Measurements and modeling of air mass motion in the troposphereMiha Živec
, 2016, diplomsko delo
Opis: Throughout the history human race depended on weather, so one of the priorities for its survival was to understand weather patterns and to be able to forecast weather. With the development of powerful computers, atmospheric numerical methods and precision instruments for atmospheric monitoring, it is possible to predict weather with greater accuracy and for a longer period of time ahead. At the same time, we are able to gain improved understanding of physical processes that occur in the atmosphere and represent one of most important features in our world. This diploma thesis focuses on the lowest part of the atmosphere - troposphere only, as all weather occurs in the troposphere. Weather is a complete collection of momentary thermodynamic states in the atmosphere and is defined with thermodynamic variables and relations between them.
The goal of this thesis is development and presentation of a new way to determine the direction and speed of air mass movement, based on the combination of passive and active remote sensing techniques. A lidar is being used to determine the range to an object, in our case a cloud, that can be used as a tracer in the air current. Simultaneously with lidar ranging of clouds that same clouds are being visually monitored in a series of optical photographs. Selecting and following the temporal evolution of distinct cloud features and their range allows us to calculate the speed of clouds.
The performance of this method was tested on four cases in Feb. and Mar. 2016. Measurements were performed in Ajdovščina in different weather conditions. Along with remote sensing (infra-red lidar and optical cameras), ground measurements of wind at Ajdovščina were performed. Wind speeds and directions obtained from remote sensing were compared to atmospheric sounding data from Ljubljana and Udine at similar heights and performed within as small as possible time window.
In all four cases remote sensing results for wind speeds and directions agree relatively well with atmospheric sounding. Deviations are expected to be primarily due to spatial and temporal mismatch between sounding and remote sensing measurements. Another source of uncertainties are the limitations of the present remote sensing method in the determination of the actual direction of the wind, however, theses limitations could be eliminated in the future by using an all-sky camera and vertical lidar configuration.
Ključne besede: remote sensing, wind, atmosphere
Objavljeno: 13.10.2016; Ogledov: 3011; Prenosov: 67
Polno besedilo (9,48 MB)
WATER-POLYPEPTIDE INTERACTION IN CLASSICAL MODELS OF HELIX-COIL TRANSITIONKnarik Yeritsyan
, 2016, diplomsko delo
Opis: Zimm-Bragg model is the simplest to describe the conformational transitions in biopolymers and is regularly used for preocessing the experimental data. We review the model and its Hamiltonian definition with the goal to introduce the interaction with water into the picture. We show how modified ZB model with the account of water-polypeptide interactions allows to describe both cold denaturation and helix-coil transition and derive such the formula explicitly. The obtained theoretical expression for the helicity degree contains two independent parameters that can be fitted with the experimental data to determine the parameters of cold denaturation and helix-coil transition from a single fit and for a single set of experimental data.
Ključne besede: Zimm-Bragg model, conformational transitions in biopolymers, cold denaturation
Objavljeno: 28.09.2016; Ogledov: 2592; Prenosov: 128
Polno besedilo (1,70 MB)
Detection of gravitational wavesGregor Mrak
, 2016, diplomsko delo
Opis: This report mainly focuses on the first two detections of gravitational waves
(GW). At the beginning of the thesis the historical background of GW explorations
is discussed by pointing out some arguments and researchers
that were essential for the progress. Continuing with the derivation based
on the theory of general relativity, in order to express where certain properties
derive. In the main part of the report, the subject of interest becomes
Laser interferometer gravitational-wave observatory (LIGO), beginning
with the problems occurring on the way to detection, describing different
noise sources one by one. After pointing out the problems, solutions
are discussed, namely the technological advances made to lower the background
noise as much as possible. The chapter (4) points out different parts
of the detector which are implemented to produce a clearer signal. As only
physical noise reduction methods are not enough, digital signal processing
algorithms are mentioned as well which are used to analyze the data. Subsequently
the required theoretical knowledge is given, so the main part ends
with the analysis of actual data taken from LIGO’s public release for both
GW150914 and GW151226 events (first and second official detections). In
the conclusion of the report a brief descriptions of various detectors besides
Ligo are given and some insight of the future detectors that are planned to
Ključne besede: Gravitational waves, Ligo, Binary black hole merger, gravitational
Objavljeno: 27.09.2016; Ogledov: 2943; Prenosov: 175
Polno besedilo (3,27 MB)