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61.
Addressing the debate on pronoun reversal, caused by Theory of Mind or by Echolalia?
Greta Mazzaggio, invited lecture at foreign university

Abstract: Pronoun reversal is among the most interesting errors of early child language. It mainly consists in the substitution of I for you, and you for I; during these years, such reversal has often been associated mainly with Autistic Spectrum Disorder but recent studies have shown that the phenomena also occur in typically developing children with almost the same frequency (Evans, K.E., Demuth, K., 2012). Many theories on the cause of pronoun reversals have been proposed but the problem remains puzzling because a lot of children who reverse pronouns occasionally produce also correct forms. Moreover, it is a phenomenon which is not present in all the children (Dale, P.S., Crain- Thoreson, C., 1993). Of the two of the main hyphoteses related to pronoun reversal, one links it to a lack of a Theory of Mind (ToM), another relates it to echolalia. Based on two different surveys I conducted, I would like to address the debate. With the first study I wanted to verify whether pronoun reversals is related to a lack or to a non- mature development of ToM (Wechsler, S., 2010) testing a group of typically developing children with a series of ToM tasks ordered by a degree of complexity, from less to more complex. Then I created four tasks to verify their competence in using pronouns: focus position, pronoun with verb agreement, null form and pronouns other than first and second singular forms. We administered this experiment to a group of 17 Italian children - 38 to 70 months of age - because such tasks have never been performed before for Italian language. In this respect, Italian is more complex than English, mainly for two aspects: it’s a pro-drop language, that is a language in which some pronouns can be omitted if they are pragmatically inferable, and there is agreement between the subject pronoun and the verb, which is another factor that we must take into account. With the second study I analysed spontaneous speech uttered by a 15-years-old boy officially diagnosed with Kleefstra Syndrome and known to be a reverser, focusing on cases of pronoun reversal. At the end of the two studies I have data in favor of both ToM hypothesis and echolalia hypothesis. Further researches should verify if echolalia can be related with a lack of ToM and the differences in pronoun reversal between typically developing children and children with disorders.
Found in: ključnih besedah
Keywords: echolalia, language development, theory of mind, pronouns, pronoun reversal, autism developmental disorders
Published: 22.09.2021; Views: 142; Downloads: 0
.pdf Fulltext (130,90 KB)

62.
Autismo e Inversione Pronominale: l’ipotesi della Teoria della Mente.
Greta Mazzaggio, invited lecture at foreign university

Found in: ključnih besedah
Summary of found: ...autism developmental disorder, pragmatics, language development, theory of mind...
Keywords: autism developmental disorder, pragmatics, language development, theory of mind
Published: 22.09.2021; Views: 119; Downloads: 0
.pdf Fulltext (128,73 KB)

63.
Autism and pronoun reversal
Greta Mazzaggio, 2015, unpublished conference contribution

Found in: ključnih besedah
Summary of found: ...autism, theory of mind, pronouns...
Keywords: autism, theory of mind, pronouns
Published: 23.09.2021; Views: 167; Downloads: 0
.pdf Fulltext (297,16 KB)

64.
Autism and pronoun reversal
Greta Mazzaggio, 2015, unpublished conference contribution

Found in: ključnih besedah
Summary of found: ...autism, theory of mind, pronouns...
Keywords: autism, theory of mind, pronouns
Published: 23.09.2021; Views: 152; Downloads: 0
.pdf Fulltext (278,15 KB)

65.
Is first- and second-person singular pronouns acquisition related with the development of theory of mind?
Greta Mazzaggio, 2016, unpublished conference contribution

Found in: ključnih besedah
Keywords: pronouns, autism, theory of mind, language development, echolalia
Published: 23.09.2021; Views: 167; Downloads: 0
.pdf Fulltext (57,03 KB)

66.
Addressing the debate on pronoun reversal, caused by theory of mind or by echolalia?
Greta Mazzaggio, 2016, unpublished conference contribution

Found in: ključnih besedah
Keywords: theory of mind, echolalia, pronoun reversal
Published: 23.09.2021; Views: 166; Downloads: 0
.pdf Fulltext (708,42 KB)

67.
First- and second- person singular pronouns acquisition and the development of theory of mind
Greta Mazzaggio, 2016, unpublished conference contribution

Found in: ključnih besedah
Keywords: theory of mind, pronoun, autism
Published: 23.09.2021; Views: 146; Downloads: 0
.pdf Fulltext (160,64 KB)

68.
Testing the predictions of axisymmetric distribution functions of galactic dark matter with hydrodynamical simulations
Emmanuel Nezri, Julien Lavalle, Arturo Núñez-Castiñeyra, Mihael Petač, 2021, original scientific article

Abstract: Signal predictions for galactic dark matter (DM) searches often rely on assumptions regarding the DM phase-space distribution function (DF) in halos. This applies to both particle (e.g. p-wave suppressed or Sommerfeld-enhanced annihilation, scattering off atoms, etc.) and macroscopic DM candidates (e.g. microlensing of primordial black holes). As experiments and observations improve in precision, better assessing theoretical uncertainties becomes pressing in the prospect of deriving reliable constraints on DM candidates or trustworthy hints for detection. Most reliable predictions of DFs in halos are based on solving the steady-state collisionless Boltzmann equation (e.g. Eddington-like inversions, action-angle methods, etc.) consistently with observational constraints. One can do so starting from maximal symmetries and a minimal set of degrees of freedom, and then increasing complexity. Key issues are then whether adding complexity, which is computationally costy, improves predictions, and if so where to stop. Clues can be obtained by making predictions for zoomed-in hydrodynamical cosmological simulations in which one can access the true (coarse-grained) phase-space information. Here, we test an axisymmetric extension of the Eddington inversion to predict the full DM DF from its density profile and the total gravitational potential of the system. This permits to go beyond spherical symmetry, and is a priori well suited for spiral galaxies. We show that axisymmetry does not necessarily improve over spherical symmetry because the (observationally unconstrained) angular momentum of the DM halo is not generically aligned with the baryonic one. Theoretical errors are similar to those of the Eddington inversion though, at the 10-20% level for velocity-dependent predictions related to particle DM searches in spiral galaxies. We extensively describe the approach and comment on the results.
Found in: ključnih besedah
Summary of found: ...matter experiments, dark matter simulations, dark matter theory, cosmology, nongalactic astrophysics, astrophysics of galaxies, high...
Keywords: galaxy dynamics, dark matter experiments, dark matter simulations, dark matter theory, cosmology, nongalactic astrophysics, astrophysics of galaxies, high energy physics
Published: 01.10.2021; Views: 204; Downloads: 6
URL Fulltext (0,00 KB)
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