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1.
Determination of biogenic amines by thermal lens microscopic detection of enzymatically released ammonium
Mladen Franko, Mojca Žorž, 2016, objavljeni povzetek znanstvenega prispevka na konferenci

Opis: Biogenic amines (BAs) are organic amines present in meat, fish, dairy produce and wine due to the breakdown of amino acids, catalysed by microbial decarboxylases. BAs determination in food is important not only because of possible toxicological effects such as nausea, sweating and headache but also due to their possible role as indicators of food spoilage. Chromatographic methods are traditionally applied for determination of BAs in food [1], which usually require preliminary operations for sample pre-treatment that are laborious and difficult to automate. On the other hand, screening analytical systems provide simple, low cost and rapid analysis with the possibility of subjecting high number of samples to the screening system in a short time [2]. In this work we present a novel method for screening determination of BAs using a microfluidic system with the detection by highly sensitive thermal lens microscope (μFIA-TLM). Four biogenic amines (putrescine, cadaverine, histamine and tyramine) were subjected to enzymatic catalysis by transglutaminase, where ammonia was released as a product of acyl transfer reaction between the peptide bound glutamine (Gln) and the amino group of BAs. Ammonia was further transformed into indophenol blue by the Berthelot reaction. The coloured product was detected in batch (static) mode in a 100 μm sample cell or in μFIA (flowing) mode in a microchip with the same optical path length. The detection was performed on a TLM system applying a solid-state diode as an excitation source (660 nm). Organic solvents were tested for signal enhancement. For evaluation of the sensitivity and determination of LOD values (S/N = 3 basis), the NH4Cl standard solution was applied in Berthelot reaction with further detection on TLM system. The LODs for NH4+ in batch mode and in μFIA were 24 μg/L and 109 μg/L, respectively. Both LOD values are lower than the LOD achieved with conventional spectrophotometry (180 μg/L). When mixtures of the indophenol standard solutions and EtOH in the ratio of 1:1 were prepared the LOD in batch mode was improved to 3 μg/L, achieving 60-times improvement compared to spectrophotometry.
Najdeno v: ključnih besedah
Ključne besede: Biogenic amines, Thermal lens microscopy, microfluidics, translgutaminase
Objavljeno: 05.07.2016; Ogledov: 1796; Prenosov: 0
.pdf Polno besedilo (74,85 KB)

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NOVEL APPROACHES FOR THE DETERMINATION OF BIOGENIC AMINES IN FOOD SAMPLES
Sara Budal, Mitja Martelanc, Mojca Žorž, Mladen Franko, 2017, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: In this work, new analytical approaches for determination of biogenic amines in wines were developed. For the first time, we studied the derivatization of BAs in wines with naphthalene- 2,3-dicarboxaldehyde (NDA) and with dabsyl chloride (DBS) and analysis of derivatized BAs by HPLC coupled to fluorescence (HPLC-NDA-FL) and thermal lens spectrometry (HPLC-DBS-TLS) detectors. The sensitivity of the two methods (LODs HPLC-NDA-FL in the range 27-73 μg/L; LODs HPLC-DBS-TLS in the range 3.4-11 μg/L) was higher than that of the official method for biogenic amines in wines, OIV-MA-AS315-18 (60-77 μg/L). For its best performances, the HPLC-DBS-TLS technique was applied to the analysis of putrescine, cadaverine, histamine and tyramine in two white wine samples. Additionally, exploiting the Berthelot reaction, the TLS fast screening of biogenic amines in wines, following the release of ammonia by transglutaminase, was also proposed. This approach allowed us to determine total biogenic amount content in concentrations below 0.1 mg/L, expressed as equivalents of histamine.
Najdeno v: ključnih besedah
Ključne besede: biogenic amines, NDA, liquid chromatography, TLS, fluorescence, wine
Objavljeno: 02.11.2017; Ogledov: 1192; Prenosov: 81
.pdf Polno besedilo (441,06 KB)

4.
The detection and study of biologically active compounds in environmental processes and samples
Mojca Žorž Furlan, doktorska disertacija

Opis: Environmental pollution in the 21th century still represents a global problem for human and animal health. Despite general awareness about released substances and their degradation products their fate and possibilities of removal are not well investigated. Even though the chemicals released are dispersed and diluted in water cycles, their poor biodegradability and/or strong accumulation can result in the intoxication of exposed organisms. Similarly, as a part of the environment, food can get contaminated by bioactive substances during different steps of preparation. Not only artificial compounds such as pesticides or pharmaceuticals, but also natural toxins enter the food chain and impact negatively on humans' and animals' health. In addition, the activity of some bacteria can influence the production of amines from amino acids after fermentation, to which the human body responds with several symptoms of intoxication. Several analytical methods for the determination of trace levels of broad range contaminants have been developed. Due to the largely robust, selective and sensitive features of the conventional (rearguard) techniques, they represent the first choice for analysing multiple organic compounds in frequently very complex matrices. However, screening (vanguard) methods are paving the way in the chemical analytics as a solution that provides simplicity and rapid analytical responses with binary (yes/no) answers. They require little or no sample treatment as well as more economically-efficient instrumentation. The combination of vanguard-rearguard analytical strategies hence offers a compromise between classical analytical figures of merit and productivity-related characteristics. In the first part of our research feasibility studies for the application of TLS and/or TLM in novel analytical methods for the determination of lipid-lowering drug atorvastatin and a mycotoxin ochratoxin A . The survey on atorvastatin performed spectrophotometrically has shown a decrease of ATV-sulpho-vanillin product at the wavelength of its maximum absorbance after dilution by organic solvent, which was investigated due to the possible increasing of the method sensitivity. As the predicted LODs that could be obtained by TLM (0.3 mg/L) could not reach the concentration of ATV usually present in the environment (ng/L-g/L) further experiments on this subject were therefore not justified. On the other hand, the ELISA assay for the determination of ochratoxin A was performed. In case of μFIA-TLM, the measurements were influenced by high background signal resulting in high LODs of TLM (470 pg/mL), which is known as a background limited technique. It was estimated that the LODs of standard ELISA assay could not be significantly improved, therefore no further research was conducted in this direction. In the second part of the dissertation, a sensitive rearguard system by coupling HPLC and TLS for the determination of biogenic amines in wine samples was developed. Putrescine, cadaverine, histamine and tyramine were separated and detected on a HPLC-TLS system after derivatization by dabsyl chloride. The method was optimized in terms of chromatographic conditions and in terms of TLS parameters. Also, the sensitivity of the newly developed method was evaluated by comparing the TLS detection with DAD detection in terms of LOD values, where TLS showed 3.6-fold improvement compared to DAD. Afterwards, the standard addition calibration was performed and evaluated for its recoveries (86−117%) in the determination of the four BAs. The applicability of the novel method was tested by the analysis of real white and red wine samples and by comparing the results to the standard HPLC-FL method and concentrations of BAs in wine samples were in good accordance. In addition, the dabsylated BAs showed better stability compared to the OPA derivatives as they have not lost the peak intensity after 17h of storage. In the third part, a vanguard system for detection of the overall biogenic amines concentration was developed by employing μFIA-TLM. Initially, NH4Cl standard solutions were applied in the indophenol reaction for batch mode, off-line μFIA-TLM and in an on-line indophenol formation for μFIA-TLM detection. By adding 50 % of EtOH to indophenol we obtained 9-fold improvement. In addition, indophenol showed good stability under TLM conditions. We optimized the microfluidic and TLM parameters in the off-line and on-line indophenol reaction. The addition of 5% ethanol to the reagent in the on-line reaction resulted in the 3-fold improvement of the signal-to-noise ratio. Further on, the overall reaction, including the enzymatic and the following indophenol reaction, was optimized by choosing the optimal buffer (pH=7, 0.5 M) and alkaline conditions (2M NaOH). The influence of interferences from amino compounds was also evaluated and discussed. The off-line and on-line μFIA-TLM were evaluated by their performance characteristics. The LOD for ammonia detection reached 2.3 μM and the applicability in ammonia detection in water samples was discussed. Similar LOD of 3.2 μM was obtained for the overall concentration of BAs and LOD of 3.8 μM for histamine, which is more than 4-folds lower value as the lowest suggested limits of intake for histamine in wine samples (2 mg/L; 18 μM). Finally, an immobilization procedure on magnetic nanoparticles was developed for the possible implementation of the selected enzyme in a miniaturized biosensor.
Najdeno v: ključnih besedah
Povzetek najdenega: ...HPLC and TLS for the determination of biogenic amines in wine samples was developed. Putrescine,...
Ključne besede: thermal lens spectrometry, thermal lens microscopy, high performance liquid chromatography, microfluidics, biogenic amines, microbial transglutaminase, indophenol (Berthelot) reaction
Objavljeno: 04.06.2018; Ogledov: 919; Prenosov: 118
.pdf Polno besedilo (2,90 MB)

5.
Characterization of lactic bacteria for biogenic amine formation
Branka Mozetič Vodopivec, Martina Bergant Marušič, Jelena Topić, Dorota Korte, Lorena Butinar, 2018, samostojni znanstveni sestavek ali poglavje v monografski publikaciji

Opis: Biogenic amines are compounds present in many different foods and beverages (wine, beer, dairy products, fermented vegetables and soy products, fish, etc.). Their presence in foodstuff is a result of a microbial action during storage and ageing. The most important are histamine, tryptamine, β-phenylethylamine and tryptamine, which can induce undesirable physiological effects in humans. They are formed through decarboxylation of corresponding amino acids, through the action of enzymes. Consumption of food containing biogenic amines can lead to food poisoning such as histamine poisoning. Histamine, the most studied biogenic amine, is known to cause headaches, oedema, vomiting, etc. [1]–[4]. Monitoring of the content of biogenic amines in foods is of concern for public health in their relation to the food safety, food spoilage and food intolerance. Because microorganisms are used in food productions as starters and biopreservers, characterization of microorganisms for their ability to produce biogenic amines is equally important. Lactic acid bacteria are often used as biopreservers as they can produce antimicrobial metabolites and antifungal peptides. Some strains can also produce undesirable biogenic amines [5]. In order to use lactic acid bacteria as starters or biopreservers, the selection of strains that would not produce biogenic amines is necessary. When considering studies of biogenic amines in foods, focus should be on developing new or improving analysis methods for biogenic amines detection. Secondly, the connections between microorganisms capable of producing biogenic amines and the content of biogenic amines in foods should be investigated [3]. The most widely technique used for quantification of biogenic amines in foodstuff is liquid chromatography, Alternatively to chromatographic techniques, other techniques such as enzymatic biosensors, ELISA and flow-injection analysis have also been employed. Sensors are interesting due to the fact that they do not require special instrumentations, and there is no need for sample clean-up and derivatization, which are the main drawback of chromatographic methods [4]. Detection of biogenic amines producing lactic bacteria is important due to the concerns for public health and there is a need for the early and rapid detection of such microorganisms. Most of the methods that are used for screening involved the measurement of amino acid-decarboxylase activity, although there were been some methods reported that used differential media and pH indicators. Nowadays, molecular methods are replacing culture methods. Molecular approaches are used to determine the presence or absence of genes responsible for biogenic amines formation. The main advantages of DNA hybridization and PCR methods are speed, simplicity, sensitivity and specificity as they allow detection of targeted genes. Culture independent methods which are based on PCR techniques are now regarded as most suitable methods for screening isolates [5]. [1] A. R. Shalaby, “Significance of biogenic amines to food safety and human health,” Food Res. Int., vol. 29, no. 7, pp. 675–690, Oct. 1996. [2] J. M. Landete, S. Ferrer, and I. Pardo, “Biogenic amine production by lactic acid bacteria, acetic bacteria and yeast isolated from wine,” Food Control, vol. 18, pp. 1569–1574, 2007. [3] F. B. Erim, “Recent analytical approaches to the analysis of biogenic amines in food samples,” TrAC - Trends in Analytical Chemistry, vol. 52. pp. 239–247, 2013. [4] J. L. Ordóñez, A. M. Troncoso, M. D. C. García-Parrilla, and R. M. Callejón, “Recent trends in the determination of biogenic amines in fermented beverages – A review,” Analytica Chimica Acta, vol. 939. pp. 10–25, 2016. [5] R. M. Elsanhoty and M. F. Ramadan, “Genetic screening of biogenic amines production capacity from some lactic acid bacteria strains,” Food Control, vol. 68, pp. 220–228, Oct. 2016.
Najdeno v: ključnih besedah
Povzetek najdenega: ...Biogenic amines are compounds present in many different foods...
Ključne besede: lactic bacteria, biogenic amines
Objavljeno: 13.12.2018; Ogledov: 427; Prenosov: 0
.pdf Polno besedilo (504,99 KB)

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