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1.
EFFECTS OF POTENTIAL CLIMATE CHANGES ON THE BEHAVIOUR, FEEDING RATE AND REPRODUCTION OF SELECTED SOIL INVERTEBRATES
Nijat Rahimli, 2018, magistrsko delo

Opis: As a consequence of global climate change, the biodiversity of soil invertebrates is impacted. Elevated temperatures and moisture alterations in soil have deleterious effects on soil invertebrates. These organisms are important bioindicators of changes in soil ecosystems. Therefore, we investigated the effect of soil moisture, as potential impacts of climate change, on the behaviour, feeding rate and reproduction rates of two soil invertebrate species: woodlice (Porcellio scaber) and earthworms (Eisenia andrei) in laboratory experiments. Our results indicate that soil invertebrates are highly sensitive to desiccation. The feeding activity of woodlice and the reproduction rate of earthworms are likely dependent on soil moisture.
Najdeno v: ključnih besedah
Povzetek najdenega: ...As a consequence of global climate change, the biodiversity of soil invertebrates is impacted....
Ključne besede: Climate change, Soil invertebrates, Soil ecology, Isopods, Earthworms
Objavljeno: 14.02.2018; Ogledov: 2478; Prenosov: 164
.pdf Polno besedilo (1,74 MB)

2.
Air quality and climate change - how smart can the cities be?
Griša Močnik, Matevž Lenarčič, 2020, vabljeno predavanje na konferenci brez natisa

Opis: What starts as an air quality problem in urban areas, ends up as a climate change problem globally. Emissions from cities and the power generating facilities powering the cities have local, regional and global effects. We show examples spanning these scales with very practical advice on how to start abatement locally.
Najdeno v: ključnih besedah
Ključne besede: air quality, climate change, black carbon, aerosol, co2, smart city
Objavljeno: 11.09.2020; Ogledov: 813; Prenosov: 0
.pdf Polno besedilo (7,10 MB)

3.
A single-beam photothermal interferometer for in situ measurements of aerosol light absorption
Bradley Visser, Jannis Röhrbein, Peter Steigmeier, Luka Drinovec, Griša Močnik, Ernest Weingartner, 2020, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: We have developed a novel single-beam photothermal interferometer and present here its application for the measurement of aerosol light absorption. The use of only a single laser beam allows for a compact optical set-up and significantly easier alignment compared to standard dual-beam photothermal interferometers, making it ideal for field measurements. Due to a unique configuration of the reference interferometer arm, light absorption by aerosols can be determined directly – even in the presence of light-absorbing gases. The instrument can be calibrated directly with light-absorbing gases, such as NO2, and can be used to calibrate other light absorption instruments. The detection limits (1σ) for absorption for 10 and 60 s averaging times were determined to be 14.6 and 7.4 Mm−1, respectively, which for a mass absorption cross section of 10 m2 g−1 leads to equivalent black carbon concentration detection limits of 1460 and 740 ng m−3, respectively. The detection limit could be reduced further by improvements to the isolation of the instrument and the signal detection and processing schemes employed.
Najdeno v: ključnih besedah
Povzetek najdenega: ...aerosol, aerosol absorption, black carbon, photo-thermal interferometer, climate change...
Ključne besede: aerosol, aerosol absorption, black carbon, photo-thermal interferometer, climate change
Objavljeno: 29.12.2020; Ogledov: 596; Prenosov: 16
.pdf Polno besedilo (2,44 MB)

4.
What else needs to be said on Climate Change and Droughts: Future Chalanges
Klemen Bergant, prispevek na konferenci brez natisa

Opis: Extreme weather events, including droughts, and a failure of climate-change mitigation and adaptation are the most urgent global risks taking into account their likelihood and impact. The economic loss related to extreme weather events is increasing. Observations show that droughts became more frequent and severe in the last decades across the entire Europe, and according to the climate projections the drought risk will continue to increase in 21st century, therefore we need to take action now. Efficient drought monitoring and early warning system is the basic climate change adaptation measure. Different drought monitoring and warning systems are available on local, regional and global level and for efficient management of drought risk we need to connect those tools and integrate them into multi-hazard early warning systems.
Najdeno v: ključnih besedah
Ključne besede: climate change, extreme weather events, droughts, monitoring, early warnings
Objavljeno: 07.01.2021; Ogledov: 520; Prenosov: 0
.pdf Polno besedilo (1,12 MB)

5.
Aircraft vertical profiles during summertime regional and Saharan dust scenarios over the north-western Mediterranean basin: aerosol optical and physical properties
Jesus Yus-Diez, Marina Ealo, Marco Pandolfi, Noemi Perez, Gloria Titos, Griša Močnik, Xavier Querol, A. Alastuey, 2021, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Accurate measurements of the horizontal and vertical distribution of atmospheric aerosol particle optical properties are key for a better understanding of their impact on the climate. Here we present the results of a measurement campaign based on instrumented flights over north-eastern Spain. We measured vertical profiles of size-segregated atmospheric particulate matter (PM) mass concentrations and multi-wavelength scattering and absorption coefficients in the western Mediterranean basin (WMB). The campaign took place during typical summer conditions, characterized by the development of a vertical multi-layer structure, under both summer regional pollution episodes (REGs) and Saharan dust events (SDEs). REG patterns in the region form under high insolation and scarce precipitation in summer, favouring layering of highly aged fine-PM strata in the lower few kma.s.l. The REG scenario prevailed during the entire measurement campaign. Additionally, African dust outbreaks and plumes from northern African wildfires influenced the study area. The vertical profiles of climate-relevant intensive optical parameters such as single-scattering albedo (SSA); the asymmetry parameter (g); scattering, absorption and SSA Ångström exponents (SAE, AAE and SSAAE); and PM mass scattering and absorption cross sections (MSC and MAC) were derived from the measurements. Moreover, we compared the aircraft measurements with those performed at two GAW–ACTRIS (Global Atmosphere Watch–Aerosol, Clouds and Trace Gases) surface measurement stations located in north-eastern Spain, namely Montseny (MSY; regional background) and Montsec d'Ares (MSA; remote site). Airborne in situ measurements and ceilometer ground-based remote measurements identified aerosol air masses at altitudes up to more than 3.5 kma.s.l. The vertical profiles of the optical properties markedly changed according to the prevailing atmospheric scenarios. During SDE the SAE was low along the profiles, reaching values < 1.0 in the dust layers. Correspondingly, SSAAE was negative, and AAE reached values up to 2.0–2.5, as a consequence of the UV absorption increased by the presence of the coarse dust particles. During REG, the SAE increased to > 2.0, and the asymmetry parameter g was rather low (0.5–0.6) due to the prevalence of fine PM, which was characterized by an AAE close to 1.0, suggesting a fossil fuel combustion origin. During REG, some of the layers featured larger AAE (> 1.5), relatively low SSA at 525 nm (< 0.85) and high MSC (> 9 m2 g−1) and were associated with the influence of PM from wildfires. Overall, the SSA and MSC near the ground ranged around 0.85 and 3 m2 g−1, respectively, and increased at higher altitudes, reaching values above 0.95 and up to 9 m2 g−1. The PM, MSC and MAC were on average larger during REG compared to SDE due to the larger scattering and absorption efficiency of fine PM compared with dust. The SSA and MSC had quite similar vertical profiles and often both increased with height indicating the progressive shift toward PM with a larger scattering efficiency with altitude. This study contributes to our understanding of regional-aerosol vertical distribution and optical properties in the WMB, and the results will be useful for improving future climate projections and remote sensing or satellite retrieval algorithms.
Najdeno v: ključnih besedah
Povzetek najdenega: ...better understanding of their impact on the climate. Here we present the results of a... ...aerosol, climate change, Saharan dust, black carbon, aerosol absorption, aerosol...
Ključne besede: aerosol, climate change, Saharan dust, black carbon, aerosol absorption, aerosol scattering
Objavljeno: 14.01.2021; Ogledov: 454; Prenosov: 0
.pdf Polno besedilo (10,82 MB)

6.
Displaying commons and resonances between art and science for a new start from the zero
2020, radijska ali televizijska oddaja

Najdeno v: ključnih besedah
Povzetek najdenega: ...art, commoning, diversity, artsci, streams, weather forecasting, climate change, communication, curation...
Ključne besede: sciart, science art, commoning, diversity, artsci, streams, weather forecasting, climate change, communication, curation
Objavljeno: 16.02.2021; Ogledov: 359; Prenosov: 1
URL Polno besedilo (0,00 KB)

7.
The impact of cloudiness and cloud type on the atmospheric heating rate of black and brown carbon in the Po Valley
Niccolò Losi, Ezio Bolzacchini, Gian Paolo Gobbi, Luca Di Liberto, Luca Ferrero, Asta Gregorič, Griša Močnik, Francesca Barnaba, Sergio Cogliati, Martin Rigler, 2021, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: We experimentally quantified the impact of cloud fraction and cloud type on the heating rate (HR) of black and brown carbon (HRBC and HRBrC). In particular, we examined in more detail the cloud effect on the HR detected in a previous study (Ferrero et al., 2018). High-time-resolution measurements of the aerosol absorption coefficient at multiple wavelengths were coupled with spectral measurements of the direct, diffuse and surface reflected irradiance and with lidar–ceilometer data during a field campaign in Milan, Po Valley (Italy). The experimental set-up allowed for a direct determination of the total HR (and its speciation: HRBC and HRBrC) in all-sky conditions (from clear-sky conditions to cloudy). The highest total HR values were found in the middle of winter (1.43 ± 0.05 K d−1), and the lowest were in spring (0.54 ± 0.02 K d−1). Overall, the HRBrC accounted for 13.7 ± 0.2 % of the total HR, with the BrC being characterized by an absorption Ångström exponent (AAE) of 3.49 ± 0.01. To investigate the role of clouds, sky conditions were classified in terms of cloudiness (fraction of the sky covered by clouds: oktas) and cloud type (stratus, St; cumulus, Cu; stratocumulus, Sc; altostratus, As; altocumulus, Ac; cirrus, Ci; and cirrocumulus–cirrostratus, Cc–Cs). During the campaign, clear-sky conditions were present 23 % of the time, with the remaining time (77 %) being characterized by cloudy conditions. The average cloudiness was 3.58 ± 0.04 oktas (highest in February at 4.56 ± 0.07 oktas and lowest in November at 2.91 ± 0.06 oktas). St clouds were mostly responsible for overcast conditions (7–8 oktas, frequency of 87 % and 96 %); Sc clouds dominated the intermediate cloudiness conditions (5–6 oktas, frequency of 47 % and 66 %); and the transition from Cc–Cs to Sc determined moderate cloudiness (3–4 oktas); finally, low cloudiness (1–2 oktas) was mostly dominated by Ci and Cu (frequency of 59 % and 40 %, respectively). HR measurements showed a constant decrease with increasing cloudiness of the atmosphere, enabling us to quantify for the first time the bias (in %) of the aerosol HR introduced by the simplified assumption of clear-sky conditions in radiative-transfer model calculations. Our results showed that the HR of light-absorbing aerosol was ∼ 20 %–30 % lower in low cloudiness (1–2 oktas) and up to 80 % lower in completely overcast conditions (i.e. 7–8 oktas) compared to clear-sky ones. This means that, in the simplified assumption of clear-sky conditions, the HR of light-absorbing aerosol can be largely overestimated (by 50 % in low cloudiness, 1–2 oktas, and up to 500 % in completely overcast conditions, 7–8 oktas). The impact of different cloud types on the HR was also investigated. Cirrus clouds were found to have a modest impact, decreasing the HRBC and HRBrC by −5 % at most. Cumulus clouds decreased the HRBC and HRBrC by −31 ± 12 % and −26 ± 7 %, respectively; cirrocumulus–cirrostratus clouds decreased the HRBC and HRBrC by −60 ± 8 % and −54 ± 4 %, which was comparable to the impact of altocumulus (−60 ± 6 % and −46 ± 4 %). A higher impact on the HRBC and HRBrC suppression was found for stratocumulus (−63 ± 6 % and −58 ± 4 %, respectively) and altostratus (−78 ± 5 % and −73 ± 4 %, respectively). The highest impact was associated with stratus, suppressing the HRBC and HRBrC by −85 ± 5 % and −83 ± 3 %, respectively. The presence of clouds caused a decrease of both the HRBC and HRBrC (normalized to the absorption coefficient of the respective species) of −11.8 ± 1.2 % and −12.6 ± 1.4 % per okta. This study highlights the need to take into account the role of both cloudiness and different cloud types when estimating the HR caused by both BC and BrC and in turn decrease the uncertainties associated with the quantification of their impact on the climate.
Najdeno v: ključnih besedah
Ključne besede: black carbon, brown carbon, cloud, atmospheric heating rate, climate change
Objavljeno: 29.03.2021; Ogledov: 247; Prenosov: 0
.pdf Polno besedilo (8,61 MB)

8.
Consistent determination of the heating rate of light-absorbing aerosol using wavelength- and time-dependent Aethalometer multiple-scattering correction
Martin Rigler, Asta Gregorič, Griša Močnik, Dario Massabò, Sara Valentini, Francesca Soldan, Sergio Cogliati, Luca Santagostini, Vera Bernardoni, Luca Ferrero, 2021, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Accurate and temporally consistent measurements of light absorbing aerosol (LAA) heating rate (HR) and of its source apportionment (fossil-fuel, FF; biomass-burning, BB) and speciation (black and brown Carbon; BC, BrC) are needed to evaluate LAA short-term climate forcing. For this purpose, wavelength- and time-dependent accurate LAA absorption coefficients are required. HR was experimentally determined and apportioned (sources/species) in the EMEP/ACTRIS/COLOSSAL-2018 winter campaign in Milan (urban-background site). Two Aethalometers (AE31/AE33) were installed together with a MAAP, CPC, OPC, a low volume sampler (PM2.5) and radiation instruments. AE31/AE33 multiple-scattering correction factors (C) were determined using two reference systems for the absorption coefficient: 1) 5-wavelength PP_UniMI with low time resolution (12 h, applied to PM2.5 samples); 2) timely-resolved MAAP data at a single wavelength. Using wavelength- and time-independent C values for the AE31 and AE33 obtained with the same reference device, the total HR showed a consistency (i.e. reproducibility) with average values comparable at 95% probability. However, if different reference devices/approaches are used, i.e. MAAP is chosen as reference instead of a PP_UniMI, the HR can be overestimated by 23-30% factor (by both AE31/AE33). This became more evident focusing on HR apportionment: AE33 data (corrected by a wavelength- and time-independent C) showed higher HRFF (+24±1%) and higher HRBC (+10±1%) than that of AE31. Conversely, HRBB and HRBrC were -28±1% and -29±1% lower for AE33 compared to AE31. These inconsistencies were overcome by introducing a wavelength-dependent Cλ for both AE31 and AE33, or using multi-wavelength apportionment methods, highlighting the need for further studies on the influence of wavelength corrections for HR determination. Finally, the temporally-resolved determination of C resulted in a diurnal cycle of the HR not statistically different whatever the source- speciation- apportionment used.
Najdeno v: ključnih besedah
Povzetek najdenega: ...BrC) are needed to evaluate LAA short-term climate forcing. For this purpose, wavelength- and time-dependent... ...climate change, heating rate, black carbon, light absorbing aerosols...
Ključne besede: climate change, heating rate, black carbon, light absorbing aerosols
Objavljeno: 09.06.2021; Ogledov: 106; Prenosov: 0
.pdf Polno besedilo (2,02 MB)

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