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Experimental bounds on sterile-active neutrino mixing angles
Mihael Petač, 2015, magistrsko delo

Opis: Despite the success of the Standard Model in the last few decades, we know it is not complete. There is strong motivation for assuming the existence of additional heavy neutral leptons, which can account for active neutrino masses and possibly also have cosmological implications. In this work I consider the Standard Model with two neutral lepton singlets (sterile neutrinos) with degenerated masses in the range 20MeV - 2GeV. The constraints on the active-sterile neutrino mixing angles are evaluated based on recent neutrino oscillations data. Using these constraints the bounds from accelerator experiments are reanalyzed for the case of the considered model. Finally, the results are compared with cosmological constraints coming from Big Bang nucleosynthesis and the nMSM resonant leptogenesis.
Ključne besede: Sterile neutrinos, Neutrino mixing, See-saw, High-Energy Physics - Phenomenology, High-Energy Physics - Experiments
Objavljeno: 01.10.2021; Ogledov: 114; Prenosov: 3
.pdf Polno besedilo (1,93 MB)

Determination of the multiple-scattering correction factor and its cross-sensitivity to scattering and wavelength dependence for different AE33 Aethalometer filter tapes
Andrés Alastuey, Griša Močnik, Vera Bernardoni, Jesús Yus-Díez, Davide Ciniglia, Matic Ivančič, Xavier Querol, Noemí Perez, Cristina Reche, Martin Rigler, Roberta Vecchi, Sara Valentini, Marco Pandolfi, 2021, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Providing reliable observations of aerosol particles' absorption properties at spatial and temporal resolutions suited to climate models is of utter importance to better understand the effects that atmospheric particles have on climate. Nowadays, one of the instruments most widely used in international monitoring networks for in situ surface measurements of light absorption properties of atmospheric aerosol particles is the multi-wavelength dual-spot Aethalometer, AE33. The AE33 derives the absorption coefficients of aerosol particles at seven different wavelengths from the measurements of the optical attenuation of light through a filter where particles are continuously collected. An accurate determination of the absorption coefficients from the AE33 instrument relies on the quantification of the non-linear processes related to the sample collection on the filter. The multiple-scattering correction factor (C), which depends on the filter tape used and on the optical properties of the collected particles, is the parameter with both the greatest uncertainty and the greatest impact on the absorption coefficients derived from the AE33 measurements. Here we present an in-depth analysis of the AE33 multiple-scattering correction factor C and its wavelength dependence for two different and widely used filter tapes, namely the old, and most referenced, TFE-coated glass, or M8020, filter tape and the currently, and most widely used, M8060 filter tape. For performing this analysis, we compared the attenuation measurements from AE33 with the absorption coefficients measured with different filter-based techniques. On-line co-located multi-angle absorption photometer (MAAP) measurements and off-line PP_UniMI polar photometer measurements were employed as reference absorption measurements for this work. To this aim, we used data from three different measurement stations located in the north-east of Spain, namely an urban background station (Barcelona, BCN), a regional background station (Montseny, MSY) and a mountaintop station (Montsec d'Ares, MSA). The median C values (at 637 nm) measured at the three stations ranged between 2.29 (at BCN and MSY, lowest 5th percentile of 1.97 and highest 95th percentile of 2.68) and 2.51 (at MSA, lowest 5th percentile of 2.06 and highest 95th percentile of 3.06). The analysis of the cross-sensitivity to scattering, for the two filter tapes considered here, revealed a large increase in the C factor when the single-scattering albedo (SSA) of the collected particles was above a given threshold, up to a 3-fold increase above the average C values. The SSA threshold appeared to be site dependent and ranged between 0.90 to 0.95 for the stations considered in the study. The results of the cross-sensitivity to scattering displayed a fitted constant multiple-scattering parameter, Cf, of 2.21 and 1.96, and a cross-sensitivity factor, ms, of 1.8 % and 3.4 % for the MSY and MSA stations, respectively, for the TFE-coated glass filter tape. For the M8060 filter tape, Cf values of 2.50, 1.96 and 1.82 and ms values of 1.6 %, 3.0 % and 4.9 % for the BCN, MSY and MSA stations, respectively, were obtained. SSA variations also influenced the spectral dependence of C, which showed an increase with wavelength when SSA was above the site-dependent threshold. Below the SSA threshold, no statistically significant dependence of C on the wavelength was observed. For the measurement stations considered here, the wavelength dependence of C was to some extent driven by the presence of dust particles during Saharan dust outbreaks that had the potential to increase the SSA above the average values. At the mountaintop station, an omission of the wavelength dependence of the C factor led to an underestimation of the absorption Ångström exponent (AAE) by up to 12 %. Differences in the absorption coefficient determined from AE33 measurements at BCN, MSY and MSA of around 35 %–40 % can be expected when using the site-dependent experimentally obtained C value instead of the nominal C value. Due to the fundamental role that the SSA of the particles collected on the filter tape has in the multiple-scattering parameter C, we present a methodology that allows the recognition of the conditions upon which the use of a constant and wavelength-independent C is feasible.
Ključne besede: black carbon, aerosol absorption, filter photometer, artifact
Objavljeno: 01.10.2021; Ogledov: 114; Prenosov: 0
.pdf Polno besedilo (1,76 MB)

Testing the predictions of axisymmetric distribution functions of galactic dark matter with hydrodynamical simulations
Emmanuel Nezri, Julien Lavalle, Arturo Núñez-Castiñeyra, Mihael Petač, 2021, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Signal predictions for galactic dark matter (DM) searches often rely on assumptions regarding the DM phase-space distribution function (DF) in halos. This applies to both particle (e.g. p-wave suppressed or Sommerfeld-enhanced annihilation, scattering off atoms, etc.) and macroscopic DM candidates (e.g. microlensing of primordial black holes). As experiments and observations improve in precision, better assessing theoretical uncertainties becomes pressing in the prospect of deriving reliable constraints on DM candidates or trustworthy hints for detection. Most reliable predictions of DFs in halos are based on solving the steady-state collisionless Boltzmann equation (e.g. Eddington-like inversions, action-angle methods, etc.) consistently with observational constraints. One can do so starting from maximal symmetries and a minimal set of degrees of freedom, and then increasing complexity. Key issues are then whether adding complexity, which is computationally costy, improves predictions, and if so where to stop. Clues can be obtained by making predictions for zoomed-in hydrodynamical cosmological simulations in which one can access the true (coarse-grained) phase-space information. Here, we test an axisymmetric extension of the Eddington inversion to predict the full DM DF from its density profile and the total gravitational potential of the system. This permits to go beyond spherical symmetry, and is a priori well suited for spiral galaxies. We show that axisymmetry does not necessarily improve over spherical symmetry because the (observationally unconstrained) angular momentum of the DM halo is not generically aligned with the baryonic one. Theoretical errors are similar to those of the Eddington inversion though, at the 10-20% level for velocity-dependent predictions related to particle DM searches in spiral galaxies. We extensively describe the approach and comment on the results.
Ključne besede: galaxy dynamics, dark matter experiments, dark matter simulations, dark matter theory, cosmology, nongalactic astrophysics, astrophysics of galaxies, high energy physics
Objavljeno: 01.10.2021; Ogledov: 140; Prenosov: 4
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Localisation and classification of gamma ray sources using neural networks
Guõlaugur Jóhannesson, Roberto Ruiz de Austri, Gabrijela Zaharijas, Sascha Caron, Boris Panes, Saptashwa Bhattacharyya, Chris van den Oetelaar, 2021, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: With limited statistics and spatial resolution of current detectors, accurately localising and separating gamma-ray point sources from the dominating interstellar emission in the GeV energy range is challenging. Motivated by the challenges of the traditional methods used for the gamma-ray source detection, here we demonstrate the application of deep learning based algorithms to automatically detect and classify point sources, which can be applied directly to the binned Fermi-LAT data and potentially be generalised to other wavelengths. For the point source detection task, we use popular deep neural network structure U-NET, together with image segmentation, for precise localisation of sources, various clustering algorithms were tested on the segmented images. The training samples are based on the source properties of AGNs and PSRs from the latest Fermi-LAT source catalog, in addition to the background interstellar emission. Finally, we have created a more complex but robust training data generation exploiting full detector potential, increasing spatial resolution at the highest energies.
Ključne besede: gamma-rays, deep learning, computer vision
Objavljeno: 01.10.2021; Ogledov: 114; Prenosov: 2
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Two-integral distribution functions in axisymmetric galaxies: Implications for dark matter searches
Piero Ullio, Mihael Petač, 2019, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: We address the problem of reconstructing the phase-space distribution function for an extended collisionless system, with known density profile and in equilibrium within an axisymmetric gravitational potential. Assuming that it depends on only two integrals of motion, namely the energy and the component of the angular momentum along the axis of symmetry Lz , there is a one-to-one correspondence between the density profile and the component of the distribution function that is even in Lz, as well as between the weighted azimuthal velocity profile and the odd component. This inversion procedure was originally proposed by Lynden-Bell and later refined in its numerical implementation by Hunter and Qian; after overcoming a technical difficulty, we apply it here for the first time in presence of a strongly flattened component, as a novel approach of extracting the phase-space distribution function for dark matter particles in the halo of spiral galaxies. We compare results obtained for realistic axisymmetric models to those in the spherical symmetric limit as assumed in previous analyses, showing the rather severe shortcomings in the latter. We then apply the scheme to the Milky Way and discuss the implications for the direct dark matter searches. In particular, we reinterpret the null results of the Xenon1T experiment for spin-(in)dependent interactions and make predictions for the annual modulation of the signal for a set of axisymmetric models, including a self-consistently defined corotating halo.
Ključne besede: dark matter, astrophysics of galaxies, high energy physics, phenomenology
Objavljeno: 01.10.2021; Ogledov: 146; Prenosov: 0
.pdf Polno besedilo (1,22 MB)

Equilibrium axisymmetric halo model for the Milky Way and its implications for direct and indirect dark matter searches
Mihael Petač, 2020, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: We for the first time provide self-consistent axisymmetric phase-space distribution models for the Milky Way's dark matter (DM) halo which are carefully matched against the latest kinematic measurements through Bayesian analysis. By using broad priors on the individual galactic components, we derive conservative estimates for the astrophysical factors entering the interpretation of direct and indirect DM searches. While the resulting DM density profiles are in good agreement with previous studies, implying ρ⊙≈10-2 M⊙/pc3, the presence of baryonic disc leads to significant differences in the local DM velocity distribution in comparison with the standard halo model. For direct detection, this implies roughly 30% stronger cross section limits at DM masses near detectors maximum sensitivity and up to an order of magnitude weaker limits at the lower end of the mass range. Furthermore, by performing Monte Carlo simulations for the upcoming DARWIN and DarkSide-20k experiments, we demonstrate that upon successful detection of heavy DM with coupling just below the current limits, the carefully constructed axisymmetric models can eliminate bias and reduce uncertainties by more then 50% in the reconstructed DM coupling and mass, but also help in a more reliable determination of the scattering operator. Furthermore, the velocity anisotropies induced by the baryonic disc can lead to significantly larger annual modulation amplitude and sizable differences in the directional distribution of the expected DM-induced events. For indirect searches, we provide the differential J factors and compute several moments of the relative velocity distribution that are needed for predicting the rate of velocity-dependent annihilations. However, we find that accurate predictions are still hindered by large uncertainties regarding the DM distribution near the galactic center.
Ključne besede: dark matter, astrophysics, galaxies, high energy physics, experiments, phenomenology
Objavljeno: 01.10.2021; Ogledov: 106; Prenosov: 2
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On velocity-dependent dark matter annihilations in dwarf satellites
Mauro Valli, Piero Ullio, Mihael Petač, 2018, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Milky Way dwarf spheroidal satellites are a prime target for Dark Matter (DM) indirect searches. There have been recent reassessments of the expected DM gamma-ray signals in case of long-range interactions, commonly known as Sommerfeld enhancement. Since details of the underlying DM phase-space distribution function become critical, there are potentially large uncertainties in the final result. We provide here a first attempt towards a comprehensive investigation of these systematics, addressing the impact on the expected DM flux from Milky Way dwarfs via Bayesian inference on the available stellar kinematic datasets. After reconsidering the study case of ergodic systems, we investigate for the first time scenarios where DM particle orbits may have a radial or tangential bias. We consider both cuspy and cored parametric DM density profiles, together with the case of a non-parametric halo modelling directly connected to line-of-sight observable quantities. The main findings of our work highlight the relevance of the assumed phase-space distribution: Referring to a generalized J-factor, namely the line-of-sight convolution of the spatial part in case of velocity-dependent annihilation rate, an enhancement (suppression) with respect to the limit of isotropic phase-space distributions is obtained for the case of tangentially (radially) biased DM particle orbits. We provide new estimates for J-factors for the eight brightest Milky Way dwarfs also in the limit of velocity-independent DM annihilation, in good agreement with previous results in literature, and derive data-driven lower-bounds based on the non-parametric modelling of the halo density. The outcome of our broad study stands out as a representative of the state-of-the-art in the field, and falls within the interest of current and future experimental collaborations involved in DM indirect detection programs.
Ključne besede: dark matter, indirect detection, dwarf satellites, sommerfeld enhancement, gamma-rays
Objavljeno: 01.10.2021; Ogledov: 113; Prenosov: 2 
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Med ognjem in nebom
Andreja Gomboc, 2021, poljudni članek

Ključne besede: astronomija, La Palma, vulkan
Objavljeno: 30.09.2021; Ogledov: 115; Prenosov: 8
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Identification of environmental stress conditions by comparative analysis of peroxidase activity in betulla pendula and pinus sp.
Kenan Kapetanović, Hena Zukić, Miroslav Štrbac, Darian Rampih, Katarina Erker, Nina Žvab-Pernat, Patrik Cingerli, 2021, elaborat, predštudija, študija

Opis: The study investigated the possibility of developing a biomarker to evaluate the stress level in trees. The analyses have been performed on tree samples appertaining to two different tree species and collected at two locations in Slovenia. The presence and the activity of the proteins – peroxidases was measured by the qualitative method of the agarose gel electrophoresis and the quantitative method of spectrometry. It was found out that by measuring the presence of the biomarkers and pigments in the tree samples we can determine the stress levels and thus the health status of trees.
Ključne besede: biomarkers, environmental stress, pigments, peroxidase
Objavljeno: 29.09.2021; Ogledov: 109; Prenosov: 0
.pdf Polno besedilo (467,93 KB)

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