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41.
Does irony understanding decline with age?
Diana Mazzarella, Hortense De Bettignies, Greta Mazzaggio, 2021, objavljeni povzetek znanstvenega prispevka na konferenci

Opis: The use of non-literal language is deeply embedded in everyday communication and the ability to comprehend it changes across life. Research indicates that older adults sometimes struggle in understanding pragmatic aspects of language, such as presupposition (Domaneschi & Di Paola 2019), humor (Bischetti et al. 2019) or sarcasm (Phillips et al. 2015). The present study aims at broadening our understanding of these age-related changes by focusing on irony understanding. To understand irony (e.g., ‘The weather is great!’ uttered under a pouring rain), one needs to recognize that the speaker is expressing a dissociative attitude towards a proposition that is blatantly irrelevant or false, which echoes an attributed thought or statement (e.g., the proposition ‘The weather is great’ attributed to the mistaken weather forecaster). Previous research shows that the ability to process irony is closely related to Theory-of-Mind (ToM) and working memory (WM). As there is evidence of an age-related decline in both cognitive abilities, this decline may impact irony understanding in late adulthood. In our ongoing study, we test the effect of age on irony-processing by comparing self-paced reading times of ironic and literal statements across two age groups (young adults: 19-25 yo and older adults: 65-74 yo). Crucially, we manipulate the degree of explicitness of the statement echoed by the ironic speaker. We predict that the difference between the reading times for ironic and literal statements will be modulated by age. Moreover, we predict that reading times will be faster when the echo is explicit compared to when the echo is implicated and that this effect will be stronger for older adults. Finally, we expect that ToM and WM will both be significant predictors and that WM will play a crucial role when the implicitness of the echo poses higher cognitive demands
Najdeno v: osebi
Ključne besede: irony, aging, cognitive decline, experimental pragmatics, processing
Objavljeno: 22.09.2021; Ogledov: 156; Prenosov: 5
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42.
Explicit gender stereotyping in bilingualism
Greta Mazzaggio, 2021, objavljeni povzetek znanstvenega prispevka na konferenci

Opis: A gender stereotype is a mental representation related to gender, according to which certain characteristics are attributed without direct experience (Allport 1954). Many ordinary words present a negative connotation when applied to women compared to men (Lakoff 1973). Do linguistic stimuli influence our bias towards gender stereotypes? We want to exploit the foreign language effect (FLE) to see whether explicit linguistic gender stereotypes are reduced in a second language (L2) compared to a first language (L1). We asked Italian native speakers (213), English native speakers (105) and Italian/English bilinguals (192) to evaluate words as neuter, masculine or feminine. We presented a total of 58 words divided into four categories: 14 Power words vs. 14 Weak words and 15 Warm words vs. 15 Cold words. As expected, overall, participants judged Power words much more masculine than Weak words and Cold words much more masculine than Warm words (Rudman et al. 2001). Running a two-way MANOVA (Group*Gender), there was a statistically significant effect of group for Weak words and of Gender for both Weak words and Warm words. Post-hoc analyses revealed that L2 participants behave differently from the L1 ones, with lower masculine scores for Power words, lower feminine scores for Weak words and Warm words. We demonstrated that when presented with words in a L2 participants are less prone to judge them in a gender-biased way. Our results seem to confirm the FLE: a L2 might trigger cognitive and emotional distance, leading to a lesser gender-biased semantic behavior and language might (mildly) affect how we perceive reality. The take home message is that linguistic behavior might affect our inner beliefs and, thus, how women are represented in everyday language should reflect better equality standards. Gender- free language policies (e.g., gender-neutral language) might be useful in the long run.
Najdeno v: osebi
Ključne besede: linguistic sexism, gender, stereotype, psycholinguistics, bilingualism
Objavljeno: 22.09.2021; Ogledov: 157; Prenosov: 15
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43.
A group of researchers is/are testing agreement with pseudopartitives
M. Rita Manzini, Ludovico Franco, Greta Mazzaggio, Francesca Foppolo, 2021, objavljeni povzetek znanstvenega prispevka na konferenci

Najdeno v: osebi
Ključne besede: pseudopartitives, agreement attraction, agreement
Objavljeno: 22.09.2021; Ogledov: 142; Prenosov: 5
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44.
Pragmatic skills in aging
Diana Mazzarella, Hortense De Bettignies, Greta Mazzaggio, 2021, objavljeni povzetek znanstvenega prispevka na konferenci

Opis: The use of non-literal language, like verbal irony, is deeply embedded in everyday communication and the ability to comprehend it changes across life. According to the echoic mention theory (Wilson & Sperber, 2012), understanding irony amounts to recognize a dissociative attitude. In the ‘Contextual echo’ example (Figure 1), Cynthia’s utterance “Tonight we gave a superb performance” is an example of irony. Cynthia is expressing a dissociative, mocking attitude towards the blatantly false proposition “Tonight we gave a superb performance”, that echoes the unfulfilled expectation that the concert would go well. The thought that is echoed can be “uttered”, like in the ‘Explicit echo’ example where the ironic utterance echoes the content explicitly expressed by Lea’s preceding statement; but the dissociative attitude can also target some implicitly communicated meaning, like in the ‘Implicated echo’ example, where the ironic utterance echoes the implicature of Lea’s statement, that is that they will sing well. Our first aim is to assess whether the echo’s degree of explicitness influence the processing of irony. Second, since research indicates that older adults sometimes struggle in understanding non-literal statements, like presupposition (Domaneschi & Di Paola 2019) or humor (Bischetti et al. 2019), we want to address the question of whether the processing of irony is more effortful in late adulthood and, if so, which underlying cognitive capacities might be responsible. Data collection is ongoing and the study is pre-registered on OSF (https://osf.io/94mys/?view_only=51fecb7acd694eca9b6b4d08cca02a26). Methods: The experiment requires the participation of 25 young adults (18-29-year-old) and 25 older adults (65-74-year-old). Participants will be administered a series of standardized tests to assess a) ToM (Faux Pas test) b) WM (Alpha span test) c) Autistic Quotient. The experimental study is a self-paced reading task. Each participant will be presented with stories adapted from the material of Spotorno & Noveck (2014): 15 ironic stories (5 with contextual echo, 5 with implicated echo and 5 with explicit echo), 5 literal stories, 10 decoys and 20 fillers (in a randomized order). Participants answer a yes/no comprehension question at the end of each story. An example of stories is given in Figure 1. Predictions: We expect overall slower reading time for ironic statements compared to literal ones and greater difficulties in the older adults group for ironic statements. We predict that our manipulation of the echo will have an effect on the processing of irony, and that reading times will be faster when the echo is explicit compared to when the echo is implicated (a stronger effect for older adults). We also expect that performance in our ToM task will predict reading times for ironic statements, with lower performance resulting in slower reading times. The presence of an implicated echo will exacerbate the difficulties. Moreover, we expect a positive correlation between the Autistic Quotient score and the difference between the reading times in the ironic and literal conditions. Finally, we expect that WM score will predict longer reading times for ironic statements when the implicitness of the echo poses higher cognitive demands. Analysis plan: First, we plan an evaluation of the group differences for neuropsychological data using a Wilcoxon signed- rank test. Then, we will proceed with a Pearson correlation coefficient test and analysis of variance to understand the relationship between the different measures (Clark, et al. 2010). The principal component analysis will be used to further assess their relationship. To understand the effect of the predictors on the reading time we will run a (Generalized) Linear Mixed-Effects Model with reading time as response variable, (Age Group x Type x Echo) as categorical predictors, test scores of neuropsychological data as continuous (or ordinal) predictors, and subject ID and items as random effects. All relevant interactions (both fixed and random) will also be assessed. The models will be fitted in R using the ‘lme4’ package (Bates et al. 2015). The (G)LMM will be simplified by removing one non-significant interaction at a time (and then, possibly non-significant main effects) on the basis of the Analysis of Deviance (LR Tests), until the optimal model is reached.
Najdeno v: osebi
Ključne besede: irony, processing, aging
Objavljeno: 22.09.2021; Ogledov: 168; Prenosov: 33
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45.
Citazione patologica
Greta Mazzaggio, 2015, prispevek na konferenci brez natisa

Opis: La citazione è spesso utilizzata nella letteratura, ma anche nella conversazione, come strumento di arricchimento stilistico e concettuale, o semplicemente per supportare la propria idea con parole altrui. Ma se per qualcuno citare fosse il solo modo di comunicare? Questo è il caso di alcune patologie, tra le quali l’autismo, in cui difficoltà di creazione di proposizioni con funzione dichiarativa vengono mitigate con strategie tra le quali la ripetizione, meccanica e stereotipata, di parole e frasi altrui: l’ecolalia. Tale fenomeno è un mezzo di apprendimento linguistico comune a tutti i bambini che si accostano all’acquisizione del parlato, ma quando non avvengono una risoluzione e un superamento mediante il passaggio ad una comunicazione personale, si cade nella patologia. L’eco può presentarsi subitamente, e in tal caso parliamo di ecolalia immediata, oppure può presentarsi a distanza di tempo e parleremo in questo caso di ecolalia differita. Negli anni passati le categorizzazioni riguardanti la funzione dell’ecolalia si sono susseguite ma questo paper vuole apportare alcuni dati in favore del valore comunicativo fondamentale sottostante la patologia, a seguito di un progressivo decremento degli studi di valenza pragmatico-linguistica inerenti al fenomeno.
Najdeno v: osebi
Ključne besede: ecolalia, echolalia, citazione
Objavljeno: 23.09.2021; Ogledov: 160; Prenosov: 0
.pdf Polno besedilo (5,92 MB)

46.
Echolalia as a communicative strategy
Greta Mazzaggio, 2016, prispevek na konferenci brez natisa

Najdeno v: osebi
Ključne besede: echolalia, kleefstof syndrome, communication
Objavljeno: 23.09.2021; Ogledov: 166; Prenosov: 0
.pdf Polno besedilo (160,64 KB)

47.
When a second language makes you more logical
Greta Mazzaggio, 2017, prispevek na konferenci brez natisa

Najdeno v: osebi
Ključne besede: L2, implicatures, experimental pragmatics
Objavljeno: 23.09.2021; Ogledov: 165; Prenosov: 0
.pdf Polno besedilo (146,29 KB)

48.
Is first- and second-person singular pronouns acquisition related with the development of theory of mind?
Greta Mazzaggio, 2016, prispevek na konferenci brez natisa

Najdeno v: osebi
Ključne besede: pronouns, autism, theory of mind, language development, echolalia
Objavljeno: 23.09.2021; Ogledov: 171; Prenosov: 0
.pdf Polno besedilo (57,03 KB)

49.
Find a friend or a scale mate
Francesca Panzeri, Luca Surian, Greta Mazzaggio, Francesca Foppolo, 2017, objavljeni povzetek znanstvenega prispevka na konferenci

Najdeno v: osebi
Ključne besede: implicatures, scalar implicatures, quantifiers
Objavljeno: 23.09.2021; Ogledov: 176; Prenosov: 5
.pdf Polno besedilo (425,42 KB)
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50.
Addressing the debate on pronoun reversal, caused by theory of mind or by echolalia?
Greta Mazzaggio, 2016, prispevek na konferenci brez natisa

Najdeno v: osebi
Ključne besede: theory of mind, echolalia, pronoun reversal
Objavljeno: 23.09.2021; Ogledov: 171; Prenosov: 0
.pdf Polno besedilo (708,42 KB)

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