in comparison to speakers of more complex languages (e.g., Miller & Stigler, 1987). Here, we tested whether differences in count list transparency affected children’s acquisition of the successor function in three languages with relatively transparent count lists (Cantonese, Slovenian, and English) and two languages with relatively opaque count lists (Hindi and Gujarati). We measured 3.5- to 6.5-year-old children’s mastery of their count list’s recursive structure with two tasks assessing productive counting, which we then related to a measure of successor function knowledge. While the more opaque languages were associated with lower counting proficiency and successor function task performance in comparison to the more transparent languages, a unique within-language analytic approach revealed a robust relationship between measures of productive counting and successor knowledge in almost every language. We conclude that learning productive rules of counting is a critical step in acquiring knowledge of recursive successor function across languages, and that the timeline for this learning varies as a function of count list transparency.
Found in: osebi
Keywords: Cross-linguistic Count list Successor function Natural number concepts Number acquisition Conceptual development
Published: 05.01.2020; Views: 658; Downloads: 0
.pdf Fulltext (2,38 MB)

Do children derive exact meanings pragmatically? Evidence from a dual morphology language
David Barner, Longlong Wang, Dimitrios Skordos, Amanda Saksida, Jessica Sullivan, Rok Žaucer, Franc Marušič, 2021, original scientific article

Abstract: Number words allow us to describe exact quantities like sixty-three and (exactly) one. How do we derive exact interpretations? By some views, these words are lexically exact, and are therefore unlike other grammatical forms in language. Other theories, however, argue that numbers are not special and that their exact interpretation arises from pragmatic enrichment, rather than lexically. For example, the word one may gain its exact interpretation because the presence of the immediate successor two licenses the pragmatic inference that one implies “one, and not two”. To investigate the possible role of pragmatic enrichment in the development of exact representations, we looked outside the test case of number to grammatical morphological markers of quantity. In particular, we asked whether children can derive an exact interpretation of singular noun phrases (e.g., “a button”) when their language features an immediate “successor” that encodes sets of two. To do this, we used a series of tasks to compare English-speaking children who have only singular and plural morphology to Slovenian-speaking children who have singular and plural forms, but also dual morphology, that is used when describing sets of two. Replicating previous work, we found that English-speaking preschoolers failed to enrich their interpretation of the singular and did not treat it as exact. New to the present study, we found that 4- and 5-year-old Slovenian-speakers who comprehended the dual treated the singular form as exact, while younger Slovenian children who were still learning the dual did not, providing evidence that young children may derive exact meanings pragmatically.
Found in: osebi
Keywords: Acquisition of quantity expressions, Acquisition of exactness, Pragmatics of grammatical number, Inferences on quantity, Dual, Slovenian
Published: 13.12.2020; Views: 98; Downloads: 0
.pdf Fulltext (1,33 MB)

Spectrotemporal Shaping of Seeded Free-Electron Laser Pulses
Giovanni De Ninno, David Gauthier, Primož Rebernik Ribič, 2015, original scientific article

Found in: osebi
Keywords: koherenca, laser na proste elektrone, Fourierova limita
Published: 29.02.2016; Views: 2220; Downloads: 0
.pdf Fulltext (1,36 MB)

Single Shot Polarization Characterization of XUV FEL Pulses from Crossed Polarized Undulators
Giovanni De Ninno, E. Ferrari, David Gauthier, 2015, original scientific article

Found in: osebi
Keywords: laser na proste elektrone, X-ray, polarizacija
Published: 01.03.2016; Views: 1874; Downloads: 118
.pdf Fulltext (615,39 KB)

Primerjava metod večparametrskega odločanja pri izbiri tehnologije spajkanja
David Rejc, 2016, master's thesis

Abstract: V magistrskem delu obravnavamo večparametrske odločitvene metode, ki se med seboj razlikujejo po načinu vrednotenja parametrov. Primarni cilj magistrskega dela je medsebojno primerjati odločitvene modele, razvite z različnimi metodami večparametrskega modeliranja. Sekundarni cilj je bil z odločitvenimi modeli vrednotiti, rangirati in analizirati alternativne tehnologije spajkanja fleksibilnega vezja in izbirati najboljšo alternativo. V prvem delu magistrskega dela predstavljamo družbi Hidria AET d. o. o. in SiEVA d. o. o. Predstavili smo trende v avtomobilski industriji in zahteve po razvoju avtomobilskih dizelskih motorjev z manjšo porabo goriva in nižjim izpustom škodljivih emisij. Predstavili smo razvoj svečke s senzorjem tlaka, ki je ključni del regulacije delovanja teh motorjev. Raziskali in predstavili smo tehnološke zahteve za avtomatizacijo procesa spajkanja fleksibilnega vezja. Identificirali smo odločitveni problem pri izbiri ustrezne tehnologije spajkanja, zaželene in nezaželene posledice odločitve in določili zahteve, ki jih morajo izpolnjevati alternative. Predstavili smo vse tri alternative: tehnologijo spajkanja z vročo kladico, infrardečo svetlobo in laserskim žarkom. V drugem delu magistrskega dela smo predstavili področje podpore odločanju in večparametrske odločitvene metode: APIS, PMI, Abacon, Kepner-Tregoe, EVAMIX, AHP in DEX. Z vsemi metodami smo razvili odločitvene modele in z njimi ocenili in rangirali alternative. Rezultate vrednotenja smo analizirali s "kaj-če" analizo. Izdelali smo sintezo rezultatov vrednotenja alternativ in na njeni osnovi primerjali odločitvene modele. Ugotavljamo, da smo z vsemi odločitvenimi metodami najvišje ocenili in rangirali tehnologijo spajkanja z vročo kladico, zato bomo odločevalcem svetovali njeno izbiro.
Found in: osebi
Keywords: AHP, DEX, EVAMIX, injektor, odločitveni model, ogrevalna svečka, senzor tlaka, tehnologija spajkanja, večparametrsko modeliranje, vroča kladica
Published: 27.01.2016; Views: 4007; Downloads: 265
.pdf Fulltext (2,77 MB)

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