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1.
Upgrade of the Pierre Auger Observatory (AugerPrime)
Marko Zavrtanik, Danilo Zavrtanik, Lili Yang, Serguei Vorobiov, Darko Veberič, Marta Trini, Samo Stanič, Ahmed Saleh, Gašper Kukec Mezek, Andrej Filipčič, Ralph Engel, 2015, published scientific conference contribution

Abstract: The data collected with the Pierre Auger Observatory have led to a number of surprising discoveries. While a strong suppression of the particle flux at the highest energies has been established unambiguously, the dominant physics processes related to this suppression could not be identified. Within the energy range covered by fluorescence detector observations with sufficient statistics, an unexpected change of the depth of maximum distribution is found. Using LHC-tuned interaction models these observations can be understood as a correlated change of the fluxes of different mass groups. On the other hand, they could also indicate a change of hadronic interactions above the energy of the ankle. Complementing the water Cherenkov detectors of the surface array with scintillator detectors will, mainly through the determination of the muonic shower component, extend the composition sensitivity of the Auger Observatory into the flux suppression region. The upgrade of the Auger Observatory will allow us to estimate the primary mass of the highest energy cosmic rays on a shower-by-shower basis. In addition to measuring the mass composition the upgrade will open the possibility to search for light primaries at the highest energies, to perform composition-selected anisotropy studies, and to search for new phenomena including unexpected changes of hadronic interactions. After introducing the physics motivation for upgrading the Auger Observatory the planned detector upgrade is presented. In the second part of the contribution the expected performance and improved physics sensitivity of the upgraded Auger Observatory are discussed.
Found in: ključnih besedah
Summary of found: ...the primary mass of the highest energy cosmic rays on a shower-by-shower basis. In addition... ...of the ankle. Complementing the water Cherenkov detectors of the surface array with scintillator detectors...
Keywords: Pierre Auger Observatory, ultra-high energy cosmic rays, elemental composition sensitivity, Auger upgrade (AugerPrime), muonic shower component, scintillator detectors
Published: 03.03.2016; Views: 2611; Downloads: 173
.pdf Fulltext (659,02 KB)

2.
Measurement of the water-Cherenkov detector response to inclined muons using an RPC hodoscope
Marko Zavrtanik, Danilo Zavrtanik, Lili Yang, Serguei Vorobiov, Darko Veberič, Marta Trini, Samo Stanič, Ahmed Saleh, Gašper Kukec Mezek, Andrej Filipčič, Pedro Assis, 2015, published scientific conference contribution

Abstract: The Pierre Auger Observatory operates a hybrid detector composed of a Fluorescence Detector and a Surface Detector array. Water-Cherenkov detectors (WCD) are the building blocks of the array and as such play a key role in the detection of secondary particles at the ground. A good knowledge of the detector response is of paramount importance to lower systematic uncertainties and thus to increase the capability of the experiment in determining the muon content of the extensive air showers with a higher precision. In this work we report on a detailed study of the detector response to single muons as a function of their trajectories in the WCD. A dedicated Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC) hodoscope was built and installed around one of the detectors. The hodoscope is formed by two stand-alone low gas flux segmented RPC detectors with the test water-Cherenkov detector placed in between. The segmentation of the RPC detectors is of the order of 10 cm. The hodoscope is used to trigger and select single muon events in different geometries. The signal recorded in the water-Cherenkov detector and performance estimators were studied as a function of the trajectories of the muons and compared with a dedicated simulation. An agreement at the percent level was found, showing that the simulation correctly describes the tank response.
Found in: ključnih besedah
Summary of found: ...Auger Observatory, Water-Cherenkov detectors, detector calibration, inclined cosmic ray muons, Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC) hodoscope...
Keywords: Pierre Auger Observatory, Water-Cherenkov detectors, detector calibration, inclined cosmic ray muons, Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC) hodoscope
Published: 03.03.2016; Views: 3022; Downloads: 153
.pdf Fulltext (1,27 MB)

3.
Initial results of a direct comparison between the Surface Detectors of the Pierre Auger Observatory and the Telescope Array
Marko Zavrtanik, Danilo Zavrtanik, Lili Yang, Serguei Vorobiov, Darko Veberič, Marta Trini, Samo Stanič, Ahmed Saleh, Gašper Kukec Mezek, Andrej Filipčič, R. Takeishi, 2015, published scientific conference contribution

Abstract: The Pierre Auger Observatory (Auger) in Mendoza, Argentina and the Telescope Array (TA) in Utah, USA aim at unraveling the origin and nature of Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECR). At present, there appear to be subtle differences between Auger and TA results and interpretations. Joint working groups have been established and have already reported preliminary findings. From an experimental standpoint, the Surface Detectors (SD) of both experiments make use of different detection processes not equally sensitive to the components of the extensive air showers making it to the ground. In particular, the muonic component of the shower measured at ground level can be traced back to the primary composition, which is critical for understanding the origin of UHECRs. In order to make direct comparisons between the SD detection techniques used by Auger and TA, a joint SD experimental research program is being developed. In the first phase, two Auger SD stations were deployed at the TA Central Laser Facility to compare station-level responses. This paper concentrates on the results obtained with the first Auger SD station (an “Auger North” design), which has been operating since October 2014. The second Auger SD station, identical to the ones being operated at Auger in Argentina (an “Auger South” design), was just deployed in June 2015. The second phase of this research program will be to co-locate six Auger North SD stations with TA stations in the field to compare event-level responses.
Found in: ključnih besedah
Summary of found: ...the origin and nature of Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECR). At present, there appear to be...
Keywords: Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays, Pierre Auger Observatory, Telescope Array, extensive air showers, secondary cosmic rays, muonic shower component, surface detectors
Published: 08.03.2016; Views: 2842; Downloads: 143
.pdf Fulltext (1,42 MB)

4.
Track Reconstruction for ISS-CREAM Resulting in Improved Energy and Charge Resolutions
J. P. Lundquist, 2019, published scientific conference contribution

Abstract: Cosmic Ray Energetics And Mass for the International Space Station (ISS-CREAM) has taken 1.5 years of direct measurements of high-energy cosmic ray (HECR) particles for energies from 10^12 to 10^15 eV. HECR particle identification is significantly improved by tracking particle-detector interactions from the calorimeter (CAL) back to the Silicon Charge Detector (SCD) for charge determination. A track finding algorithm resistant to such issues as particle multiplicity, backscatter, and electronic noise will be outlined. Also, shown is the energy resolution improvement, and the resulting all particle spectrum, provided by ensuring good particle tracks. This allows ISSCREAM to investigate how the energy distributions evolve, for protons all the way to iron nuclei, and will provide important information for models of galactic sources and HECR propagation.
Found in: ključnih besedah
Summary of found: ... Cosmic Ray Energetics And Mass for the International... ...cosmic rays, high energy, detectors, track fitting...
Keywords: cosmic rays, high energy, detectors, track fitting
Published: 28.04.2020; Views: 1132; Downloads: 42
.pdf Fulltext (481,98 KB)

5.
Energy response of ISS-CREAM calorimeter with attenuation effect
J. P. Lundquist, H.G. Zhang, 2020, other component parts

Abstract: The NASA mission, Cosmic Ray Energetic And Mass experiment for the International Space Station (ISS-CREAM) is to measure individual cosmic-ray particle energy spectra from protons to iron nuclei, with an energy range from ~1 TeV to the so-called "knee", near 1015eV. Energies of cosmic-ray particles are measured from electromagnetic showers induced by particles in the calorimeter. As a pioneer mission, the balloon-borne CREAM instrument has successfully flown seven times over the Antarctica for a cumulative exposure of 191 days. The CREAM calorimeter has shown sufficient capability to measure energies of cosmic-ray particles by capturing the electromagnetic shower profile within the interested energy range. The ISS-CREAM calorimeter is expected to have a similar performance and, before it was launched, an engineering-unit calorimeter was shipped to CERN for a full beam test. The full performance test includes position, energy, and angle scans of electron and pion beams together with a high voltage scan for calibration and characterization. In addition to the regular analysis for performance test, we also applied an additional step to generate the universal energy responses by correcting the attenuation effect in the calorimeter readout. The general energy responses could be obtained after shifting the incident beam positions to a reference position near the center of the calorimeter, which provided improved energy resolutions. The result of this analysis will be used to determine the incident energies of the cosmic-ray particles in the flight data.
Found in: ključnih besedah
Summary of found: ...The NASA mission, Cosmic Ray Energetic And Mass experiment for the...
Keywords: cosmic rays, high-energy, particle physics, detectors
Published: 29.04.2020; Views: 1095; Downloads: 49
.pdf Fulltext (2,54 MB)

6.
New air fluorescence detectors employed in the Telescope Array experiment
J. P. Lundquist, H. Tokuno, 2012, original scientific article

Abstract: Since 2007, the Telescope Array (TA) experiment, based in Utah, USA, has been observing ultra high energy cosmic rays to understand their origins. The experiment includes a surface detector (SD) array and three fluorescence detector (FD) stations. The FD stations, installed surrounding the SD array, measure the air fluorescence light emitted from extensive air showers (EASs) for precise determination of their energies and species. The detectors employed at one of the three FD stations were relocated from the High Resolution Fly's Eye (HiRes) experiment. At the other two stations, newly designed detectors were constructed for the TA experiment. An FD consists of a primary mirror and a camera equipped with photomultiplier tube pixels. To obtain the EAS parameters with high accuracy, understanding the FD optical characteristics is important. In this paper, we report the characteristics and installation of the new FDs and the performances of the FD components. The results of the monitored mirror reflectance during the observation time are also described in this report.
Found in: ključnih besedah
Summary of found: ...USA, has been observing ultra high energy cosmic rays to understand their origins. The experiment...
Keywords: Ultra high energy cosmic rays, Extensive air showers, Air fluorescence light detectors
Published: 19.05.2020; Views: 985; Downloads: 0
.pdf Fulltext (1,44 MB)

7.
New Electronics for the Surface Detectors of the Pierre Auger Observatory
Lukas Zehrer, Marko Zavrtanik, Danilo Zavrtanik, Lili Yang, Serguei Vorobiov, Marta Trini, Samo Stanič, Gašper Kukec Mezek, Andrej Filipčič, D. Nitz, 2019, published scientific conference contribution

Found in: ključnih besedah
Summary of found: ...ultra-high energy cosmic rays, Pierre Auger Observatory, AugerPrime detector upgrade,...
Keywords: ultra-high energy cosmic rays, Pierre Auger Observatory, AugerPrime detector upgrade, Auger Surface Detectors, electronics
Published: 24.07.2020; Views: 939; Downloads: 34
.pdf Fulltext (7,57 MB)

8.
Production and Quality Control of the Scintillator Surface Detector for the AugerPrime Upgrade of the Pierre Auger Observatory
Lukas Zehrer, Marko Zavrtanik, Danilo Zavrtanik, Lili Yang, Serguei Vorobiov, Marta Trini, Samo Stanič, Gašper Kukec Mezek, Andrej Filipčič, Jan Pękala, 2019, published scientific conference contribution

Found in: ključnih besedah
Summary of found: ...ultra-high energy cosmic rays, Pierre Auger Observatory, AugerPrime Observatory Upgrade,... ...Auger Observatory, AugerPrime Observatory Upgrade, Scintillator Surface Detectors (SSDs), SSD Production and Quality Control...
Keywords: ultra-high energy cosmic rays, Pierre Auger Observatory, AugerPrime Observatory Upgrade, Scintillator Surface Detectors (SSDs), SSD Production and Quality Control
Published: 24.07.2020; Views: 921; Downloads: 34
.pdf Fulltext (3,86 MB)

9.
10.
Direct measurement of the muonic content of extensive air showers between 2 × 10[sup]17 and 2 × 10[sup]18 eV at the Pierre Auger Observatory
Lukas Zehrer, Marko Zavrtanik, Danilo Zavrtanik, Serguei Vorobiov, Marta Trini, Samo Stanič, Gašper Kukec Mezek, Andrej Filipčič, A. Aab, 2020, original scientific article

Found in: ključnih besedah
Summary of found: ...ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs), extensive air showers, Pierre Auger... ...air showers, Pierre Auger Observatory, underground muon detectors, hybrid detection, muonic content in air showers...
Keywords: ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs), extensive air showers, Pierre Auger Observatory, underground muon detectors, hybrid detection, muonic content in air showers
Published: 24.08.2020; Views: 916; Downloads: 34
.pdf Fulltext (1,41 MB)

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