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11.
Composition at the “ankle” measured by the Pierre Auger Observatory: pure or mixed?
Marko Zavrtanik, Danilo Zavrtanik, Lili Yang, Serguei Vorobiov, Darko Veberič, Marta Trini, Samo Stanič, Ahmed Saleh, Gašper Kukec Mezek, Andrej Filipčič, Alexey Yushkov, 2015, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: We report for the first time on the measurement of the correlation between the depth of shower maximum and the signal in water-Cherenkov stations for events reconstructed by both the fluorescence and the surface detectors of the Pierre Auger Observatory. Such a correlated measurement is a unique feature of a hybrid air-shower observatory and allows us to determine the purity of the cosmic-ray composition. The observed correlation in the energy range around the “ankle” lg(E/eV) = 18.5−19.0 differs significantly from the expectations for pure beams, indicating that the primary composition in this range is mixed, unless the hadronic interactions at these energies behave very differently than in conventional, LHC-tuned event generators.
Najdeno v: osebi
Ključne besede: ultra-high energy cosmic rays, elemental composition, depth of shower maximum, secondary cosmic rays, Pierre Auger Observatory
Objavljeno: 02.03.2016; Ogledov: 1416; Prenosov: 127
.pdf Polno besedilo (388,00 KB)

12.
Search for Ultra-relativistic Magnetic Monopoles with the Pierre Auger Observatory
Marko Zavrtanik, Danilo Zavrtanik, Lili Yang, Serguei Vorobiov, Darko Veberič, Marta Trini, Samo Stanič, Ahmed Saleh, Gašper Kukec Mezek, Andrej Filipčič, Toshihiro Fujii, 2015, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: Ultra-relativistic magnetic monopoles, possibly a relic of phase transitions in the early universe, would deposit an amount of energy comparable to UHECRs in their passage through the atmosphere, producing highly distinctive air shower profiles. We have performed a search for ultra-relativistic magnetic monopoles in the sample of air showers with profiles measured by the fluorescence detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory. No candidate was found to satisfy our selection criteria and we establish upper limits on the flux of ultra-relativistic magnetic monopoles - the first from an UHECR detector - improving over previous results by up to an order of magnitude.
Najdeno v: osebi
Ključne besede: ultra-relativistic magnetic monopoles, extensive air showers, Pierre Auger Observatory
Objavljeno: 03.03.2016; Ogledov: 1417; Prenosov: 84
.pdf Polno besedilo (188,24 KB)

13.
Update of the neutrino and photon limits from the Pierre Auger Observatory
Marko Zavrtanik, Danilo Zavrtanik, Lili Yang, Serguei Vorobiov, Darko Veberič, Marta Trini, Samo Stanič, Ahmed Saleh, Gašper Kukec Mezek, Andrej Filipčič, Carla Bleve, 2015, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: Ultra-high energy neutrinos and photons, with energies above 1 EeV and 10 EeV respectively, can be detected with the Surface Detector array (SD) of the Pierre Auger Observatory. Downward- going neutrinos of all flavours interacting in the atmosphere at zenith angles θ > 60◦, upward-going tau neutrinos (“Earth- skimming”), as well as photons in the zenith range 30◦ − 60◦ can be identified through the broad time-structure of the signals expected to be induced in the SD stations. An additional signature for photon-induced air showers is the steeper lateral distribution of secondary particles at ground with respect to the nucleonic showers. Stringent limits are set to the diffuse flux of ultra-high energy (UHE) neutrinos and photons, using data collected between 2004 and mid-2013, under the hypothesis of an E[sup]−2 spectrum for signal primaries.
Najdeno v: osebi
Ključne besede: ultra-high energy neutrinos, ultra-high energy photons, cosmic rays, elemental composition, Pierre Auger Observatory
Objavljeno: 03.03.2016; Ogledov: 1250; Prenosov: 121
.pdf Polno besedilo (398,21 KB)

14.
Azimuthal asymmetry in the risetime of the Surface Detector signals of the Pierre Auger Observatory
Marko Zavrtanik, Danilo Zavrtanik, Lili Yang, Serguei Vorobiov, Darko Veberič, Marta Trini, Samo Stanič, Ahmed Saleh, Gašper Kukec Mezek, Andrej Filipčič, Ignacio Minaya, 2015, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: The azimuthal asymmetry in the risetime of signals in Auger surface detector stations is a source of information on shower development. The azimuthal asymmetry is due to a combination of the longitudinal evolution of the shower and geometrical effects related to the angles of incidence of the particles into the detectors. The magnitude of the effect depends upon the zenith angle and state of development of the shower and thus provides a novel observable sensitive to the mass composition of cosmic rays above 3 × 10[sup]18 eV. By comparing measurements with predictions from shower simulations, we find for both of our adopted models of hadronic physics (QGSJetII- 04 and Epos-LHC) an indication that the mean cosmic-ray mass increases with energy, as has been inferred from other studies. However the absolute values derived for the mass are dependent on the shower model and on the range of distance from the shower core selected. Thus the method has uncovered further deficiencies in our understanding of shower modelling that must be resolved before the mass composition can be inferred from (sec θ)max.
Najdeno v: osebi
Ključne besede: Pierre Auger Observatory, Surface Detector, risetime of detector signal, azimuthal asymmetry, extensive air showers
Objavljeno: 03.03.2016; Ogledov: 1472; Prenosov: 85
.pdf Polno besedilo (243,04 KB)

15.
Measurement of the muon content in air showers at the Pierre Auger Observatory
Marko Zavrtanik, Danilo Zavrtanik, Lili Yang, Serguei Vorobiov, Darko Veberič, Marta Trini, Samo Stanič, Ahmed Saleh, Gašper Kukec Mezek, Andrej Filipčič, Laura Collica, 2015, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: The muon content of extensive air showers is an observable sensitive to the primary composition and to the hadronic interaction properties. We present here different methods which allow us to estimate the muon number at the ground level and the muon production depth by exploiting the measurement of the longitudinal, lateral and temporal distribution of particles in air showers recorded at the Pierre Auger Observatory. The results, obtained at about 10[sup]19 eV (E[inf]CM ∼ 140 TeV center-of-mass energy for proton primaries), are compared to the predictions of LHC-tuned hadronic interaction models with different primary masses and suggest a deficit in the muon content at the ground predicted by simulations. The Pierre Auger Observatory uses water-Cherenkov detectors to measure particle densities at the ground and therefore has a good sensitivity to the muon content of air showers. Moreover, due to its hybrid design, the combination of muon measurements with other independent mass composition analyses such as Xmax provides additional constraints on hadronic interaction models.
Najdeno v: osebi
Ključne besede: Pierre Auger Observatory, ultra-high energy cosmic rays, muons, mass composition, hadronic interactions
Objavljeno: 03.03.2016; Ogledov: 1273; Prenosov: 107
.pdf Polno besedilo (298,46 KB)

16.
Extension of the measurement of the proton-air cross section with the Pierre Auger Observatory
Marko Zavrtanik, Danilo Zavrtanik, Lili Yang, Serguei Vorobiov, Darko Veberič, Marta Trini, Samo Stanič, Ahmed Saleh, Gašper Kukec Mezek, Andrej Filipčič, Ralf Ulrich, 2015, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: With hybrid data of the Pierre Auger Observatory it is possible to measure the cross section of proton-air collisions at energies far beyond the reach of the LHC. Since the first measurement by the Pierre Auger Collaboration the event statistics has increased significantly. The proton-air cross section is now estimated in the two energy intervals in lg(E/eV) from 17.8 to 18 and from 18 to 18.5. These energies are chosen so that they maximise the available event statistics and at the same time lie in the region most compatible with a significant primary proton fraction. Of these data, only the 20% of most proton-like events are considered for the measurement. Furthermore, with a new generation of hadronic interaction models which have been tuned to LHC data, the model-dependent uncertainties of the measurement are re-visited.
Najdeno v: osebi
Ključne besede: Pierre Auger Observatory, extensive air showers, proton-air cross section, hadronic interaction models
Objavljeno: 03.03.2016; Ogledov: 1330; Prenosov: 87
.pdf Polno besedilo (114,02 KB)

17.
Measurement of the average electromagnetic longitudinal shower profile at the Pierre Auger Observatory
Marko Zavrtanik, Danilo Zavrtanik, Lili Yang, Serguei Vorobiov, Darko Veberič, Marta Trini, Samo Stanič, Ahmed Saleh, Gašper Kukec Mezek, Andrej Filipčič, Francisco Diogo, 2015, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: In addition to the standard Xmax and energy, the longitudinal profiles of extensive air showers contain some more interesting information. For energies above 10[sup]17.8 eV, we present the average profiles as a function of atmospheric depth measured for the first time at the Pierre Auger Observatory. The profile shapes for different energy ranges are all well reproduced by a Gaisser-Hillas function within the range studied. A detailed analysis of the systematic uncertainties is performed using data and a full detector simulation, and the results are compared with predictions of hadronic interaction models for different primaries.
Najdeno v: osebi
Ključne besede: Pierre Auger Observatory, extensive air showers, longitudinal shower profile, Gaisser-Hillas finction
Objavljeno: 03.03.2016; Ogledov: 1236; Prenosov: 85
.pdf Polno besedilo (684,20 KB)

18.
Combined fit of spectrum and composition data as measured by the Pierre Auger Observatory
Marko Zavrtanik, Danilo Zavrtanik, Lili Yang, Serguei Vorobiov, Darko Veberič, Marta Trini, Samo Stanič, Ahmed Saleh, Gašper Kukec Mezek, Andrej Filipčič, Andrea Di Matteo, 2015, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: We present a combined fit of both flux and composition of ultra-high energy cosmic rays as measured by the Pierre Auger Observatory. The fit has been performed for energies above 5 × 10[sup]18 eV, i.e. the region of the all-particle spectrum above the so-called “ankle” feature. A simple astrophysical model consisting of identical sources has been adopted, where nuclei are injected with a rigidity dependent mechanism and the sources are uniformly distributed in a comoving volume. The fit results suggest a source model characterized by relatively low maximum injection energies and hard spectral indices. The impact of different sources of systematic uncertainties in the above result is discussed.
Najdeno v: osebi
Ključne besede: Pierre Auger Observatory, ultra-high energy cosmic rays, energy spectrum, elemental composition, combined data fit
Objavljeno: 03.03.2016; Ogledov: 1292; Prenosov: 121
.pdf Polno besedilo (704,98 KB)

19.
Solar Cycle Modulation of Cosmic Rays Observed with the Low Energy Modes of the Pierre Auger Observatory
Marko Zavrtanik, Danilo Zavrtanik, Lili Yang, Serguei Vorobiov, Darko Veberič, Marta Trini, Samo Stanič, Ahmed Saleh, Gašper Kukec Mezek, Andrej Filipčič, Jimmy Masías-Meza, 2015, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: The low energy modes of the surface detector array of the Pierre Auger Observatory record variations in the flux of low energy secondary particles with extreme detail. These two modes consist of recording (1) the rate of signals for energies between ∼15 MeV and ∼100 MeV (the Scaler mode) and (2) the calibration charge histograms of the individual pulses detected by each water-Cherenkov station, covering different energy channels up to ∼1 GeV (the Histogram mode). Previous work has studied the flux of galactic cosmic rays on short and intermediate time scales (i.e. from minutes to weeks) using these low energy modes. In this work, after including a long- term correction to the response of the detectors, we present the first long-term analysis of the flux of cosmic rays using scalers and two energy bands of the calibration histograms. We show its sensitivity to the solar cycle variation and its relation to the solar modulation of cosmic rays for an 8-year period.
Najdeno v: osebi
Ključne besede: Pierre Auger Observatory, Surface Detector, secondary cosmic rays, scaler mode, charge histogram mode, solar cycle modulation
Objavljeno: 03.03.2016; Ogledov: 1496; Prenosov: 92
.pdf Polno besedilo (533,18 KB)

20.
Lightning Detection at the Pierre Auger Observatory
Marko Zavrtanik, Danilo Zavrtanik, Lili Yang, Serguei Vorobiov, Darko Veberič, Marta Trini, Samo Stanič, Ahmed Saleh, Gašper Kukec Mezek, Andrej Filipčič, Julian Rautenberg, 2015, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: The Auger Engineering Radio Array, an extension of the Pierre Auger Observatory with antennas in the MHz range, requires to monitor the atmospheric conditions, which have a large influence on the radio emission of air showers. In particular, amplified signals up to an order of magnitude have been detected as an affect of thunderstorms. For a more detailed investigation and more generally, for detecting thunderstorms, a new lightning detection system has been installed at the Pierre Auger Observatory in Argentina. In addition, an electric-field mill measures the field strength on ground level at the antenna array. With these measurements, data periods affected by thunderstorms can be identified. Additionally, a lightning trigger for the water-Cherenkov detectors was developed to read out individual stations when a lightning was detected nearby. With these data, a possible correlation between the formation of lightning and cosmic rays can be investigated even at low energies of about 10[sup]15 eV. The structure and functionality of the lightning detection are described and first data analyses are shown.
Najdeno v: osebi
Ključne besede: Pierre Auger Observatory, Auger Engineering Radio Array, atmospheric monitoring, lightning detectors
Objavljeno: 03.03.2016; Ogledov: 1339; Prenosov: 94
.pdf Polno besedilo (1,10 MB)

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