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1.
Headspace volatile organic compounds from bacteria implicated in ventilator-associated pneumonia analysed by TD-GC/MS
Stephen J Fowler, Roy Goodacre, Iain R White, Tamara M E Nijsen, Waqar M Ahmed, Howbeer Muhamadali, Oluwasola Lawal, 2018, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a healthcare-acquired infection arising from the invasion of the lower respiratory tract by opportunistic pathogens in ventilated patients. The current method of diagnosis requires the culture of an airway sample such as bronchoalveolar lavage, which is invasive to obtain and may take up to seven days to identify a causal pathogen, or indeed rule out infection. While awaiting results, patients are administered empirical antibiotics; risks of this approach include lack of effect on the causal pathogen, contribution to the development of antibiotic resistance and downstream effects such as increased length of intensive care stay, cost, morbidity and mortality. Specific biomarkers which could identify causal pathogens in a timely manner are needed as they would allow judicious use of the most appropriate antimicrobial therapy. Volatile organic compound (VOC) analysis in exhaled breath is proposed as an alternative due to its non-invasive nature and its potential to provide rapid diagnosis at the patient's bedside. VOCs in exhaled breath originate from exogenous, endogenous, as well as microbial sources. To identify potential markers, VAP-associated pathogens Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus were cultured in both artificial sputum medium and nutrient broth, and their headspaces were sampled and analysed for VOCs. Previously reported volatile markers were identified in this study, including indole and 1-undecene, alongside compounds that are novel to this investigation, cyclopentanone and 1-hexanol. We further investigated media components (substrates) to identify those that are essential for indole and cyclopentanone production, with potential implications for understanding microbial metabolism in the lung.
Najdeno v: ključnih besedah
Ključne besede: bacteria, exhaled breath, infection, ventilator-associated pneumonia, volatile organic compounds
Objavljeno: 18.07.2019; Ogledov: 162; Prenosov: 0

2.
Exhaled breath metabolomics reveals a pathogen-specific response in a rat pneumonia model for two human pathogenic bacteria: a proof-of-concept study
Iain R White, Pouline M van Oort, 2019, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Volatile organic compounds in breath can reflect host and pathogen metabolism and might be used to diagnose pneumonia. We hypothesized that rats with Streptococcus pneumoniae (SP) or Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) pneumonia can be discriminated from uninfected controls by thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass-spectrometry (TD-GC-MS) and selected ion flow tube-mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS) of exhaled breath. Male adult rats (n = 50) received an intratracheal inoculation of 1) 200 µl saline, or 2) 1 × 107 colony-forming units of SP or 3) 1 × 107 CFU of PA. Twenty-four hours later the rats were anaesthetized, tracheotomized, and mechanically ventilated. Exhaled breath was analyzed via TD-GC-MS and SIFT-MS. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUROCCs) and correct classification rate (CCRs) were calculated after leave-one-out cross-validation of sparse partial least squares-discriminant analysis. Analysis of GC-MS data showed an AUROCC (95% confidence interval) of 0.85 (0.73-0.96) and CCR of 94.6% for infected versus noninfected animals, AUROCC of 0.98 (0.94-1) and CCR of 99.9% for SP versus PA, 0.92 (0.83-1.00), CCR of 98.1% for SP versus controls and 0.97 (0.92-1.00), and CCR of 99.9% for PA versus controls. For these comparisons the SIFT-MS data showed AUROCCs of 0.54, 0.89, 0.63, and 0.79, respectively. Exhaled breath analysis discriminated between respiratory infection and no infection but with even better accuracy between specific pathogens. Future clinical studies should not only focus on the presence of respiratory infection but also on the discrimination between specific pathogens.
Najdeno v: ključnih besedah
Ključne besede: biomarkers, exhaled breath analysis, infection, pneumonia
Objavljeno: 22.07.2019; Ogledov: 180; Prenosov: 0
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