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11.
Maternal and fetal hair cortisol concentrations in beef cattle at delivery
Alberto Prandi, Marta Montillo, Maria Cristina Veronesi, Monica Probo, Antonella Comin, Tanja Peric, 2018, published scientific conference contribution abstract

Abstract: Hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis of both mother and fetus, is one of key mechanisms involved in fetal programming. Cortisol, the end-product of this axis, plays a critical role in regulating fetal and new-born metabolism and development. The aim of the study was to evaluate maternal and fetal cortisol concentrations shortly after delivery on hair samples non-invasively collected. The study was carried out on 11 pairs of beef cows and their calves (calves were 12 because of one case of twins) from the same farm and subjected to the same managerial conditions. Hair from new-born calves and from their mothers was collected on the day of birth shaving their withers to the level of the skin. The hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) were determined by RIA as previously described (Peric et al. 2013: J Dairy Sci 96:3023–3027). The results showed that fetal and maternal HCC ranged from 16.11 to 40.43 pg/mg and from 1.88 to 15.73 pg/mg respectively, with fetal and maternal mean ± SE HCC of 23.72 ± 2.21 and 6.40 ± 1.32 pg/mg respectively (p < 0.001). Fetal HCC were on average 3.5 higher than those of mothers but this ratio differed among the pairs. These differences were also found among the twin calves. These results indicate that in beef cows-and-calves pairs, although HCC at delivery were always higher in calves than in cows, the ratio between fetal and maternal HCC differs among pairs, suggesting an individuality in the fetal programming processes that may also rely on genetic and epigenetic factors.
Found in: ključnih besedah
Keywords: hair, cortisol, cattle, delivery
Published: 09.04.2019; Views: 783; Downloads: 0
.pdf Fulltext (802,60 KB)

12.
Hair dehydroepiandrosterone in newborn beef calves from birth up to 10 months of age
Monica Probo, Tanja Peric, Massimo Faustini, Alberto Prandi, Antonella Comin, 2018, published scientific conference contribution abstract

Abstract: Although steroidogenesis in maternal, placental and fetal compartments is interdependent, the maternal and fetal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axes represent separate biological systems, with dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) recognized as the main fetal steroid. Fetal steroids are likely to influence development and have long-term effects on HPA function. Hair analysis represents a promising methodological approach for the non-invasive measurement of steroids, allowing for a retrospective analysis of the total exposure to steroids over time, and avoiding the influence of acute events or circadian fluctuations (Schury et al. 2017, BMC Psychiatry 17:213). Hair coat DHEA (hcD) concentrations have been investigated in cows (Peric et al. 2017, Livestock Sci 202:39–43), but no studies have been performed on newborn calves. Hair samples of 12 beef calves (7 males, 5 females) were collected by shaving at calving (T0) and monthly up to 10 months of age (T1-T10), only on the re-growth area. Hair DHEA was analyzed by RIA2. Statistical analysis revealed that hcD concentrations in calves were influenced by age, with higher levels at T1 and T2 compared to the other samples (p < 0.05). HcD levels were not influenced by newborn gender, birth weight and Apgar score. These data demonstrate that DHEA is quantifiable in the hair coat of newborn calves, and that hcD levels are influenced by the age of calves. The higher accumulation of DHEA was detected from birth to 2 months of age, suggesting that DHEA continues to be secreted by the newborn calf also beyond birth and could be involved in the events occurring during the first months of age.
Found in: ključnih besedah
Keywords: hair, dehydroepiandrosterone, cattle, calf
Published: 09.04.2019; Views: 775; Downloads: 0
.pdf Fulltext (4,53 MB)

13.
A NEW TOOL TO EVALUATE CORTISOL CONCENTRATIONS IN ANIMAL HAIR
Antonella Comin, Tanja Peric, Mara Colzani, Francesco De Vecchi, Cristina Bergamin, Alberto Prandi, 2018, published scientific conference contribution abstract

Abstract: The study of cortisol in hair requires the use of a highly sensitive assay. To date, hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) have been evaluated with different analytical methods as Radio Immune Assay (RIA), Enzyme Immunossay (EIA), Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA), ChemiLuminescent Immunoassay (CLIA) and High Performance Liquid Chromatography with Mass Spectrometry (HPLC/MS) or Liquid Chromatography with Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Amplified luminescent proximity homogeneous assay (AlphaLISA) is an ELISA-like, nonradioactive technology first reported in 1994 [1]. This technology allows the quantitative detection of molecules of interest in a light-induced chemiluminescence immunoassay using a microplate without wash step. The aim of the study was to compare RIA with AlphaLISA method and examine the sensitivity in evaluating cortisol concentrations in animal hair of the Cortisol AlphaLISA kit (PerkinElmer, USA), originally suggested for the analysis of buffer and serum samples. The study has been carried out on 4 samples of calf, 4 samples of foal and 8 samples of sheep hair. After washing with isopropanol, two extracts were obtained from each hair sample. One extract has been evaluated for HCC by RIA as previously described [2,3]. The second extract has been reconstituted with the buffer provided by the Cortisol AlphaLISA Kit and HCC evaluated by the use of this commercially available kit. The preliminary results indicate that the Cortisol AlphaLISA Kit is capable to detect cortisol also in hair samples with high sensitivity, with a detection limit of 17 pg/ml. Intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation (CVs) were 4.0% and 9.0%, respectively. Cortisol concentrations ranged between 1.31 and 16.94 pg/mg, 6.30 and 57.65 pg/mg, and 2.16 and 45.08 in calf, foal and sheep hair, respectively. The HCC obtained by Cortisol AlphaLISA Kit and RIA showed a good correlation (r=0.79, p<0.01). Considering the possibility to use a low amount of extracted sample, its no-washing procedure and the performances showed, we can conclude that the Cortisol AlphaLISA Kit can be considered an excellent tool to evaluate cortisol concentrations also in hair derived from animal species.
Found in: ključnih besedah
Keywords: hair, cortisol, analyses, method, AlphaLISA, Amplified luminescent proximity homogeneous assay
Published: 09.04.2019; Views: 877; Downloads: 0
.pdf Fulltext (4,05 MB)

14.
Analysis of 19 Minerals and Cortisol in Red Deer Hair in Two Different Areas of the Stelvio National Park: A Preliminary Study
Marta Montillo, Tanja Peric, 2019, original scientific article

Abstract: The aim of the study was to perform an investigation on the concentration of 19 minerals and cortisol in red deer (Cervus elaphus) hair, a matrix that is easy to collect with non-invasive and painless sampling, able to represent an integrative values of long-term substance concentrations, and able to give useful information, also when performed on dead animals, given its extreme stability over time. In the study thirty-five animals were included, coming from two different sides of a valley in the Stelvio National Park, where official water analysis had pointed out elevated concentrations of As in one of the two orographic sides. Hair cortisol concentrations were measured using a RIA(Radio Immuno Assay), while minerals were detected using ICP-MS (Inductively Coupled Plasma- Mass Spectrometry). Results showed a negative relationship between cortisol and some mineral concentrations (Li, Co, As, Cd, Cr and Tl) and significant differences in some mineral concentrations between park areas (Al, Co, Cu, Cd and Ni). As, Cr and cortisol differences approached statistical significance. This preliminary study represents a step forward in the study of wildlife allostatic load and a valid method for applications in wildlife management programs, in environmental studies and in public health programs.
Found in: ključnih besedah
Keywords: hair, deer, mineral, cortisol
Published: 27.08.2019; Views: 571; Downloads: 30
.pdf Fulltext (2,10 MB)

15.
The multi-purpose role of hairiness in the lichens of coastal environments: Insights from Seirophora villosa (Ach.) Frödén
Elisabetta Bianchi, Renato Benesperi, Ilaria Colzi, Andrea Coppi, Lorenzo Lazzaro, Luca Paoli, Alessio Papini, Sara Pignattelli, Corrado Tani, Pamela Vignolini, Cristina Gonnelli, 2019, original scientific article

Abstract: The fruticose epiphytic lichen Seirophora villosa, strictly associated with Juniperus shrublands in the Mediterranean basin, was used to investigate the role of hairiness on a lichen thallus, as a characteristic morphological trait. We evaluated the effect of hair removal on the physiological parameters of a set of samples, during desiccation and on exposure to different salt concentrations. Hairy thalli were less affected by salt, suggesting that during dehydration, the presence of hair protects the thallus from light irradiance, oxidative stresses and the lipid peroxidation generated by free radicals, and could offer passive, but selective, water control. Our results showed that hair could not only increase thallus surface and promote water absorption when availability is low, but could also repel the salt dissolved in water by activating a passive resistance mechanism, by preventing salt entering.
Found in: ključnih besedah
Summary of found: ...was used to investigate the role of hairiness on a lichen thallus, as a characteristic...
Keywords: Antioxidant activity Chlorophyll a fluorescence Juniperus shrublands Hair MDA Salt stress
Published: 20.04.2020; Views: 383; Downloads: 0
.pdf Fulltext (9,03 MB)

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