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1.
Modelling of Macrosegregation of a Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Direct Chill Casting by a Meshless Method
Vanja Hatić, 2019, doktorska disertacija

Opis: The main aim of the dissertation is to develop a meshless model that describes the solidification and macrosegregation phenomena during the direct chill casting (DCC) of aluminium alloys under the influence of a low-frequency electromagnetic field. Macrosegregation is an undesired consequence of alloy solidification. It represents one of the major casting defects and substantially reduces the quality of the finished product. On the other hand, low-frequency electromagnetic casting (LFEC) is a process that promises to increase greatly the product quality, including the reduction of macrosegregation. The modelling of both processes is of tremendous importance to the metallurgical industry, due to the high costs of experiments during production. The volume-averaging formulation is used for the modelling of the solid-liquid interaction. The conservation equations for mass, energy, momentum, and species are used to model the solidification of aluminium-alloy billets in axysimmetry. The electromagnetic-induction equation is coupled with the melt flow. It is used to calculate the magnetic vector potential and the Lorentz force. The Lorentz force is time-averaged and included in the momentum-conservation equation, which intensifies the melt flow. The effect of Joule heating is neglected in the energy conservation due to its insignificant contribution. The semi-continuous casting process is modelled with the Eulerian approach. This implies that the global computational domain is fixed in space. The inflow of the liquid melt is assumed at the top boundary and the outflow of the solid metal is assumed at the bottom. It is assumed that the whole mushy area is a rigid porous media, which is modelled with the Darcy law. The Kozeny-Carman relation is used for the permeability definition. The incompressible mass conservation is ensured by the pressure correction, which is performed with the fractional step method. The conservation equations and the induction equation are posed in the cylindrical coordinate system. A linearised eutectic binary phase diagram is used to predict the solute redistribution in the solid and liquid phases. The micro model uses the lever rule to determine the temperature and the liquid fraction field from the transport equations. The partial differential equations are solved with the meshless-diffuse-approximate method (DAM). The DAM uses weighted least squares to determine a locally smooth approximation from a discrete set of data. The second-order polynomials are used as the trial functions, while the Gaussian function is used as the weight function. The method is localised by defining a smooth approximation for each computational node separately. This is performed by associating each node with a unique local neighbourhood, which is used for the minimisation. There are 14 nodes included in the local subdomains for the DCC and LFEC simulations. The stability of the advective term is achieved with a shift of the Gaussian weight in the upwind direction. This approach is called the adaptive upwind weight function and is used in the DAM for the first time. The Explicit-Euler scheme is used for temporal discretisation. The use of a meshless method and the automatic node-arrangement generation makes it possible to investigate the complicated flow structures, which are formed in geometrically complex inflow conditions in a straightforward way. A realistic inflow geometry and mould can therefore be included in the model. The number of computational nodes is increased in the mushy zone and decreased in the solid phase, due to the optimisation of the computational time and memory. The computational node arrangement is automatically adapted with time, as the position of the mushy zone is changed in shape and position.
Najdeno v: ključnih besedah
Povzetek najdenega: ...develop a meshless model that describes the solidification and macrosegregation phenomena during the direct chill...
Ključne besede: low-frequency electromagnetic casting, direct chill casting, macrosegregation, electromagnetic stirring, aluminium alloys, meshless methods, diffuse-approximate method, multiphysics model, solidification
Objavljeno: 25.04.2019; Ogledov: 2188; Prenosov: 109
.pdf Polno besedilo (28,80 MB)

2.
Numerical modelling of dendritic solidification based on phase field formulation and adaptive meshless solution procedure
Tadej Dobravec, 2021, doktorska disertacija

Opis: The main aim of the dissertation is to develop a novel numerical approach for an accurate and computationally efficient modelling of dendritic solidification, which is one of the most commonly observed phenomena in the industrial casting of the metallic alloys. The size and the morphology of dendritic structures as well as the distribution of the solute within them critically effect the mechanical and the electro-chemical properties of the solidified material. The numerical modelling of dendritic solidification can be applied for an in-depth understanding and optimisation of the casting process under various solidification conditions and chemical compositions of the alloy under consideration. The dendritic solidification of pure materials and dilute multi-component alloys is considered in the dissertation. The phase field formulation is applied for the modelling of dendritic solidification. The formulation is based on the introduction of the continuous phase field variable that is constant in the bulk of the solid and liquid phases. The phase field variable has a smooth transition from the value denoting the solid phase to the value denoting the liquid phase at the solid-liquid interface over the characteristic interface thickness. A phase field model yields a system of coupled non-linear parabolic partial differential equations that govern the evolution of the phase field and other thermodynamic variables. The meshless radial basis function-generated finite-differences (RBF-FD) method is used for the spatial discretisation of the system of partial differential equations. The forward Euler scheme is applied for the temporal discretisation. Fifth-degree polyharmonic splines are used as the shape functions in the RBF-FD method. A second-order accurate RBF-FD method is achieved by augmenting the shape functions with monomials up to the second degree. The adaptive solution procedure is developed in order to speed-up the calculations. The procedure is based on the quadtree domain decomposition of a rectangular computational domain into rectangular computational sub-domains of different sizes. Each quadtree sub-domain has its own regular or scattered distribution of computational nodes in which the RBF-FD method and the forward Euler scheme apply for the discretisation of the system of partial differential equations. The adaptive solution procedure dynamically ensures the prescribed highest density of the computational nodes at the solid-liquid interface and the lowest-possible density in the bulk of the solid and liquid phases. The adaptive time-stepping is employed to further speed-up the calculations. The stable time step in the forward Euler scheme depends on the density of the computational nodes; hence, different time steps can be used in quadtree sub-domains with different node densities. The main originality of the present work is the use of the RBF-FD method for the thorough analysis of the impact of the type of the node distribution and the size of a local sub-domain to the accuracy when the phase field modelling of dendritic solidification for arbitrary preferential growth directions is considered. It is shown how the use of the scattered node distribution reduces the undesirable mesh-induced anisotropy effects, present when the partial differential equations are discretisied on a regular node distribution. The main advantage of the RBF-FD method for the phase field modelling of dendritic growth is the simple discretisation of the partial differential equations on the scattered node distributions. The RBF-FD method is, for the first time, used in combination with the spatial-temporal adaptive solution procedure based on the quadtree domain decomposition. The adaptive solution procedure successfully speeds-up the calculations; however, the advantages of the use of the scattered node distribution are partly compromised due to the impact of regularity in the quadtree domain decomposition.
Najdeno v: ključnih besedah
Ključne besede: dendritic solidification, phase field method, meshless methods, RBF-FD, adaptive solution procedure
Objavljeno: 07.04.2021; Ogledov: 1298; Prenosov: 58
URL Polno besedilo (0,00 KB)
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