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1.
Diversity in extinction laws of Type Ia supernovae measured between 0.2 and 2 μm
Rahman Amanullah, Tanja Petrushevska, 2015, original scientific article

Abstract: We present ultraviolet (UV) observations of six nearby Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope, three of which were also observed in the near-IR (NIR) with Wide-Field Camera 3. UV observations with the Swift satellite, as well as ground-based optical and NIR data provide complementary information. The combined data set covers the wavelength range 0.2–2 μm. By also including archival data of SN 2014J, we analyse a sample spanning observed colour excesses up to E(B − V) = 1.4 mag. We study the wavelength-dependent extinction of each individual SN and find a diversity of reddening laws when characterized by the total-to-selective extinction RV. In particular, we note that for the two SNe with E(B − V) ≳ 1 mag, for which the colour excess is dominated by dust extinction, we find RV = 1.4 ± 0.1 and RV = 2.8 ± 0.1. Adding UV photometry reduces the uncertainty of fitted RV by ∼50 per cent allowing us to also measure RV of individual low-extinction objects which point to a similar diversity, currently not accounted for in the analyses when SNe Ia are used for studying the expansion history of the Universe.
Found in: ključnih besedah
Summary of found: ...circumstellar matter, supernovae: general, supernovae: individual: SNe 2012cg, supernovae: individual: 2012cu,...
Keywords: circumstellar matter, supernovae: general, supernovae: individual: SNe 2012cg, supernovae: individual: 2012cu, dust, extinction
Published: 23.01.2018; Views: 2232; Downloads: 0
.pdf Fulltext (6,52 MB)

2.
Time-varying sodium absorption in the Type Ia supernova 2013gh
Raphael Ferretti, R. Amanullah, Ariel Goobar, Joel Johansson, T. Petrushevska, 2016, original scientific article

Abstract: Context. Temporal variability of narrow absorption lines in high-resolution spectra of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) is studied to search for circumstellar matter. Time series which resolve the profiles of absorption lines such as Na I D or Ca II H&K are expected to reveal variations due to photoionisation and subsequent recombination of the gases. The presence, composition, and geometry of circumstellar matter may hint at the elusive progenitor system of SNe Ia and could also affect the observed reddening law. Aims. To date, there are few known cases of time-varying Na I D absorption in SNe Ia, all of which occurred during relatively late phases of the supernova (SN) evolution. Photoionisation, however, is predicted to occur during the early phases of SNe Ia, when the supernovae peak in the ultraviolet. We attempt, therefore, to observe early-time absorption-line variations by obtaining high-resolution spectra of SNe before maximum light. Methods. We have obtained photometry and high-resolution spectroscopy of SNe Ia 2013gh and iPTF 13dge, to search for absorptionline variations. Furthermore, we study interstellar absorption features in relation to the observed photometric colours of the SNe. Results. Both SNe display deep Na I D and Ca II H&K absorption features. Furthermore, small but significant variations are detected in a feature of the Na I D profile of SN 2013gh. The variations are consistent with either geometric effects of rapidly moving or patchy gas clouds or photoionisation of Na I gas at R ≈ 1019 cm from the explosion. Conclusions. Our analysis indicates that it is necessary to focus on early phases to detect photoionisation effects of gases in the circumstellar medium of SNe Ia. Different absorbers such as Na I and Ca II can be used to probe for matter at different distances from the SNe. The nondetection of variations during early phases makes it possible to put limits on the abundance of the species at those distances.
Found in: ključnih besedah
Summary of found: ...supernovae: generalsupernovae: individual: SN 2013gh – dust,...
Keywords: supernovae: general – supernovae: individual: SN 2013gh – dust, extinction – circumstellar matter – supernovae: individual: iPTF 13dge
Published: 23.01.2018; Views: 2232; Downloads: 0
.pdf Fulltext (1,84 MB)

3.
High-redshift supernova rates measured with the gravitational telescope A 1689
Tanja Petrushevska, R. Amanullah, Ariel Goobar, S. Fabbro, Joel Johansson, Tor Kjellsson, Chris Lidman, K. Paech, Johan Richard, H. Dahle, Raphael Ferretti, J.P. Kneib, M. Limousin, Jakob Nordin, V. Stanishev, 2016, original scientific article

Abstract: Aims. We present a ground-based, near-infrared search for lensed supernovae behind the massive cluster Abell 1689 at z = 0.18, which is one of the most powerful gravitational telescopes that nature provides. Methods. Our survey was based on multi-epoch J-band observations with the HAWK-I instrument on VLT, with supporting optical data from the Nordic Optical Telescope. Results. Our search resulted in the discovery of five photometrically classified, core-collapse supernovae with high redshifts of 0.671 < z < 1.703 and magnifications in the range ∆m = −0.31 to −1.58 mag, as calculated from lensing models in the literature. Owing to the power of the lensing cluster, the survey had the sensitivity to detect supernovae up to very high redshifts, z ∼ 3, albeit for a limited region of space. We present a study of the core-collapse supernova rates for 0.4 ≤ z < 2.9, and find good agreement with previous estimates and predictions from star formation history. During our survey, we also discovered two Type Ia supernovae in A 1689 cluster members, which allowed us to determine the cluster Ia rate to be 0.14+0.19 −0.09 ± 0.01 SNuB h 2 (SNuB ≡ 10−12 SNe L −1 ,B yr−1), where the error bars indicate 1σ confidence intervals, statistical and systematic, respectively. The cluster rate normalized by the stellar mass is 0.10+0.13 −0.06 ± 0.02 in SNuM h 2 (SNuM ≡ 10−12 SNe M−1 yr−1). Furthermore, we explore the optimal future survey for improving the core-collapse supernova rate measurements at z & 2 using gravitational telescopes, and for detections with multiply lensed images, and we find that the planned WFIRST space mission has excellent prospects. Conclusions. Massive clusters can be used as gravitational telescopes to significantly expand the survey range of supernova searches, with important implications for the study of the high-z transient Universe.
Found in: ključnih besedah
Summary of found: ...supernovae: general – gravitational lensing: strong – galaxies: star...
Keywords: supernovae: general – gravitational lensing: strong – galaxies: star formation – galaxies: clusters: individual: A 1689 – techniques: photometric
Published: 23.01.2018; Views: 2360; Downloads: 0
.pdf Fulltext (2,64 MB)

4.
Testing for redshift evolution of Type Ia supernovae using the strongly lensed PS1-10afx at z = 1.4
Tanja Petrushevska, Rahman Amanullah, Mattia Bulla, Markus Kromer, Raphael Ferretti, Ariel Goobar, Semeli Papadogiannakis, 2017, original scientific article

Abstract: Context. The light from distant supernovae (SNe ) can be magnified through gravitational lensing when a foreground galaxy is located along the line of sight. This line-up allows for detailed studies of SNe at high redshift that otherwise would not be possible. Spectroscopic observations of lensed high-redshift Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) are of particular interest since they can be used to test for evolution of their intrinsic properties. The use of SNe Ia for probing the cosmic expansion history has proven to be an extremely powerful method for measuring cosmological parameters. However, if systematic redshift-dependent properties are found, their usefulness for future surveys could be challenged. Aims. We investigate whether the spectroscopic properties of the strongly lensed and very distant SN Ia PS1-10afx at z = 1.4, deviates from the well-studied populations of normal SNe Ia at nearby or intermediate distance. Methods. We created median spectra from nearby and intermediate-redshift spectroscopically normal SNe Ia from the literature at −5 and +1 days from light-curve maximum. We then compared these median spectra to those of PS1-10afx. Results. We do not find signs of spectral evolution in PS1-10afx. The observed deviation between PS1-10afx and the median templates are within what is found for SNe at low and intermediate redshift. There is a noticeable broad feature centred at λ ∼ 3500 Å, which is present only to a lesser extent in individual low- and intermediate-redshift SN Ia spectra. From a comparison with a recently developed explosion model, we find this feature to be dominated by iron peak elements, in particular, singly ionized cobalt and chromium.
Found in: ključnih besedah
Keywords: supernovae: individual: PS1-10afx – gravitational lensing: strong – supernovae: general
Published: 23.01.2018; Views: 2362; Downloads: 0
.pdf Fulltext (1,00 MB)

5.
Color Me Intrigued: The Discovery of iPTF 16fnm, an SN 2002cx-like Object
A. A. Miller, Tanja Petrushevska, 2017, original scientific article

Abstract: Modern wide-field, optical time-domain surveys must solve a basic optimization problem: maximize the number of transient discoveries or minimize the follow-up needed for the new discoveries. Here, we describe the Color Me Intrigued experiment, the first from the intermediate Palomar Transient Factory (iPTF) to search for transients simultaneously in the gPTF and RPTF bands. During the course of this experiment, we discovered iPTF 16fnm, a new member of the 02cx-like subclass of Type Ia supernovae (SNe). iPTF 16fnm peaked at Mg 15.09 0.17 mag PTF =-  , making it the second-least-luminous known SN Ia. iPTF 16fnm exhibits all the hallmarks of the 02cx-like class: (i) low luminosity at peak, (ii) low ejecta velocities, and (iii) a non-nebular spectrum several months after peak. Spectroscopically, iPTF 16fnm exhibits a striking resemblance to two other low-luminosity 02cx-like SNe: SN 2007qd and SN 2010ae. iPTF 16fnm and SN 2005hk decline at nearly the same rate, despite a 3 mag difference in brightness at peak. When considering the full subclass of 02cx-like SNe, we do not find evidence for a tight correlation between peak luminosity and decline rate in either the g′ or r′ band. We measure the relative rate of 02cx-like SNe to normal SNe Ia and find rN N 02 Ia cx = 33- + 25 158%. We further examine the g′ − r′ evolution of 02cx-like SNe and find that their unique color evolution can be used to separate them from 91bg-like and normal SNe Ia. This selection function will be especially important in the spectroscopically incomplete Zwicky Transient Facility/Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) era. Finally, we close by recommending that LSST periodically evaluate, and possibly update, its observing cadence to maximize transient science.
Found in: ključnih besedah
Summary of found: ...methods: observational – surveys – supernovae: generalsupernovae: individual (SN 2002cx, SN 2005hk, iPTF...
Keywords: methods: observational – surveys – supernovae: general – supernovae: individual (SN 2002cx, SN 2005hk, iPTF 16fnm)
Published: 23.01.2018; Views: 1946; Downloads: 0
.pdf Fulltext (2,37 MB)

6.
Searching for supernovae in the multiply-imaged galaxies behind the gravitational telescope A370
Tanja Petrushevska, Ariel Goobar, D. J. Lagattuta, R. Amanullah, Laura Hangard, S. Fabbro, C. Lindman, K. Paech, J. Richard, J.P. Kneib, 2017, original scientific article

Abstract: Aims. Strong lensing by massive galaxy clusters can provide magnification of the flux and even multiple images of the galaxies that lie behind them. This phenomenon facilitates observations of high-redshift supernovae (SNe) that would otherwise remain undetected. Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) detections are of particular interest because of their standard brightness, since they can be used to improve either cluster lensing models or cosmological parameter measurements. Methods. We present a ground-based, near-infrared search for lensed SNe behind the galaxy cluster Abell 370. Our survey was based on 15 epochs of J-band observations with the HAWK-I instrument on the Very Large Telescope (VLT). We use Hubble Space Telescope (HST) photometry to infer the global properties of the multiply-imaged galaxies. Using a recently published lensing model of Abell 370, we also present the predicted magnifications and time delays between the images. Results. In our survey, we did not discover any live SNe from the 13 lensed galaxies with 47 multiple images behind Abell 370. This is consistent with the expectation of 0.09 ± 0.02 SNe calculated based on the measured star formation rate. We compare the expectations of discovering strongly lensed SNe in our survey and that performed with HST during the Hubble Frontier Fields (HFF) programme. We also show the expectations of search campaigns that can be conducted with future facilities, such as the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) or the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST). We show that the NIRCam instrument aboard the JWST will be sensitive to most SN multiple images in the strongly lensed galaxies and thus will be able to measure their time delays if observations are scheduled accordingly.
Found in: ključnih besedah
Summary of found: ...gravitational lensing: strong / supernovae: general / galaxies: clusters: individual: A 370...
Keywords: gravitational lensing: strong / supernovae: general / galaxies: clusters: individual: A 370
Published: 28.06.2018; Views: 2263; Downloads: 110
.pdf Fulltext (4,14 MB)

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