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21.
How does Terroir influence wine style? Study case: Sauvignon Blanc wine
Guillaume Antalick, druga izvedena dela

Najdeno v: ključnih besedah
Povzetek najdenega: ...Terroir, wine style, wine composition, typicality, Sauvignon Blanc...
Ključne besede: Terroir, wine style, wine composition, typicality, Sauvignon Blanc
Objavljeno: 18.09.2018; Ogledov: 2463; Prenosov: 0
.pdf Polno besedilo (78,28 KB)
Gradivo ima več datotek! Več...

22.
Mass composition of ultra-high energy cosmic rays at the Pierre Auger Observatory
Gašper Kukec Mezek, 2019, doktorska disertacija

Opis: Cosmic rays with energies above 10^18 eV, usually referred to as ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECR), have been a mystery from the moment they have been discovered. Although we have now more information on their extragalactic origin, their direct sources still remain hidden due to deviations caused by galactic magnetic fields. Another mystery, apart from their production sites, is their nature. Their mass composition, still uncertain at these energies, would give us a better understanding on their production, acceleration, propagation and capacity to produce extensive air showers in the Earth's atmosphere. Mass composition studies of UHECR try to determine their nature from the difference in development of their extensive air showers. In this work, observational parameters from the hybrid detection system of the Pierre Auger Observatory are used in a multivariate analysis to obtain the mass composition of UHECR. The multivariate analysis (MVA) approach combines a number of mass composition sensitive variables and tries to improve the separation between different UHECR particle masses. Simulated distributions of different primary particles are fitted to measured observable distributions in order to determine individual elemental fractions of the composition. When including observables from the surface detector, we find a discrepancy in the estimated mass composition between a mixed simulation sample and the Pierre Auger data. Our analysis results from the Pierre Auger data are to a great degree independent on hadronic interaction models. Although they differ at higher primary masses, the different models are more consistent, when combining fractions of oxygen and iron. Compared to previously published results, the systematic uncertainty from hadronic interaction models is roughly four times smaller. Our analysis reports a predominantly heavy composition of UHECR, with more than a 50% fraction of oxygen and iron at low energies. The composition is then becoming heavier with increasing energy, with a fraction of oxygen and iron above 80% at the highest energies.
Najdeno v: ključnih besedah
Ključne besede: astroparticle physics, ultra-high energy cosmic rays, extensive air showers, mass composition, Pierre Auger Observatory, machine learning, multivariate analysis
Objavljeno: 03.04.2019; Ogledov: 2858; Prenosov: 134
.pdf Polno besedilo (17,53 MB)

23.
Mass composition of cosmic rays with energies from 10^17.2 eV to 10^20 eV using surface and fluorescence detectors of the Pierre Auger Observatory
Gašper Kukec Mezek, 2018, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: Ultra-high-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) are highly energetic particles with EeV energies, exceeding the capabilities of man-made colliders. They hold information on extreme astrophysical processes that create them and the medium they traverse on their way towards Earth. However, their mass composition at such energies is still unclear, because data interpretation depends on our choice of high energy hadronic interaction models. With its hybrid detection method, the Pierre Auger Observatory has the possibility to detect extensive air showers with an array of surface water-Cherenkov stations (SD) and fluorescence telescopes (FD). We present recent mass composition results from the Pierre Auger Collaboration using observational parameters from SD and FD measurements. Using the full dataset of the Pierre Auger Observatory, implications on composition can be made for energies above 10^17.2 eV.
Najdeno v: ključnih besedah
Ključne besede: astroparticle physics, ultra-high energy cosmic rays, extensive air showers, mass composition, Pierre Auger Observatory, fluorescence telescopes, water-Cherenkov stations
Objavljeno: 24.05.2019; Ogledov: 2080; Prenosov: 80
.pdf Polno besedilo (573,00 KB)

24.
CityFlux perfluorocarbon tracer experiments
Fredrik K Petersson, Damien Martin, Iain R White, Stephen J Henshaw, Graham Nickless, Ian Longley, Carl J Percival, Martin Gallagher, Dudley E. Shallcross, 2010, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: In June 2006, two perfluorocarbon tracer experiments were conducted in central Manchester UK as part of the CityFlux campaign. The main aim was to investigate vertical dispersion in an urban area during convective conditions, but dispersion mechanisms within the street network were also studied. Paired receptors were used in most cases where one receptor was located at ground level and one at roof level. One receptor was located on the roof of Portland Tower which is an 80m high building in central Manchester. Source receptor distances in the two experiments varied between 120 and 600 m. The results reveal that maximum concentration was sometimes found at roof level rather than at ground level implying the effectiveness of convective forces on dispersion. The degree of vertical dispersion was found to be dependent on source receptor distance as well as on building height in proximity to the release site. Evidence of flow channelling in a street canyon was also found. Both a Gaussian profile and a street network model were applied and the results show that the urban topography may lead to highly effective flow channelling which therefore may be a very important dispersion mechanism should the right meteorological conditions prevail. The experimental results from this campaign have also been compared with a simple urban dispersion model that was developed during the DAPPLE framework and show good agreement with this. The results presented here are some of the first published regarding vertical dispersion. More tracer experiments are needed in order to further characterise vertical concentration profiles and their dependence on, for instance, atmospheric stability. The impact of urban topography on pollutant dispersion is important to focus on in future tracer experiments in order to improve performance of models as well as for our understanding of the relationship between air quality and public health.
Najdeno v: ključnih besedah
Povzetek najdenega: ...air quality, atmospheric chemistry, concentration ( composition), convective system, dispersion, public health, street canyon,...
Ključne besede: air quality, atmospheric chemistry, concentration (composition), convective system, dispersion, public health, street canyon, tracer, urban area
Objavljeno: 18.07.2019; Ogledov: 1755; Prenosov: 0
.pdf Polno besedilo (1,07 MB)

25.
Tracer concentration profiles measured in central London as part of the REPARTEE campaign
Damien Martin, K Fredrik Petersson, Iain R White, Stephen H Henshaw, Graham Nickless, Amy Lovelock, Janet F Barlow, Tyrone Dunbar, Curtis R Wood, Dudley E. Shallcross, 2011, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: There have been relatively few tracer experiments carried out that have looked at vertical plume spread in urban areas. In this paper we present results from two tracer (cyclic perfluorocarbon) experiments carried out in 2006 and 2007 in central London centred on the BT Tower as part of the REPARTEE (Regent's Park and Tower Environmental Experiment) campaign. The height of the tower gives a unique opportunity to study vertical dispersion profiles and transport times in central London. Vertical gradients are contrasted with the relevant Pasquill stability classes. Estimation of lateral advection and vertical mixing times are made and compared with previous measurements. Data are then compared with a simple operational dispersion model and contrasted with data taken in central London as part of the DAPPLE campaign. This correlates dosage with non-dimensionalised distance from source. Such analyses illustrate the feasibility of the use of these empirical correlations over these prescribed distances in central London.
Najdeno v: ključnih besedah
Povzetek najdenega: ...advection, concentration ( composition), dispersion, tracer, urban atmosphere, vertical mixing, vertical...
Ključne besede: advection, concentration (composition), dispersion, tracer, urban atmosphere, vertical mixing, vertical profile
Objavljeno: 18.07.2019; Ogledov: 1839; Prenosov: 0
.pdf Polno besedilo (1,49 MB)

26.
Atmospheric chemistry and physics in the atmosphere of a developed megacity (London): An overview of the REPARTEE experiment and its conclusions
Gavin J Phillips, Carole Helfter, Chiara F Di Marco, Eiko Nemitz, Fay Davies, Janet F Barlow, Tyrone Dunbar, Iain R White, Dudley E Shallcross, Stephen J Henshaw, K Fredrik Peterson, Brian Davison, Damien Martin, Ben Langford, C Nicholas Hewitt, Stephen M Ball, Justin M Langridge, A K Benton, Roderick L Jones, Paul I Williams, John Whitehead, Martin W Gallagher, Claire Martin, James R Dorsey, Hugh Coe, James D Allan, William J Bloss, Alistair J Thorpe, David C S Beddows, Manuel DallOsto, Roy M Harrison, Steven Smith, 2012, pregledni znanstveni članek

Opis: The Regents Park and Tower Environmental Experiment (REPARTEE) comprised two campaigns in London in October 2006 and October/November 2007. The experiment design involved measurements at a heavily trafficked roadside site, two urban background sites and an elevated site at 160-190 m above ground on the BT Tower, supplemented in the second campaign by Doppler lidar measurements of atmospheric vertical structure. A wide range of measurements of airborne particle physical metrics and chemical composition were made as well as measurements of a considerable range of gas phase species and the fluxes of both particulate and gas phase substances. Significant findings include (a) demonstration of the evaporation of traffic-generated nanoparticles during both horizontal and vertical atmospheric transport; (b) generation of a large base of information on the fluxes of nanoparticles, accumulation mode particles and specific chemical components of the aerosol and a range of gas phase species, as well as the elucidation of key processes and comparison with emissions inventories; (c) quantification of vertical gradients in selected aerosol and trace gas species which has demonstrated the important role of regional transport in influencing concentrations of sulphate, nitrate and secondary organic compounds within the atmosphere of London; (d) generation of new data on the atmospheric structure and turbulence above London, including the estimation of mixed layer depths; (e) provision of new data on trace gas dispersion in the urban atmosphere through the release of purposeful tracers; (f) the determination of spatial differences in aerosol particle size distributions and their interpretation in terms of sources and physico-chemical transformations; (g) studies of the nocturnal oxidation of nitrogen oxides and of the diurnal behaviour of nitrate aerosol in the urban atmosphere, and (h) new information on the chemical composition and source apportionment of particulate matter size fractions in the atmosphere of London derived both from bulk chemical analysis and aerosol mass spectrometry with two instrument types.
Najdeno v: ključnih besedah
Povzetek najdenega: ...of airborne particle physical metrics and chemical composition were made as well as measurements of...
Ključne besede: megacity, trace gas, urban atmosphere, atmospheric transport, chemical composition, aerosol
Objavljeno: 18.07.2019; Ogledov: 1964; Prenosov: 0
.pdf Polno besedilo (4,66 MB)

27.
Variations in U concentrations and isotope signatures in two Canadian lakes impacted by U mining: A combination of anthropogenic and biogeochemical processes
Wei Wang, Duc Huy Dang, Breda Novotnik, R. Douglas Evans, Thai T. Phan, 2019, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Temporal and vertical variations in uranium (U) concentrations and U isotope (δ238U, ‰) signatures were examined in sediment cores collected seven times over a one year period, from two lakes in Ontario, Canada, which are contaminated with U by historical mining activities. Bow Lake is holomictic, experiencing seasonal anoxia, while the sediments of meromictic Bentley Lake are permanently anoxic. Average annual peak concentrations of U in Bow Lake subsurface sediments were approximately 300 μg L−1 and 600 μg g−1 in porewater and bulk sediments, respectively. Similar ranges of concentrations (900 μg L−1 and 600 μg g−1, respectively) were observed in Bentley Lake sediments. The exceedingly high levels of U observed in the porewaters of both lakes, as well as the seasonal variability in U levels, challenge the traditional paradigm regarding U chemistry, i.e., that reduced U(IV) should be insoluble under anoxic conditions. The average annual δ238U ‰ values at the sediment-water interface of both lakes were similar (i.e., 0.47 ± 0.09‰ and 0.50 ± 0.16‰, relative to IRMM-184). The deep sediments in both Bentley Lake and Bow Lake record U isotope composition with a typical fractionation of 0.6‰ relative to the surface water, confirming authigenic U accumulation, i.e., negligible contribution of particulate material from the tailings. Also, the δ238U values in porewater have an average offset of ca. −0.1‰ relative to bulk sediments in anoxic zones and are reversed in the oxic sediment layer.
Najdeno v: ključnih besedah
Povzetek najdenega: ...Bentley Lake and Bow Lake record U isotope composition with a typical fractionation of 0.6‰ relative...
Ključne besede: Uranium Isotope composition Uranium tailings Biogeochemical cycling Redox chemistry
Objavljeno: 09.10.2019; Ogledov: 1840; Prenosov: 0
.pdf Polno besedilo (3,89 MB)

28.
Eenergy Anisotropies of Proton-like Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays
Jon Paul Lundquist, doktorska disertacija

Opis: Evidence of a number of interrelated energy dependent intermediate-scale anisotropies have been found in the arrival directions of proton-like ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECR) using 7 years of Telescope Array (TA) data. These are found using analysis techniques that have been developed for this dissertation. Using surface detector (SD) data the reported TA “Hotspot” excess, E≥10^19.75 eV, is found to correspond to a deficit, or “Coldspot,” of events for 10^19.1≤E<10^19.75 eV at 142◦R.A., 40◦ Dec. The global post-trial significance of this Hot/Coldspot event density asymmetry is found to be 5.1σ (p = 1.56 × 10−7). This Hot/Coldspot feature is the combination, at the same location, of an energy spectrum anisotropy with a 3.74σ significance for energies E≥10^19.2 eV and an energy-distance correlation with a 3.34σ significance for energies E≥1019.3 eV. The UHECR Hotspot alone is analyzed using a new kernel density estimation (KDE) anisotropy method and found to have a 3.65σ significance (E≥1019.75 eV). These features suggest energy dependent magnetic deflection of UHECR. The composition of UHECR primary particles is also studied using a new “Quality Factor Analysis” pattern recognition event selection for fluorescence detectors (FD). This minimizes the energy dependence of the resolution of extensive air shower (EAS) Xmax depth. Also, a new statistical method making use of all higher moments than the mean shower depth distribution is developed – as there is large disagreement in between all EAS simulation models. There is also an uncertainty, just as large, for any particular model, given uncertainties in particle interaction parameters extrapolated to much higher energies from Large Hadron Collider (LHC) data. The TA hybrid FD/SD data is found to be statistically compatible with a pure proton composition, though not incompatible with a light mixed composition, for all models of EAS above E≥10^18.4 eV. There is also no statistically significant evidence of the composition getting heavier at the highest energies. The combined information of a proton-like light composition, and anisotropy evidence suggestive of energy dependent magnetic deflection of UHECR, should be useful for informing future source searches and models of intergalactic propagation through magnetic fields.
Najdeno v: ključnih besedah
Povzetek najdenega: ...energy dependent magnetic deflection of UHECR. The composition of UHECR primary particles is also studied...
Ključne besede: cosmic rays, UHECR, composition, anisotropy
Objavljeno: 24.04.2020; Ogledov: 1648; Prenosov: 0
.pdf Polno besedilo (10,26 MB)

29.
Study of Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Ray composition using Telescope Array’s Middle Drum detector and surface array in hybrid mode
Jon Paul Lundquist, R.U. Abbasi, 2015, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Previous measurements of the composition of Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECRs) made by the High Resolution Fly’s Eye (HiRes) and Pierre Auger Observatory (PAO) are seemingly contradictory, but utilize different detection methods, as HiRes was a stereo detector and PAO is a hybrid detector. The five year Telescope Array (TA) Middle Drum hybrid composition measurement is similar in some, but not all, respects in methodology to PAO, and good agreement is evident between data and a light, largely protonic, composition when comparing the measurements to predictions obtained with the QGSJetII-03 and QGSJet-01c models. These models are also in agreement with previous HiRes stereo measurements, confirming the equivalence of the stereo and hybrid methods. The data is incompatible with a pure iron composition, for all models examined, over the available range of energies. The elongation rate and mean values of are in good agreement with Pierre Auger Observatory data. This analysis is presented using two methods: data cuts using simple geometrical variables and a new pattern recognition technique.
Najdeno v: ključnih besedah
Ključne besede: Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays, Cosmic ray composition, Atmospheric fluorescence, Extensive air shower array, Hybrid, Telescope Array
Objavljeno: 24.04.2020; Ogledov: 1705; Prenosov: 0
.pdf Polno besedilo (3,45 MB)

30.
Mass composition of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays with the Telescope Array Surface Detector data
J. P. Lundquist, R.U. Abbasi, 2019, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: The results on ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays (UHECR) mass composition obtained with the Telescope Array surface detector are presented. The analysis employs the Boosted Decision tree (BDT) multivariate analysis built upon 14 observables related to both the properties of the shower front and the lateral distribution function. The multivariate classifier is trained with Monte-Carlo sets of events induced by the primary protons and iron. An average atomic mass of UHECR is presented for energies 10^18.0–10^20.0 eV. The average atomic mass of primary particles shows no significant energy dependence and corresponds to ⟨lnA⟩=2.0±0.1 (stat.)±0.44(syst.). The result is compared to the mass composition obtained by the Telescope Array with Xmax technique along with the results of other experiments. Possible systematic errors of the method are discussed.
Najdeno v: ključnih besedah
Ključne besede: UHECR, Cosmic rays, composition
Objavljeno: 27.04.2020; Ogledov: 1591; Prenosov: 0
.pdf Polno besedilo (10,07 MB)

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