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11.
Depth of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Ray Induced Air Shower Maxima Measured by the Telescope Array Black Rock and Long Ridge FADC Fluorescence Detectors and Surface Array in Hybrid Mode
J. P. Lundquist, R.U. Abbasi, 2018, original scientific article

Abstract: The Telescope Array (TA) observatory utilizes fluorescence detectors and surface detectors (SDs) to observe air showers produced by ultra high energy cosmic rays in Earth's atmosphere. Cosmic-ray events observed in this way are termed hybrid data. The depth of air shower maximum is related to the mass of the primary particle that generates the shower. This paper reports on shower maxima data collected over 8.5 yr using the Black Rock Mesa and Long Ridge fluorescence detectors in conjunction with the array of SDs. We compare the means and standard deviations of the observed Xmax distributions with Monte Carlo Xmax distributions of unmixed protons, helium, nitrogen, and iron, all generated using the QGSJet II-04 hadronic model. We also perform an unbinned maximum likelihood test of the observed data, which is subjected to variable systematic shifting of the data Xmax distributions to allow us to test the full distributions, and compare them to the Monte Carlo to see which elements are not compatible with the observed data. For all energy bins, QGSJet II-04 protons are found to be compatible with TA hybrid data at the 95% confidence level after some systematic Xmax shifting of the data. Three other QGSJet II-04 elements are found to be compatible using the same test procedure in an energy range limited to the highest energies where data statistics are sparse.
Found in: osebi
Keywords: acceleration of particles, astrochemistry, astroparticle physics, cosmic rays, elementary particles, UHECR, composition
Published: 27.04.2020; Views: 1706; Downloads: 0
.pdf Fulltext (5,52 MB)

12.
Search for Anisotropy in the Ultra High Energy Cosmic Ray Spectrum using the Telescope Array Surface Detector
J. P. Lundquist, R.U. Abbasi, 2017, other component parts

Abstract: The Telescope Array (TA) experiment is located in the western desert of Utah, USA, and observes ultra high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) in the Northern hemisphere. At the highest energies, E>10~EeV, the shape of cosmic ray energy spectrum may carry an imprint of the source density distribution along the line of sight different in different directions of the sky. In this study, we search for such directional variations in the shape of the energy spectrum using events observed with the Telescope Array's surface detector. We divide the TA field of view into two nearly equal-exposure regions: the "on-source" region which we define as ±30∘ of the supergalactic plane containing mostly nearby structures, and the complementary "off-source" region where the sources are further away on average. We compare the UHECR spectra in these regions by fitting them to the broken power law and comparing the resulting parameters. We find that the off-source spectrum has an earlier break at highest energies. The chance probability to obtain such or larger difference in statistically equivalent distributions is estimated as 6.2±1.1×10−4 (3.2σ) by a Monte-Carlo simulation. The observed difference in spectra is in a reasonable quantitative agreement with a simplified model that assumes that the UHECR sources trace the galaxy distribution from the 2MRS catalogue, primary particles are protons and the magnetic deflections can be neglected.
Found in: osebi
Keywords: cosmic radiation: UHE, detector: surface, cosmic radiation: spectrum, cosmic radiation: energy spectrum, deflection: magnetic, numerical calculations: Monte Carlo, anisotropy
Published: 27.04.2020; Views: 1528; Downloads: 54
.pdf Fulltext (169,05 KB)

13.
The energy spectrum of cosmic rays above 1017.2 eV measured by the fluorescence detectors of the Telescope Array experiment in seven years
J. P. Lundquist, R.U. Abbasi, 2016, original scientific article

Abstract: The Telescope Array (TA) experiment is the largest detector to observe ultra-high-energy cosmic rays in the northern hemisphere. The fluorescence detectors at two stations of TA are newly constructed and have now completed seven years of steady operation. One advantage of monocular analysis of the fluorescence detectors is a lower energy threshold for cosmic rays than that of other techniques like stereoscopic observations or coincidences with the surface detector array, allowing the measurement of an energy spectrum covering three orders of magnitude in energy. Analyzing data collected during those seven years, we report the energy spectrum of cosmic rays covering a broad range of energies above 10^17.2eV measured by the fluorescence detectors and a comparison with previously published results.
Found in: osebi
Keywords: Cosmic rays, Ultra-high energy, Fluorescence detector, Energy spectrum, Ankle, GZK cutoff
Published: 27.04.2020; Views: 1565; Downloads: 0
.pdf Fulltext (1,23 MB)

14.
First upper limits on the radar cross section of cosmic-ray induced extensive air showers
J. P. Lundquist, R.U. Abbasi, 2017, original scientific article

Abstract: TARA (Telescope Array Radar) is a cosmic ray radar detection experiment colocated with Telescope Array, the conventional surface scintillation detector (SD) and fluorescence telescope detector (FD) near Delta, Utah, U.S.A. The TARA detector combines a 40 kW, 54.1 MHz VHF transmitter and high-gain transmitting antenna which broadcasts the radar carrier over the SD array and within the FD field of view, towards a 250 MS/s DAQ receiver. TARA has been collecting data since 2013 with the primary goal of observing the radar signatures of extensive air showers (EAS). Simulations indicate that echoes are expected to be short in duration (∼ 10 µs) and exhibit rapidly changing frequency, with rates on the order 1 MHz/µs. The EAS radar cross-section (RCS) is currently unknown although it is the subject of over 70 years of speculation. A novel signal search technique is described in which the expected radar echo of a particular air shower is used as a matched filter template and compared to waveforms obtained by triggering the radar DAQ using the Telescope Array fluorescence detector. No evidence for the scattering of radio frequency radiation by EAS is obtained to date. We report the first quantitative RCS upper limits using EAS that triggered the Telescope Array Fluorescence Detector.
Found in: osebi
Keywords: Cosmic ray, Radar, Digital signal processing, Radar cross-section
Published: 27.04.2020; Views: 1411; Downloads: 0
.pdf Fulltext (6,16 MB)

15.
16.
The hybrid energy spectrum of Telescope Array’s Middle Drum Detector and surface array
J. P. Lundquist, R.U. Abbasi, 2015, original scientific article

Abstract: The Telescope Array experiment studies ultra high energy cosmic rays using a hybrid detector. Fluorescence telescopes measure the longitudinal development of the extensive air shower generated when a primary cosmic ray particle interacts with the atmosphere. Meanwhile, scintillator detectors measure the lateral distribution of secondary shower particles that hit the ground. The Middle Drum (MD) fluorescence telescope station consists of 14 telescopes from the High Resolution Fly’s Eye (HiRes) experiment, providing a direct link back to the HiRes measurements. Using the scintillator detector data in conjunction with the telescope data improves the geometrical reconstruction of the showers significantly, and hence, provides a more accurate reconstruction of the energy of the primary particle. The Middle Drum hybrid spectrum is presented and compared to that measured by the Middle Drum station in monocular mode. Further, the hybrid data establishes a link between the Middle Drum data and the surface array. A comparison between the Middle Drum hybrid energy spectrum and scintillator Surface Detector (SD) spectrum is also shown.
Found in: osebi
Keywords: Cosmic rays, Energy spectrum, Telescope Array, Hybrid, Ultra high energy
Published: 27.04.2020; Views: 1498; Downloads: 0
.pdf Fulltext (3,12 MB)

17.
Indications of Proton-Dominated Cosmic-Ray Composition above 1.6 EeV
J. P. Lundquist, R.U. Abbasi, 2010, original scientific article

Abstract: We report studies of ultrahigh-energy cosmic-ray composition via analysis of depth of air shower maximum (Xmax), for air shower events collected by the High-Resolution Fly’s Eye (HiRes) observatory. The HiRes data are consistent with a constant elongation rate d⟨Xmax⟩/d[log(E)] of 47.9 ± 6.0 (stat) ± 3.2 (syst) g/cm^2/decade for energies between 1.6 and 63 EeV, and are consistent with a predominantly protonic composition of cosmic rays when interpreted via the QGSJET01 and QGSJET-II high-energy hadronic interaction models. These measurements constrain models in which the galactic-to-extragalactic transition is the cause of the energy spectrum ankle at 4×10^18 eV.
Found in: osebi
Keywords: Cosmic rays, Energy spectrum, Telescope Array, Hybrid, Ultra high energy
Published: 27.04.2020; Views: 1524; Downloads: 0
.pdf Fulltext (314,89 KB)

18.
Supergalactic Structure of Energy-Angle Correlations
P. Sokolsky, J. P. Lundquist, 2020, published scientific conference contribution

Abstract: Evidence for the supergalactic structure of multiplets (energy-angle correlations) has previously been shown using ultra-high energy cosmic ray (UHECR) data from Telescope Array (TA) with energies above 10^19 eV. The supergalactic deflection hypothesis (that UHECR sources and intervening magnetic fields are correlated) is measured by the all-sky behavior of the strength of intermediate-scale correlations. The multiplets are measured in spherical surface wedge bins of the field-of-view to account for uniform and random magnetic fields. The structure found is consistent with the previously published energy spectrum anisotropy results of TA and toy-model simulations of a supergalactic magnetic sheet. The 7 year data post-trial significance of this feature appearing by chance, on an isotropic sky, was found by Monte Carlo simulation to be ∼4σ. The analysis has now been applied to 10 years of data.
Found in: osebi
Keywords: Cosmic rays, UHECR, energy spectrum, magnetic deflection, large-scale structure, supergalactic, multiplets
Published: 27.04.2020; Views: 1474; Downloads: 54
.pdf Fulltext (1,66 MB)

19.
Improving Particle Identification with Resistant Track Finding for the ISS-CREAM Calorimeter
J. P. Lundquist, published scientific conference contribution abstract

Abstract: Moving from Antarctic balloons to the International Space Station the Cosmic Ray Energetics And Mass detector (ISS-CREAM) has begun taking the highest energy direct measurements of cosmic ray (CR) particles ever attempted. ISS-CREAM will investigate how the energy distributions evolve, for protons all the way to iron nuclei, and will provide important information for models of galactic sources and CR propagation. The CR particle identification can be significantly improved by tracking particle-detector interactions from the calorimeter (for energy measurement) back to the Silicon Charge Detector for atomic number determination. A track finding algorithm resistant to such issues as particle multiplicity, backscatter, and noise is outlined.
Found in: osebi
Keywords: cosmic rays, high energy, track finding
Published: 28.04.2020; Views: 1540; Downloads: 0
.pdf Fulltext (3,23 MB)

20.
Supergalactic Structure of Multiplets with the Telescope Array Surface Detector
P. Sokolsky, J. P. Lundquist, 2019, published scientific conference contribution

Abstract: Evidence of supergalactic structure of multiplets has been found for ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECR) with energies above 10^19 eV using 7 years of data from the Telescope Array (TA) surface detector. The tested hypothesis is that UHECR sources, and intervening magnetic fields, may be correlated with the supergalactic plane, as it is a fit to the average matter density within the GZK horizon. This structure is measured by the average behavior of the strength of intermediate-scale correlations between event energy and position (multiplets). These multiplets are measured in wedge-like shapes on the spherical surface of the fieldof-view to account for uniform and random magnetic fields. The evident structure found is consistent with toy-model simulations of a supergalactic magnetic sheet and the previously published Hot/Coldspot results of TA. The post-trial probability of this feature appearing by chance, on an isotropic sky, is found by Monte Carlo simulation to be ~4.5σ.
Found in: osebi
Keywords: UHECR, cosmic rays, energy spectrum, anisotropy, large-scale structure, magnetic deflection
Published: 28.04.2020; Views: 1617; Downloads: 99
.pdf Fulltext (1,38 MB)

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