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1.
Improved limits to point-like sources of ultrahigh energy neutrinos with the Pierre Auger Observatory
Lili Yang, Marta Trini, Pablo Pieroni, Jaime Alvarez-Muniz, 2016, elaborat, predštudija, študija

Najdeno v: ključnih besedah
Ključne besede: ultrahigh energy neutrinos, Pierre Auger Observatory, surface detector
Objavljeno: 07.04.2016; Ogledov: 2963; Prenosov: 0
.pdf Polno besedilo (307,54 KB)

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Molecular and physical characteristics of aerosol at a remote free troposphere site
Simeon K. Schum, Bo Zhang, Katja Džepina, Paulo Fialho, Claudio Mazzoleni, Lynn R. Mazzoleni, 2018, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Aerosol properties are transformed by atmospheric processes during long-range transport and play a key role in the Earth’s radiative balance. To understand the molecular and physical characteristics of free tropospheric aerosol, we studied samples collected at the Pico Mountain Observatory in the North Atlantic. The observatory is located in the marine free troposphere at 2225m above sea level, on Pico Island in the Azores archipelago. The site is ideal for the study of long-range-transported free tropospheric aerosol with minimal local influence. Three aerosol samples with elevated organic carbon concentrations were selected for detailed analysis. FLEXPART retroplumes indicated that two of the samples were influenced by North American wildfire emissions transported in the free troposphere and one by North American outflow mainly transported within the marine boundary layer. Ultrahigh-resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry was used to determine the detailed molecular composition of the samples. Thousands of molecular formulas were assigned to each of the individual samples. On average  60% of the molecular formulas contained only carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms (CHO),  30% contained nitrogen (CHNO), and  10% contained sulfur (CHOS). The molecular formula compositions of the two wildfire-influenced aerosol samples transported mainly in the free troposphere had relatively low average O=C ratios (0:480:13 and 0:450:11) despite the 7–10 days of transport time according to FLEXPART. In contrast, the molecular composition of the North American outflow transported mainly in the boundary layer had a higher average O=C ratio (0:570:17) with 3 days of transport time. To better understand the difference between free tropospheric transport and boundary layer transport, the meteorological conditions along the FLEXPART simulated transport pathways were extracted from the Global Forecast System analysis for the model grids. We used the extracted meteorological conditions and the observed molecular chemistry to predict the relative-humidity-dependent glass transition temperatures (Tg) of the aerosol components. Comparisons of the Tg to the ambient temperature indicated that a majority of the organic aerosol components transported in the free troposphere were more viscous and therefore less susceptible to oxidation than the organic aerosol components transported in the boundary layer. Although the number of observations is limited, the results suggest that biomass burning organic aerosol injected into the free troposphere is more persistent than organic aerosol in the boundary layer having broader implications for aerosol aging.
Najdeno v: ključnih besedah
Povzetek najdenega: ...outflow mainly transported within the marine boundary layer. Ultrahigh-resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry was...
Ključne besede: secondary organic aerosols, brown carbon, particle dispersion model, ultrahigh-resolution FT-ICR MS, Pico Mountain Observatory
Objavljeno: 10.04.2021; Ogledov: 287; Prenosov: 0
.pdf Polno besedilo (5,35 MB)

4.
Molecular characterization of free tropospheric aerosol collected at the Pico Mountain Observatory
J. Hueber, Sumit Kumar, J. A. Perlinger, Katja Džepina, Claudio Mazzoleni, Paulo Fialho, Swarup China, Bo Zhang, R. Chris Owen, D. Helmig, 2015, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Free tropospheric aerosol was sampled at the Pico Mountain Observatory located at 2225 m above mean sea level on Pico Island of the Azores archipelago in the North Atlantic. The observatory is located ∼ 3900 km east and downwind of North America, which enables studies of free tropospheric air transported over long distances. Aerosol samples collected on filters from June to October 2012 were analyzed to characterize organic carbon, elemental carbon, and inorganic ions. The average ambient concentration of aerosol was 0.9 ± 0.7 µg m−3 . On average, organic aerosol components represent the largest mass fraction of the total measured aerosol (60 ± 51 %), followed by sulfate (23 ± 28 %), nitrate (13 ± 10 %), chloride (2 ± 3 %), and elemental carbon (2 ± 2 %). Water-soluble organic matter (WSOM) extracted from two aerosol samples (9/24 and 9/25) collected consecutively during a pollution event were analyzed using ultrahigh-resolution electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. Approximately 4000 molecular formulas were assigned to each of the mass spectra in the range of m/z 100–1000. The majority of the assigned molecular formulas had unsaturated structures with CHO and CHNO elemental compositions. FLEXPART retroplume analyses showed the sampled air masses were very aged (average plume age > 12 days). These aged aerosol WSOM compounds had an average O /C ratio of ∼ 0.45, which is relatively low compared to O /C ratios of other aged aerosol. The increase in aerosol loading during the measurement period of 9/24 was linked to biomass burning emissions from North America by FLEXPART retroplume analysis and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) fire counts. This was confirmed with biomass burning markers detected in the WSOM and with the morphology and mixing state of particles as determined by scanning electron microscopy. The presence of markers characteristic of aqueous-phase reactions of phenolic species suggests that the aerosol collected at the Pico Mountain Observatory had undergone cloud processing before reaching the site. Finally, the air masses of 9/25 were more aged and influenced by marine emissions, as indicated by the presence of organosulfates and other species characteristic of marine aerosol. The change in the air masses for the two samples was corroborated by the changes in ethane, propane, and ozone, morphology of particles, as well as by the FLEXPART retroplume simulations. This paper presents the first detailed molecular characterization of free tropospheric aged aerosol intercepted at a lower free troposphere remote location and provides evidence of low oxygenation after long-range transport. We hypothesize this is a result of the selective removal of highly aged and polar species during long-range transport, because the aerosol underwent a combination of atmospheric processes during transport facilitating aqueous-phase removal (e.g., clouds processing) and fragmentation (e.g., photolysis) of components.
Najdeno v: ključnih besedah
Povzetek najdenega: ...consecutively during a pollution event were analyzed using ultrahigh-resolution electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass...
Ključne besede: organic aerosol, ultrahigh-resolution FT-ICR MS, electron microscopy, remote marine atmosphere, Pico Mountain Observatory
Objavljeno: 11.04.2021; Ogledov: 325; Prenosov: 0
.pdf Polno besedilo (4,36 MB)

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