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Study of the properties of air flow over orographic barrier
Maruška Mole, 2017, doctoral dissertation

Abstract: Earth’s atmosphere is a complex system. All weather phenomena take place in its lowest layer, the troposphere, which is strongly influenced by human activities and the underlying surface orography. A good example of the influence the orography has on the behavior of air flows is the appearance of strong north-east downslope wind in Vipava valley, called Bora. Numerical models used to analyze flows in complex terrain need meteorological data both for setting the initial conditions and the verification of modeling results. Obtaining spatial distributions of meteorological observables can be challenging, especially in the case of strong winds, such as Bora, where traditional methods may be inadequate due to prohibitive wind speeds. In most cases, vertical properties of the atmosphere can be obtained using remote sensing techniques. Contrary to vertical profile measurements with traditional methods, remote sensing techniques do not require the measuring device to be placed within the flow and are therefore more appropriate for measurements in severe weather conditions such as strong winds. The aim of this thesis is a detailed analysis of wind and tropospheric structure properties in and above the Vipava valley in a variety of typical atmospheric conditions, including strong wind events. It employs a combination of high resolution wind and lidar data in addition to standard meteorological measurements. In Ajdovščina, there are four predominant wind directions, two of them directly connected to Bora. In the case of Bora, periodicity analysis of wind data from Ajdovščina yielded a range of possible wind gust periods between 1 and 7 minutes. The periods were not stable, with the periodogram less noisy for stable wind directions. Wavelike structures were found to be present in the troposphere in half of the investigated cases, regardless of the presence of Bora. In statically stable conditions, gravity waves propagated throughout the planetary boundary layer (PBL). In the case of Bora, the PBL experienced oscillations with periods between 1 and 2 minutes. A shear layer was present above the PBL, causing Kelvin-Helmholtz waves at its boundaries with periods ranging from 3 to 6 minutes. In some cases, periodic structures were observed above the shear layer as well, which were found to have longer periods than those within the PBL.
Found in: osebi
Keywords: remote sensing, Vipava valley, wind properties, Bora, wind gusts, wind periodicity, tropospheric structures, Kelvin-Helmholtz waves
Published: 18.09.2017; Views: 2371; Downloads: 71
.pdf Fulltext (45,11 MB)

Aerosol monitoring over Vipava valley using Raman polarization lidar
Luka Drinovec, Griša Močnik, Asta Gregorič, William Eichinger, Klemen Bergant, Samo Stanič, Longlong Wang, 2018, published scientific conference contribution abstract

Abstract: Vipava valley in southwest Slovenia is a representative hot-spot for complex mixtures of different aerosol types of both anthropogenic and natural origin in mountainous terrain. An investigation of aerosol properties throughout the troposphere in different atmospheric conditions was made possible by a deployment of a two-wavelength polarization Raman lidar system combining with in-situ measurements in the valley (in the town of Ajdovščina) from September 2017. Using its aerosol identification capabilities, which are based on particle depolarization ratio and lidar ratio measurements, it was possible to identify predominant aerosol types in the observed atmospheric structures, for example in different atmospheric layers in the case of stratified atmosphere. Primary anthropogenic aerosols within the valley were found to be mainly emitted from two sources: individual domestic heating systems, which mostly use biomass fuel, and from traffic. A considerable fraction of natural aerosols (for example mineral dust and sea salt), transported over large distances, were observed both above and entering into the planetary boundary layer. According to the properties of different aerosol types, backscatter contribution of each aerosol type was evaluated and the corresponding extinction contribution was derived from lidar observations. Statistical analysis of the presence of different aerosol types was performed on the entire available dataset from 2017 and 2018.
Found in: osebi
Keywords: lidar, aerosol type, Vipava valley
Published: 03.12.2018; Views: 958; Downloads: 0
.pdf Fulltext (48,09 KB)

Retrieval of Vertical Mass Concentration Distributions—Vipava Valley Case Study
Miloš Miler, Janja Vaupotič, Luka Drinovec, Griša Močnik, William Eichinger, Klemen Bergant, Samo Stanič, Longlong Wang, Mateja Gosar, Asta Gregorič, 2019, original scientific article

Abstract: Aerosol vertical profiles are valuable inputs for the evaluation of aerosol transport models, in order to improve the understanding of aerosol pollution ventilation processes which drive the dispersion of pollutants in mountainous regions. With the aim of providing high-accuracy vertical distributions of particle mass concentration for the study of aerosol dispersion in small-scale valleys, vertical profiles of aerosol mass concentration for aerosols from different sources (including Saharan dust and local biomass burning events) were investigated over the Vipava valley, Slovenia, a representative hot-spot for complex mixtures of different aerosol types of both anthropogenic and natural origin. The analysis was based on datasets taken between 1–30 April 2016. In-situ measurements of aerosol size, absorption, and mass concentration were combined with lidar remote sensing, where vertical profiles of aerosol concentration were retrieved. Aerosol samples were characterized by SEM-EDX, to obtain aerosol morphology and chemical composition. Two cases with expected dominant presence of different specific aerosol types (mineral dust and biomass-burning aerosols) show significantly different aerosol properties and distributions within the valley. In the mineral dust case, we observed a decrease of the elevated aerosol layer height and subsequent spreading of mineral dust within the valley, while in the biomass-burning case we observed the lifting of aerosols above the planetary boundary layer (PBL). All uncertainties of size and assumed optical properties, combined, amount to the total uncertainty of aerosol mass concentrations below 30% within the valley. We have also identified the most indicative in-situ parameters for identification of aerosol type.
Found in: osebi
Keywords: valley air pollution, aerosol vertical distributions, lidar remote sensing, in-situ measurements, aerosol identification
Published: 09.01.2019; Views: 1035; Downloads: 33
.pdf Fulltext (7,43 MB)

Properties of tropospheric aerosols observed over southwest Slovenia
Fei Gao, Klemen Bergant, Samo Stanič, Yingying Chen, Tingyao He, Dengxin Hua, 2018, original scientific article

Abstract: From August to October 2010 lidar measurements of aerosols in the troposphere were performed at Otlica observatory, Slovenia, using a vertical scanning elastic lidar. The lidar data sample, which contains 38 nighttime vertical profiles of the mean aerosol extinction, was combined with continuous ozone concen- tration (O3), particulate matter concentrations (PM) and daily radiosonde data. The obtained radiosonde- and lidar-derived heights of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL), which varied considerably from day to day, were found to be in good agreement. The mean values of the aerosol optical depth (AOD) at 355 nm, were calculated separately for the ABL and for the free troposphere (FT). A ten-fold increase of the FT AOD was observed during the days with predicted presence of Saharan dust above the lidar site. To correlate AOD values with the type and origin of aerosols, backward trajectories of air-masses above Otlica were modeled using the HYSPLIT model and clustered. High ABL AOD values were found to be correlated with local circulations and slowly approaching air masses from the Balkans and low values with northwestern flows. The highest values correlated with southwestern flows originating in northern Africa.
Found in: osebi
Keywords: Aerosol, Optical depth, Lidar, Atmospheric boundary layer
Published: 22.02.2019; Views: 764; Downloads: 0
.pdf Fulltext (2,42 MB)

Near-Ground Profile of Bora Wind Speed at Razdrto, Slovenia
Klemen Bergant, Samo Stanič, Marija Bervida, Benedikt Strajnar, 2019, original scientific article

Abstract: Southwest Slovenia is a region well-known for frequent episodes of strong and gusty Bora wind, which may damage structures, affect traffic, and poses threats to human safety in general. With the increased availability of computational power, the interest in high resolution modeling of Bora on local scales is growing. To model it adequately, the flow characteristics of Bora should be experimentally investigated and parameterized. This study presents the analysis of wind speed vertical profiles at Razdrto, Slovenia, a location strongly exposed to Bora during six Bora episodes of different duration, appearing between April 2010 and May 2011. The empirical power law and the logarithmic law for Bora wind, commonly used for the description of neutrally stratified atmosphere, were evaluated for 10-min averaged wind speed data measured at four different heights. Power law and logarithmic law wind speed profiles, which are commonly used in high resolution computational models, were found to approximate well the measured data. The obtained power law coefficient and logarithmic law parameters, which are for modeling purposes commonly taken to be constant for a specific site, were found to vary significantly between different Bora episodes, most notably due to different wind direction over complex terrain. To increase modeling precision, the effects of local topography on wind profile parameters needs to be experimentally assessed and implemented.
Found in: osebi
Keywords: Bora wind, logarithmic law, power law, roughness length, wind profile
Published: 04.10.2019; Views: 430; Downloads: 20
.pdf Fulltext (5,90 MB)

Lidar Observations of Mountain Waves During Bora Episodes
Longlong Wang, Marija Bervida, Samo Stanič, Klemen Bergant, William Eichinger, Benedikt Strajnar, 2020, published scientific conference contribution

Abstract: Airflows over mountain barriers in the Alpine region may give rise to strong, gusty downslope winds, called Bora. Oscillations, caused by the flow over an orographic barrier, lead to formation of mountain waves. These waves can only rarely be observed visually and can, in general, not be reliably reproduced by numerical models. Using aerosols as tracers for airmass motion, mountain waves were experimentally observed during Bora outbreak in the Vipava valley, Slovenia, on 24-25 January 2019 by two lidar systems: a vertical scanning lidar positioned just below the peak of the lee side of the mountain range and a fixed direction lidar at valley floor, which were set up to retrieve two-dimensional structure of the airflow over the orographic barrier into the valley. Based on the lidar data, we determined the thickness of airmass layer exhibiting downslope motion, observed hydraulic jump phenomena that gave rise to mountain waves and characterized their properties.
Found in: osebi
Keywords: Bora, mountain waves, lidar observations
Published: 08.07.2020; Views: 84; Downloads: 0
.pdf Fulltext (3,66 MB)

Lidar measurements of Bora wind effects on aerosol loading
Maruška Mole, Longlong Wang, Samo Stanič, Klemen Bergant, William Eichinger, Francisco Ocaña, Benedikt Strajnar, Primož Škraba, Marko Vučković, William Willis, 2017, original scientific article

Abstract: The Vipava valley in Slovenia is well known for the appearance of strong, gusty North-East Bora winds, which occur as a result of air flows over an adjacent orographic barrier. There are three revealing wind directions within the valley which were found to give rise to specific types of atmospheric structures. These structures were investigated using a Mie scattering lidar operating at 1064 nm, which provided high temporal and spatial resolution backscatter data on aerosols, which were used as tracers for atmospheric flows. Wind properties were monitored at the bottom of the valley and at the rim of the barrier using two ultrasonic anemometers. Twelve time periods between February and April 2015 were selected when lidar data was available. The periods were classified according to the wind speed and direction and investigated in terms of appearance of atmospheric structures. In two periods with strong or moderate Bora, periodic atmospheric structures in the lidar data were observed at heights above the mountain barrier and are believed to be Kelvin–Helmholtz waves, induced by wind shear. No temporal correlation was found between these structures and wind gusts at the ground level. The influence of the wind on the height of the planetary boundary layer was studied as well. In periods with low wind speeds, the vertical evolution of the planetary boundary layer was found to be governed by solar radiation and clouds. In periods with strong or moderate Bora wind, convection within the planetary boundary layer was found to be much weaker due to strong turbulence close to the ground, which inhibited mixing through the entire layer.
Found in: osebi
Keywords: Downslope wind Lidar observations Kelvin–Helmholtz waves Bora
Published: 06.01.2017; Views: 1957; Downloads: 0
.pdf Fulltext (3,02 MB)

Vertical profiling of aerosol properties with two-wavelength polarization Raman lidar over the Vipava valley
William Eichinger, Klemen Bergant, Griša Močnik, Luka Drinovec, Samo Stamoč, Asta Gregorič, Longlong Wang, 2018, published scientific conference contribution abstract

Abstract: Presence of atmospheric aerosols affects the Earth’s radiation budget and thus also atmospheric thermal structure, which in turn affects cloud and planetary boundary layer (PBL) dynamics. We combine in-situ and remote measurements to determine aerosol properties in a representative hot-spot for air pollution in a complex terrain configuration. Vertical profiles of aerosol properties were investigated using a two-wavelength polarization Raman lidar system in the Vipava valley. Using lidar-obtained particle depolarization ratio, lidar ratio and backscatter Ångström exponent (355 nm / 1064 nm), which depend on aerosol shape, size and refractive index, thus the aerosols can be identified and the roles of different aerosol types in the observed atmospheric processes were investigated. In addition, aerosol absorption coefficients were measured in-situ by Aethalometers (AE33, Magee Scientific / Aerosol d.o.o.) on the valley floor and on the adjacent mountain range, 850 m above the lidar site. Our primary goal was to study the variability of aerosol types within and above the Vipava valley, which was performed using the entire lidar dataset from August – December 2017. Primary anthropogenic aerosols within the valley is mainly emitted from two sources: individual domestic heating systems, which mostly use biomass fuel and traffic. Natural aerosols, transported by long-range transport, such as mineral dust and sea salt, were observed both above the PBL and entering into the PBL. Vertical distributions of aerosol properties, in par- ticular the particle depolarization ratio, indicated atmospheric stratification with different aerosol types occupying different height ranges. In the presence of Bora (strong down-slope wind), Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities were observed between the PBL and the free troposphere. Using aerosol type identification capability of our system, we discovered that this instability was responsible for ejecting aerosols from the PBL up to 2 km into the free troposphere. In addition, we improved the reliability of aerosol identification in vertical profiles using absorption coeffi- cient measured by Aethalometer. Combining it with the aerosol extinction coefficient at 355 nm derived from lidar data, we derived aerosol single scattering albedo (SSA), which is an important parameter for aerosol characterization.
Found in: osebi
Keywords: Aerosol, Vipava valley, lidar
Published: 23.04.2018; Views: 1328; Downloads: 0
.pdf Fulltext (35,82 KB)

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