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1.
Ex Vivo Molecular Rejuvenation Improves the Therapeutic Activity of Senescent Human Cardiac Stem Cells in a Mouse Model of Myocardial Infarction
Elisa Avolio, Giuseppe Gianfranceschi, Angela Caragnano, Emmanouil Athanasakis, Rajesh Katare, Daniela Cesselli, Marco Meloni, Anita Palma, Arianna Barchiesi, Carlo Vascotto, Barbara Toffoletto, Elisa Mazzega, Nicoletta Finato, Giuseppe Aresu, Ugolino Livi, Costanza Emanueli, Giacinto Scoles, Carlo Alberto Beltrami, Paolo Madeddu, Antonio Paolo Beltrami, 2014, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Cardiac stem cells (CSC) from explanted decompensated hearts (E-CSC) are, with respect to those obtained from healthy donors (D-CSC), senescent and functionally impaired. We aimed to identify alterations in signaling pathways that are associated with CSC senescence. Additionally, we inves- tigated if pharmacological modulation of altered pathways can reduce CSC senescence in vitro and enhance their reparative ability in vivo. Measurement of secreted factors showed that E-CSC release larger amounts of proinflammatory cytokine IL1b compared with D-CSC. Using blocking antibodies, we verified that IL1b hampers the paracrine protective action of E-CSC on cardiomyo- cyte viability. IL1b acts intracranially inducing IKKb signaling, a mechanism that via nuclear factor-jB upregulates the expression of IL1b itself. Moreover, E-CSC show reduced levels of AMP protein kinase (AMPK) activating phosphorylation. This latter event, together with enhanced IKKb signaling, increases TORC1 activity, thereby impairing the autophagic flux and inhibiting the phos- phorylation of Akt and cAMP response element-binding protein. The combined use of rapamycin and resveratrol enhanced AMPK, thereby restoring downstream signaling and reducing IL1b secretion. These molecular corrections reduced E-CSC senescence, re-establishing their protective activity on cardiomyocytes. Moreover ex vivo treatment with rapamycin and resveratrol improved E-CSC capacity to induce cardiac repair upon injection in the mouse infarcted heart, leading to reduced cardiomyocyte senescence and apoptosis and increased abundance of endog- enous c-Kit1 CSC in the peri-infarct area. Molecular rejuvenation of patient-derived CSC by short pharmacologic conditioning boosts their in vivo reparative abilities. This approach might prove useful for refinement of CSC-based therapies.
Najdeno v: ključnih besedah
Ključne besede: Stem cells, Myocardial infarction, Cellular senescence, Heart failure
Objavljeno: 21.03.2017; Ogledov: 1182; Prenosov: 0
.pdf Polno besedilo (1,48 MB)

2.
Analysis of mechanosensing in human cardiac stem cells
Elisa Mazzega, Eliana Pomarè, Angela Caragnano, Sebastian Martewicz, Nicola Elvassore, Antonio Paolo Beltrami, Ugo Livi, 2015, objavljeni povzetek znanstvenega prispevka na konferenci

Opis: Objectives: We have shown that age and pathology impair the biological properties of stem cells isolated from human hearts (CSC) and functional assays showed differences between CSC isolated from normal (DCSC) and end-stage failing (ECSC) hearts. As alterations of mechanical properties of the myocardium, such as stiffening and increased wall stress, are crucial features of cardiac remodeling, this work addresses the biological effects exerted on CSC by mechanical stimuli. Materials and methods: DCSC and ECSC were cultured under defined conditions to mimic specific features of the pathologic condition: increased mechanical loading (up to 15%, cyclic at 1 Hz), differential substrate stiffness (ranging from 1 to 231 kPa), differential cell densities. After 24, 48 and 72 h, cells were fixed and stained for analysis of proliferation and subcellular localization of YAP or lysed for RT-PCR analysis.Results: Cyclic stretch was significantly associated with both increased proliferation of DCSC (n = 6, p<0.0001) and ECSC (n = 4, p = 0.003), and with a significant reduction of nuclear localized YAP (nYAP) as a function of time (p<0.05). However, while significant correlation between cell density and decreased nYAP (p = 0.003, r2 = 0.37) characterized ECSC, this was not evident for unstretched DCSC, suggesting a less stringent regulation of contact inhibition in DCSC. These data were further confirmed by seeding cells at differential density. As opposed to what previously shown for epithelial cell lines, DCSC did not reduce nYAP positivity as a function of cell density, when grown in serum containing medium, suggesting that soluble factors present in the serum could maintain the nuclear localization of YAP, independently from the cell density. In line, serum significantly increased the nYAP expressing cells in DCSC, while a significant positive correlation between cell density and nYAP positivity can be demonstrated in DCSC cultured in serum free medium. RT-PCR for YAP-regulated targets confirmed immuno- fluorescence data. Furthermore, independently from the pathologic status, cyclic stretch was significantly associated with a persistent YAP signaling at high cell density. Besides, tension and assembly of cytoskeletal network, induced by increasing substrate stiffness, correlates with nYAP (p<0.05) and YAP transcriptional activation (p<0.05). Conclusions: D- and ECSC differ in their mechanosensing properties. However, in the first cell type, nYAP localization is dictated by the combined action of paracrine factors and cytoskeletal tension, thus reducing the contact inhibition effect. This finding is in line with a more primitive phenotype of SC isolated from normal hearts.
Najdeno v: ključnih besedah
Ključne besede: Stem cells, human cardiac stem cells, mechanosensing, mechanotransduction, heart failure, YAP
Objavljeno: 21.03.2017; Ogledov: 1190; Prenosov: 0
.pdf Polno besedilo (65,67 KB)

3.
Cardiac stem cell aging and heart failure
Daniela Cesselli, Aneta Aleksova, Elisa Mazzega, Angela Caragnano, Antonio Paolo Beltrami, 2017, pregledni znanstveni članek

Opis: A side effect of the medical improvements of the last centuries is the progressive aging of the world population, which is estimated to reach the impressive number of 2 billion people with more than 65 years by 2050. As a consequence, age-related diseases, such as heart failure, will affect more and more patients in the next years. To understand the biological bases of these diseases will be a crucial task in order to find better treatments, and possibly slow age-related morbidity and mortality. Cardiac stem cells have been at the center of a heated debate and their potential involvement in cardiac homeostasis has been questioned. In this review, we summarize evidence obtained by independent groups, on different animal models and humans, that strongly support the important role played by immature, cardiac resident cells in the cardioprotection against heart failure.
Najdeno v: ključnih besedah
Povzetek najdenega: ...possibly slow age-related morbidity and mortality. Cardiac stem cells have been at the center of a...
Ključne besede: Aging, Heart failure, Cardiomyocyte turnover, Stem cells, Cell senescence, cKit, Sca1, PDGFRα, Cardiospheres
Objavljeno: 28.03.2017; Ogledov: 1241; Prenosov: 0
.pdf Polno besedilo (1,43 MB)

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