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The effect of bilingualism on the processing of scalar implicatures
Anne Reboul, Arthur Stepanov, Jacques Jayez, Jean-Baptiste van der Henst, Viviane Déprez, Anne Cheylus, Ludivine Dupuy, Penka Stateva, Sara Andreetta, 2016, objavljeni povzetek znanstvenega prispevka na konferenci

Opis: Scalar implicatures have been extensively investigated in the experimental literature, but almost exclusively in monolingual speakers. Very little research has been conducted on the pragmatic abilities of multilingual populations, including early bilinguals to L2 learners, a gap the current study aims to remedy.
Najdeno v: ključnih besedah
Ključne besede: L2 learning and early bilingualism, comprehension of scalar implicatures
Objavljeno: 22.04.2016; Ogledov: 3267; Prenosov: 0
.pdf Polno besedilo (227,83 KB)

L’impact de l’apprentissage d’une langue seconde sur les capacités pragmatiques : le cas des implicatures scalaires
Arthur Stepanov, Jean-Baptiste van der Henst, Jacques Jayez, Anne Cheylus, Sara Andreetta, Penka Stateva, Ludivine Dupuy, Anne Reboul, 2017, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: There is a vast amount of studies on some forms of implicit communication such as scalar implicatures by monolingual speakers, but few studies have been carried out on the pragmatic capacities of second language learners. The only available data have been collected in Slabakova (2010). This study has shown that L2 learners are more pragmatic than L1 speakers by interpreting a scalar term in their L2. However the replicability of the results has been called into question because of methodological issues and conclusions ignoring empirical data on cognitive processing of scalar implicatures. We therefore used the same experimental material as Slabakova (2010) but improved the methodology and asked two groups of L2 French learners to make a sentence verification task. After a short context, they had to judge an underinformative sentence based on the scalar terms , (). The L2 learners have been tested in their two languages and compared to a sample of French monolinguals. The results of Slabakova (2010) have been replicated since the L2 learners make more inferences in French as monolinguals do. Our results also show that the L2 learners more often derive implicatures in their L1 than monolinguals in the same L1. This suggests that learning a second language has an impact on the way to communicate not only in the L2 but also in the L1.
Najdeno v: ključnih besedah
Povzetek najdenega: ...some forms of implicit communication such as scalar implicatures by monolingual speakers, but few studies...
Ključne besede: pragmatic abilities, scalar implicatures, L2 bilingualism
Objavljeno: 07.12.2017; Ogledov: 2360; Prenosov: 124
.pdf Polno besedilo (806,33 KB)

Editorial: Scalar Implicatures
Anne Reboul, Penka Stateva, 2019, kratki znanstveni prispevek

Opis: In 1975, Grice introduced the notion of implicature, arguing that it was more appropriate to account for a class of apparent lexical ambiguities through pragmatic processes than by multiplying lexical meanings (Modified Ockham's razor: Do not multiply meanings beyond necessity; Grice, 1975). For the past 20 years, experimental approaches have superseded purely theoretical ones, with mixed results. Paradigms using verification tasks on infelicitous sentences, with rate of pragmatic answers and reaction time as measures, have generally concluded in favor of the post-Gricean views (Bott and Noveck, 2004; Noveck and Reboul, 2008). However, some recent studies discuss additional factors affecting implicature processing and have introduced new paradigms which suggest a different conclusion (Katsos and Bishop, 2011; Breheny et al., 2013; Degen and Tanenhaus, 2015; Foppolo and Marelli, 2017; Bill et al.; Jasbi et al.; Sikos et al.). In addition, current research has shown that lexical scales may play a role in the process in keeping with neo-Gricean views. This Frontiers topic is a collection of 12 contributions in experimental pragmatics focusing on different aspects of child and adult processing of implicatures, factors affecting their rate, relevance of testing paradigms, scale diversity, cross-linguistic differences, and variation in triggers.
Najdeno v: ključnih besedah
Ključne besede: scalar implicature, experimental pragmatics, neo-Gricean pragmatics, post-Gricean pragmatics, grammatical theory of implicatures
Objavljeno: 31.07.2019; Ogledov: 1776; Prenosov: 62
.pdf Polno besedilo (181,24 KB)

What's behind some (but not all) implicatures
Luca Surian, Francesca Panzeri, Francesca Foppolo, Greta Mazzaggio, 2018, objavljeni povzetek znanstvenega prispevka na konferenci

Opis: Several studies investigated children’s derivation of pragmatic inferences by testing different items in different languages, populations and tasks (Skordos & Papafragou, 2016). In general, pre-schoolers have difficulties in the computation of the scalar implicature (SI) related to some, while a better performance has been documented in the case of non scalar or ad hoc implicatures (AIs), even in younger kids (Horowitz, Schneider and Frank, 2017; Katsos & Bishop, 2011; Stiller, Goodman & Frank, 2015). Children’s difficulty has been accounted for by different hypotheses: children are more tolerant of pragmatic violations than adults ('tolerance account', Katsos & Bishop, 2011); children do not (always) recognize what is conversationally relevant ('relevance account', Skordos & Papafragou, 2016); children have difficulties in lexicalizing the scale and/or retrieving the lexical alternatives ('lexicalist account', Barner et al., 2011; Foppolo et al., 2012; Tieu et al., 2015). Yet, the source and nature of children’s difficulty is still unknown, as well as the interplay of different factors and their impact on different inference types.Different theoretical accounts make different predictions for SIs and AIs. In principle, no difference is expected between implicature types within a pragmatic approach (like the tolerance or the relevance accounts), provided that children’s non adult-like behavior relies in a principle of pragmatic tolerance or in a failure in accessing or recognizing relevant alternatives, that would equally affect all kinds of implicature. Under lexicalist approaches, on the other hand, a difference between AIs and SIs is expected: while in the case of AIs the alternatives depend solely on context, in SIs the set of alternatives is a feature of the language that relies on the lexical representation of scales. The crucial difference is in the access to the alternatives, which depends on a linguistic representation and a lexical retrieval mechanism in the case of scalar quantifiers, while it is purely contextually determined in the case of ad hoc scales. In our study, we compared AIs and SIs by means of a Picture Selection Task modelled after Surian & Job (1987) and Stiller, Goodman & Frank (2015). Participants had to find the target (among 4 pictures) by following instructions. The tasks included 4 implicatures of each type, interspersed with control sentences. To understand the developmental factors beyond children’s performance, children were also administered tests of cognitive and linguistic development (Raven’s Progressive Matrices; BVL for lexicon and morphosyntax; the first four tasks of Wellman & Liu 2004 to test for Theory of Mind, ToM: Diverse Desires-Diverse Beliefs-Knowledge Access-Content False Belief). We tested 141 children aged 3 to 9 (75 in kindergarten: 3;10-6;0, M = 61 months; 66 in primary school: 6;10-9;2, M=90 months). Our findings add an additional piece to the understanding of children’s failure and success with scalar inferencing. In particular, we show that younger children succeed with AIs but have difficulties with SIs. We also found a significant role of linguistic (i.e., morpho-syntactic) abilities for both type of implicatures and a contribution of ToM: KA predicts implicatures derivation, and DB seems to play a role in SIs.The overall picture is rather puzzling: focusing on pre-schoolers, their ability to derive both types of implicatures seems to depend on common mechanisms, such as morpho-syntactic skills and the ability to recognize that another person can know something only if she has access to relevant information. Nevertheless, by controlling for task effects, we confirmed that SIs are harder than AIs. This finding is not easily explained within a pragmatic approach: if children were, in general, more logical or more tolerant than adults, they would be equally so with any kind of implicature; at the same time, if they were not sensitive to informativeness or unable to recognize relevance, they would fail with all pragmatic inferences. A lexical account instead predicts that, beyond general mechanisms common to SIs and AIs, the derivation of SIs requires one further step, that takes time to be acquired or automatized, namely: the lexicalization of the relevant scales. This might be the real source of the observed difference between these types of inferences, although further research is needed to fully capture its impact on children’s performance.
Najdeno v: ključnih besedah
Povzetek najdenega: ...have difficulties in the computation of the scalar implicature (SI) related to some, while a...
Ključne besede: scalar implicatures, adhoc implicatures, typically developing children, experimental pragmatics
Objavljeno: 21.09.2021; Ogledov: 308; Prenosov: 9
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Ad-hoc and scalar implicatures in children with autism spectrum disorder
Luca Surian, Francesca Foppolo, Remo Job, Greta Mazzaggio, 2021, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Previous studies found that people with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) perform well on pragmatic inference tests that require the use of the linguistic scale . The present study extends previous research by testing two types of implicature: scalar implicatures, based on lexical scales, and ad-hoc implicatures, based on contextual scales. We tested 26 children with ASD aged 4–10 years (mean age 7.1) and 26 typically developing (TD) children – matched on chronological age and with a similar performance in non- verbal IQ and vocabulary – by means of a picture selection task for scalar and ad-hoc implica- tures. We also investigated the effect of children’s scores in standardized tests measuring non- verbal intelligence, lexical, and morphosyntactic abilities and Theory-of-Mind skills on their performance in the implicature tasks. Although more than half of the children with ASD performed above chance on both kinds of implicatures, their performance as a group was significantly lower than the performance of their TD peers. General cognitive abilities were found to affect the performance of children with ASD on both kinds of implicatures, and Theory-of-Mind reasoning skills were found to be linked to their performance on scalar, but not ad-hoc implicatures. We show that children with ASD have difficulty with both kinds of implicatures. These findings may have implications for explanatory theories of pragmatics as well as for clinical work with children with ASD.
Najdeno v: ključnih besedah
Ključne besede: experimental pragmatics, scalar implicatures, high-functioning autism, theory of mind, development
Objavljeno: 17.09.2021; Ogledov: 353; Prenosov: 0
.pdf Polno besedilo (4,08 MB)
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On the interpretation of scalar implicatures infirst andsecond language
Greta Mazzaggio, Daniele Panizza, Luca Surian, 2021, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: We investigated the effect of presenting items in a foreign language (L2) on scalar- implicatures computation. To ensure that L2 processing was more effortful than the pro- cessing of the native language (L1), participants were late learners of L2 immersed in an L1 environment and they were presented with oral stimuli under time constraints. If scalar- implicatures computation requires cognitive effort one should !nd that people are more likely to compute scalar implicatures in L1 than in L2. In two experiments, participants were asked to perform a Sentence Evaluation Task either Italian, their native language, or in a foreign language (English or Spanish). The task included underinformative statements such as “Some dogs are animals” that, if interpreted in a pragmatic way (i.e., “Some but not all dogs are animals”) should be rejected as false. In both experiments, we found more rejections in the native language condition than in the foreign language conditions. These results provide support for models that maintain that scalar-implicature computation is effortful.
Najdeno v: ključnih besedah
Ključne besede: scalar implicatures, pragmatics, default models, non-default models, second-language comprehension
Objavljeno: 17.09.2021; Ogledov: 327; Prenosov: 0
.pdf Polno besedilo (1,87 MB)

Scalar and ad-hoc pragmatic inferences in children: guess which one is easier
Luca Surian, Francesca Panzeri, Greta Mazzaggio, Francesca Foppolo, 2021, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Several studies investigated preschoolers’ ability to compute scalar and ad-hoc implicatures, but only one compared children’s performance with both kinds of implicature with the same task, a picture selection task. In Experiment 1 (N = 58, age: 4;2-6;0), we first show that the truth value judgment task, traditionally employed to investigate children’s pragmatic ability, prompts a rate of pragmatic responses comparable to the picture selection task. In Experiment 2 (N = 141, age: 3;8-9;2) we used the picture selection task to compare scalar and ad-hoc implicatures and linked the ability to derive these implicatures to some cognitive and linguistic measures. We found that four- and five-year-olds children performed better on ad-hoc than on scalar implicatures. Furthermore, we found that morphosyntactic competence was associated with success in both kinds of implicatures, while performance on mental state reasoning was positively associated with success on scalar but not ad-hoc implicatures.
Najdeno v: ključnih besedah
Povzetek najdenega: ...preschoolers’ ability to compute scalar and ad-hoc implicatures, but only one compared children’s performance with...
Ključne besede: acquisition of pragmatics, scalar implicatures, ad-hoc implicatures, experimental pragmatics
Objavljeno: 17.09.2021; Ogledov: 336; Prenosov: 0
.pdf Polno besedilo (1,13 MB)

A diminished propensityto compute scalar implicaturesis linked to autistic traits
Greta Mazzaggio, Luca Surian, 2018, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: We investigated whether there is an association between autistic traits in the broader pheno- type and the ability to compute scalar implicatures. Previous studies found that the frequency of autistic traits is higher in students of science than of humanities. Here we recorded the frequency of rejection of underinformative scalar items in students enrolled either in a science or in a humanities curriculum and assessed their autistic traits using the Autism-Spectrum Quotient questionnaire. We found that rejec- tions were less frequent in science curricula students than in humanities curricula students. Moreover, rejections were associated negatively with autistic traits and positively with performance on Theory- of-Mind tasks. These findings suggest that autism cognitive phenotype is negatively associated with a propensity to spontaneously derive scalar implicatures.
Najdeno v: ključnih besedah
Povzetek najdenega: ...type and the ability to compute scalar implicatures. Previous studies found that the frequency of...
Ključne besede: scalar implicatures, quantifiers, Autism-spectrum Quotient, pragmatics, theory of mind
Objavljeno: 17.09.2021; Ogledov: 335; Prenosov: 0
.pdf Polno besedilo (754,97 KB)

Reading between the lines
Greta Mazzaggio, 2018, doktorska disertacija

Opis: This thesis' aim is to add some pieces to the complex puzzle on the mechanism behind the comprehension of conversational implicatures. To do so, in a series of experiment we manipulated both the type of implicatures (scalar vs. ad-hoc) and the population under investigation (typical vs. atypical; children vs. adults).
Najdeno v: ključnih besedah
Povzetek najdenega: ...we manipulated both the type of implicatures ( scalar vs. ad-hoc) and the population under investigation... ...the mechanism behind the comprehension of conversational implicatures. To do so, in a series of...
Ključne besede: scalar implicatures, experimental pragmatics, autism developmental disorder, bilingualism, typically developing children, theory of mind, dissertations
Objavljeno: 20.09.2021; Ogledov: 358; Prenosov: 0
.pdf Polno besedilo (3,98 MB)

Guess what?
Greta Mazzaggio, Francesca Foppolo, Chiara Caretta, Remo Job, Luca Surian, 2017, objavljeni povzetek znanstvenega prispevka na konferenci

Opis: Pragmatic abilities of people with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) have been the subject of extensive research, often considering their communicative problems as derived from their deficit in Theory of Mind (ToM). On the other hand, recent studies on the derivation of scalar implicatures (SIs)– such as some but not all that are built on certain lexical items ordered in an entailment scale based on their informativeness, e.g. "some, all" − found no differences between typical population and people with ASD. With our work we find out that TD group’s performance was significantly better in the ad-hoc condition than the ASD’s, and both groups’ performance was related to Age. With respect to the SIs condition, the TD group’s performance was numerically better than the ASD group, but the difference was not significant, which may be due to a lack of power. Moreover, there is again a positive relationship between Age and SI performance, but only for the TD group. For the ASD group, there are positive relationships between SI performance and ToM as well as the linguistic syntactic measure. These relationships suggest that there is something different underlying the two groups’ performance in the SI condition. In computing SIs, ASD children seem to rely mainly on their syntactic linguistic abilities, which in turn are strongly connected with ToM skills; this connection can be related with the syntactic complexity of ToM’s clauses that involve subordination e.g. You believe that I believe that you believe. On the other hand, given that the best predictor for ad-hoc implicatures computation in ASD children is Age, we may suggest that indeed there is a delay in the development of pragmatic abilities in ASD children, also confirmed by the lower ToM scores in the ASD group. In conclusion, it seems that the computation of SIs and ad-hoc implicatures rests on different computational mechanisms and future research should take this insight into consideration.
Najdeno v: ključnih besedah
Povzetek najdenega: ...hand, recent studies on the derivation of scalar implicatures (SIs)– such as some but not...
Ključne besede: theory of mind, scalar implicatures, adhoc implicatures, autism spectrum disorder
Objavljeno: 21.09.2021; Ogledov: 320; Prenosov: 10
URL Polno besedilo (0,00 KB)
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