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Janez Škarja, 2016, magistrsko delo

Opis: In a developed world, water is used in a variety of installations and devices for the improvement of life standard. It is important for these elements to be suitably managed and maintained, otherwise they can present a risk to people's health. Although potable water from a public plumbing system coming via the water supply into an internal plumbing system normally is compliant with the regulations, the quality of water in an internal plumbing system often changes – water gets contaminated. There are several types of microorganisms that can grow in water. They carry a great potential for the growth and proliferation of bacteria from the genus Legionella that cause Legionnaires' disease and Pontiac Fever. Even the fact that Legionella infection has for several years been mentioned in the accident insurance conditions of insurance companies in relation to receiving the insurance fee as compensation for bed day, shows the extent and foremost the seriousness of the disease (5–15% mortality rate). The research part of the master thesis focused mainly on determining the presence of bacteria from the genus Legionella in the water of internal plumbing systems of healthcare facilities. During the entire research period of 8 years, 2,676 samples of cold and hot water were acquired from 23 healthcare facilities. The main purpose of the research was to determine the efficiency or adequacy of applied approaches, i.e. physical disinfection with heat and chemical disinfection with chlorine, in eliminating or reducing the amount of Legionella present in the water of selected healthcare facilities. Another aim was to evaluate the impact of softening potable water with polyphosphates on the proliferation of certain microorganisms in water, and to determine the by-products of chemical disinfection. Upon sampling, an organoleptic examination of water (appearance, odour), electrometric measurements of water temperature, and colorimetric measurements of free chlorine concentrations in water were performed. The data for the analysis of Legionella presence were acquired by water sampling and the isolation of bacteria found in the water. In order to acquire laboratory results of specific physical and chemical parameters, ion chromatography, gas chromatography, spectrophotometry, titration, and inductively coupled plasma – mass detector were used. Although water samples from only two healthcare facilities showed no presence of Legionella, the number of water samples with the presence of Legionella decreased for at least 25% from the beginning to the end of period set. Also, after certain general sanitary and technical measures a noticeable improvement within healthcare facilities after 2008 could be observed. Regarding the initial part of the set period, a more favourable relationship between positive and negative samples, a lower number of samples with highest concentrations of present Legionella, and a higher number of samples with lower concentrations of present Legionella were determined. The research has shown that the existing system of ensuring health-compliant water is fairly efficient; however, the results could be improved additionally by investing more into the preparation and renovation of systems. Due to a limited number of samples, a direct impact of adding polyphosphates to potable water could not be linked to the occurrence of Legionella. None of the samples showed an increased concentration of by-products of potable water disinfection. In its conclusion, the research has shown that the procedures after overheating and after chlorine disinfection result in a similar success. While filtration proved to be most efficient, from the perspective of Legionella infections the use of medical bathtubs can present a high risk to people's health, therefore such devices should be subject to more frequent maintenance and supervision.
Ključne besede: potable water, internal plumbing system, biofilm, health facilities, disinfection, Legionella
Objavljeno: 05.09.2016; Ogledov: 1432; Prenosov: 89
.pdf Polno besedilo (1,70 MB)

Aneta Balažic Fabjan, 2016, magistrsko delo

Opis: For more than five centuries, paper has been the predominant carrier of information and numerous medieval manuscripts bear witness of its durability. However, increasing demand for paper led to several changes in its production in the 19th century. High quality rag fibres were replaced by inferior wood-originating ones. Acid manufacturing technology was introduced which, due to its simplicity and low cost, continued to be used until the end of the 20th century. Inherently stable paper rapidly degrades in the presence of acids and its decay is further promoted by the poor storage conditions and environmental pollutants. As a result, the amount of degraded paper in libraries, archives and museums is reaching enormous proportions. In order to prolong the usable time of the vast quantities of original materials, paper collections may be deacidified and/or stored at lower temperatures. While preservation options are known, lack of the competent comparative studies leaves collection keepers hesitant of their use. The introductory part of the project is focused on development of analytical methodologies and model materials, representative of historical acid paper. As uniqueness and inherent value of cellulose-based cultural heritage limits the use of analytical methodologies to the non-destructive or micro-destructive ones. A new methodology for determination of the condition of paper was developed. The analytical technique-size exclusion chromatography for the first time allows us to reproducible determine the condition of paper which contains a significant amount of wood derived lignin. A few fibres suffice for the analysis, which renders the methodology suitable for characterisation of historical materials. The results of the research will represent the effect of deacidification processes with use of micro destructive analytical methodologies. As written word is all what we have for our legacy from generation to generation, evaluating preservation strategies for decaying collections, safekeeping and long term access to the endangered written cultural heritage is one of the most important facts.
Ključne besede: paper, size exclusion chromatography, kinetics, deacidification process
Objavljeno: 02.09.2016; Ogledov: 1627; Prenosov: 101
.pdf Polno besedilo (1,33 MB)

Tatjana Kobal, 2016, magistrsko delo

Opis: Manganese-functionalized silica with interparticle mesoporosity and isolated Mn sites (Mn/Si = 0.01) is an excellent Fenton catalyst for water cleaning. However, there is a problem that needs to be solved, i.e., Mn leaching from the silica support during the reaction. The solution may lie in using aerogels as the silicate supports for the manganese. The goal of this master thesis is the synthesis and characterization of manganese-functionalized silica aerogels with different Mn/Si molar ratios and a determination of their structural properties. The emphasis is on the preparation of manganese-functionalized silica aerogels with isolated manganese sites. Firstly, manganese-functionalized microporous and mesoporous silicates with a molar ratio Mn/Si = 0.005–0.02 were synthesized according to the literature and characterized as reference materials for manganese-functionalized aerogels. Manganese silicalite-1 (MnS-1) as a microporous zeolite-type silicate and manganese-functionalized silica (MnKIL-2) as a mesoporous silicate were prepared by the sol-gel process with a hydrothermal and solvothermal treatment, respectively. MnS-1 and MnKIL-2 with a molar ratio of Mn/Si ≤ 0.01 contain manganese as isolated sites in the silica framework and with a molar ratio of Mn/Si > 0.01 contain manganese as manganese oxides. Secondly, manganese-functionalized aerogels (MnAEG) with a molar ratio Mn/Si = 0.005–0.02, were prepared according to the acid-base of the sol-gel polymerization of a tetraethylorthosilicate precursor, which is followed in combination with a supercritical drying using CO2. The prepared materials were characterized using the following techniques: X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive X-ray elemental analysis (EDX), nitrogen physisorption, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The characterization results on manganese-functionalized aerogels (MnAEG) showed Mn oxide nanoparticles incorporated into the aerogel already at a low Mn concentration (Mn/Si = 0.005), which means that Mn aerogels are not promising silica supports for Mn catalysts applied for water cleaning, because they do not contain isolated Mn sites.
Ključne besede: : SiO2 aerogels, manganese-functionalized SiO2 aerogels, sol–gel process, CO2 supercritical drying
Objavljeno: 02.09.2016; Ogledov: 1665; Prenosov: 80
.pdf Polno besedilo (4,37 MB)

Slovenska mladinska literatura z ekološko tematiko
Anja Vogrinc, 2016, magistrsko delo

Opis: Glavni cilj mojega magistrskega dela je bil pripraviti pregleden seznam literarnih besedil z ekološko tematiko, izdelati tipologijo izvirnih slovenskih besedil ter predstaviti značilnosti korpusa teh besedil. V svojem magistrskem delu najprej predstavljam povezavo mladinske književnosti z ekologijo, okoljsko vzgojo in ekokritiko, v nadaljevanju pa se posvečam vprašanju vrednotenja mladinskih besedil z ekološko tematiko. Naredila sem tipologijo pravljic z ekološko tematiko ter analizirala in ovrednotila 22 besedil. Izoblikovala sem lasten model vrednotenja, pri tem pa uporabila spoznanja znanih slovenskih literarnih znanstvenikov (razmerje med spoznavno, etično in estetsko funkcijo po Janku Kosu) ter raziskovalcev mladinske književnosti (jezikovni, vsebinski, likovni, recepcijski, bralno-razvojni kriterij po Igorju Saksidi). Upoštevala sem tudi spoznanja vodilnih ekokritkov (Cheryll Glotfelty, Ursule K. Heise). Sklep svoje magistrske naloge sem zapisala v obliki krajšega pregleda infrastrukture mladinske književnosti, kjer sem predstavila naslednje dejavnike: literarnega proizvajalca (avtorje: Alenko Klopčič, Toma Kočarja, Mojicejo Podgoršek, Jernejo Pavček ter Heleno Kraljič), literarnega sprejemnika (mladi in odrasli bralci), literarne institucije (knjižnice, univerze), literarni trg (založbe: Eko knjigo, Založbo Tolovaj, Založbo Epistola ter Založbo Morfem), literarni repertoar (vsa izdana besedila, zbirke, priporočilni seznami) ter literarni produkt (mladinska književnost, spremljevalni projekti, literarne delavnice).
Ključne besede: Mladinska književnost, besedila z ekološko tematiko, ekologija, okoljska vzgoja, literarno vrednotenje, ekokritika.
Objavljeno: 30.08.2016; Ogledov: 1491; Prenosov: 96
.pdf Polno besedilo (1,32 MB)

Characterization of Nd2Fe14B sintered magnets and effect of addition TbF and DyF by Grain Boundary Diffusion Process
Jan Ferjančič, 2016, magistrsko delo

Opis: Sintrani Nd2Fe14B magneti tretje generacije so večinoma uporabljeni v avtomobilski in transportni industriji. Sintranim magnetom s strukturo Nd2Fe14B so dodane težke redke zemlje (TRZ, e.g. Dy in Tb). Ta vrsta magnetov je uporabljena v električnih pomožnih sistemih (EPS), ki vrtijo volanski drog. Zahtevani lastnosti magnetov v EPS motorjih (v MAHLE Letriki d.o.o.) sta remanenca (Br) 1240-1350 mT in koercitivnost (Hcj) ≥1592 kA/m. Dodajanje TRZ omogoča, da magnet ohranja svojo magnetnost tudi pri visokih temperaturah, kar pa občutno poveča ceno magneta. V zadnjih letih so proizvajalci magnetov razvili novo metodo, tako imenovan postopek interkristalne difuzije Tb in Dy. Difuzija prične med termično obdelavo končanega magneta prevlečenim s slojem TRZ. Med termično obdelavo TRZ difundirajo s površine v notranjost magneta prek kristalne strukture Nd in med zrna Fe, rezultat je visoka prostorska razpršenost TRZ. Interkristalna difuzija omogoča, da lahko ima magnet z manjšo vsebnostjo TRZ enako ali boljšo koercitivnost in remanenco v primerjavi s standardnim postopkom. Cilj naloge je karakterizacija magnetov, z osredotočenostjo na opis mikrostrukturne homogenosti, homogenosti kristalnih območij in homogenost posameznih elementov v magnetni strukturi. S ciljem, da se definira posebnost interkristalnega difuzijskega postopka. Analiza magnetov v prerezu je bila izvedena z vrstičnim elektronskim mikroskopom (SEM) v povezavi z energijsko disperzijsko rentgensko spektroskopijo (EDX), s katero smo določali lokalne elemente. Z opazovanjem mikrostrukture smo želeli potrditi homogenost celotne magnetne strukture, kljub nekaterim nehomogenostim pridobljenih iz drugih člankov. Opazili smo razlike v homogenosti med različnimi magneti le pri standardnem postopku. Kljub vsemu povprečna vrednost komponent in prostorska razporeditev elementov potrjuje naše predpostavke.
Ključne besede: NdFeB magneti, interkristalna difuzija TRZ, SEM in EDX
Objavljeno: 29.07.2016; Ogledov: 2011; Prenosov: 117
.pdf Polno besedilo (4,17 MB)

Peter Bohinec, 2016, magistrsko delo

Opis: With the adjustment of the Slovenian legislation with the European one we have an obligation to increase the reuse and recycling target for municipal solid waste by up to 65% by 2030 and gradual limitation of the landfilling of municipal solid waste to 10% by 2030 (Directive 2008/98 on waste, 2015). This represents a major challenge for municipalities in Slovenia. This study contains a plan for establishing new waste treatment facility in the Municipality of XY. As all new constructions in Slovenia, the presented facility needs to provide all the environmental protective measures predicted by the legislation. Beside the legislation, it is also important to ensure that new waste treatment facilities will have a low or no effect on the environment. Based on the Environmental Protection Act and the Construction Act of Slovenia, measures to ensure long term monitoring of the waste treatment facility as a case study in the Municipality of XY are presented. Before constructing the new facility, the track of “baseline” – a one-year monitoring of the following environmental parameters was crucial: groundwater, air dust deposit, condition of the soil on the area where new facility will operate in the future. The thesis points out the importance of the so-called track “baseline” monitoring of environmental parameters before new waste treatment facility will operate. This will be the basis for the introduction of operating monitoring for the new waste treatment facility in the future. Data for the analysis of presence of pollutants were acquired from groundwater, air dust deposit, soil sampling and containment of chemical pollutants. The following methods of analysis were employed in the acquisition of laboratory results of specific physical and chemical parameters: ion chromatography, gas chromatography, spectrophotometry, titration, inductive coupled plasma – mass detector, measurement with an electrode. It was determined that in the period between 2011 and 2012, the groundwater samples taken from three drilled wells containing pollutants as for example in the P-2 well there were adsorbable organic halogens - AOX, boron and mineral oils found. The results of the dust deposit show increased value of lead and zinc. More concerning are analysis of the soil samples where the quantity of copper at the MM2 measuring point were 530mg/kg, on 20 April 2012 the present critical level was 300 mg/kg. At the same measuring point (MM2) on the same day, the value of zinc was 650 mg/kg and almost reached the critical level of 720 mg/kg. The levels of heavy metals as cadmium, copper, lead and zinc in the soil samples taken at the MM2 and MM3 measuring points were at the warning level. All the detected parameters were evaluated and present a good basis for future operational monitoring of the environment in the area of the new waste treatment facility in the future. This case study has shown that planned steps in the improvement of the waste management in the Municipality of XY are crucial to protect the environment. The analysis and interpretation present an important basis for planning and monitoring a new waste treatment facility which will help to improve our goals and reduce landfilling to 10% and increace recycling by up to 65% by 2030 as predicted by the Directive on waste (Directive 2008/98 on waste, 2015).
Ključne besede: odpadki, krožno gospodarjenje z odpadki, podtalnica, zemljine, prašni delci v zraku, spremljanje stanja okolja.
Objavljeno: 20.07.2016; Ogledov: 1052; Prenosov: 109
.pdf Polno besedilo (3,32 MB)

Renata Janja Slovša, 2016, magistrsko delo

Opis: The purpose of this master’s thesis is to present the operation of a large municipal waste water treatment plant in Slovenia with over 300.000 PE and its efficiency, and through a theoretical analysis to present the current practice and alternative options of sewage sludge treatment in Slovenia and around the globe. The main objective of master's thesis is to present the most possible alternative scenarios for the final managing of sewage sludge from WWTPs and at this objective we take into consideration the impact on Carbon Foot Print (CFP). Due to scenarios (thermal utilisation of dried sludge (90% d.m.) in a cement plant, co-incineration of dehydrated sludge (25% d.m.) in a local power plant, thermal utilisation of dried sludge (90% d.m.) in a local power plant, incineration of dehydrated sludge (25% d.m.) in own plant, incineration of dried sludge (90% d.m.) in own plant, and also prohibited scenarios such as sludge utilisation in the soil -fertilization, sludge disposal in the landfill) we calculated CFP and we find out that CFP of various methods of thermal sludge treatment are more or less similar but absolutely smaller than convetional sewage sludge treatment. The CFP is more favourable for dehydrated sludge than for pre-dried sludge, and it is also more favourable for treatment in industrial furnaces (heat power plant, cement plant) than in individual waste incineration facilities.
Ključne besede: odpadne vode, odpadno blato iz čistilnih naprav, čistilne naprave, primerjalne analize, analiza življenjskega cikla, ogljični odtis, toplogredni plini
Objavljeno: 20.07.2016; Ogledov: 1197; Prenosov: 94
.pdf Polno besedilo (2,33 MB)

Ovrednotenje vpliva eksperimentalnih dejavnikov na izmerjene vrednosti respiracijske aktivnosti AT4
Breda Poglajen, 2016, magistrsko delo

Opis: Pri ravnanju z odpadki se v zadnjem času povečuje delež ločeno zbranih odpadkov in mehansko-biološko obdelanih odpadkov s snovno izrabo, ločenih na posamezne frakcije. Preostanek odpadkov po obdelavi odlagamo še vedno pretežno na odlagalno polje. Merilo za odlaganje je stopnja stabilizacije odpadka. Stopnja stabilizacije odpadkov, ki jih odlagamo na odlagalno polje, in stopnja stabilizacije obdelanih biološko razgradljivih odpadkov v kompostu je opredeljena z zakonodajo. Eden od najpogosteje uporabljenih parametrov, ki opredeljujejo stopnjo stabilizacije je respiracijska aktivnost AT4. V teoretičnem delu sem predstavila kompostiranje: klasifikacijo presnove, način kompostiranja in dejavnike kompostiranja. Predstavila sem respiracijsko aktivnost, napravo za določanje respiracijske aktivnosti in pripravo vzorca. V raziskavi sem kot osrednjo eksperimentalno metodo uporabila določanje respiracijske aktivnosti AT4 po standardnem postopku z uporabo Sapromat respirometra, ki deluje z neskončno preseženo količino kisika. V skladu s standardno metodo za določanje respiracijske aktivnosti AT4 so predvidena različna ravnanja z vzorci. V sklopu magistrske naloge sem preverila vpliv različnih dejavnikov na rezultate standardne AT4 opredelitve. Proučila sem vpliv velikosti delcev, vlage, naravnega staranja in različnega hranjenja vzorca na rezultat. Uporabila sem vzorce realnih frakcij komunalnih odpadkov (težka frakcija), digestata, komposta in sintetičnega komposta kot referenčnega materiala. Prikazala sem rezultate meritev AT4 sintetičnega komposta, izdelanega po standardni recepturi, enakih pogojev zorenja in enake strukture kompostne mase. Ponovitve izdelave sintetičnega komposta se razlikujejo po času zorenja, vlažnosti, načinu hranjenja in vrsti komposta kot inokuluma. Prikazala sem vpliv temperature, pH, zračnosti, vlažnosti in načina hranjenja na rezultat respiracijske aktivnosti AT4; prav tako tudi poskus stabilizacije, laboratorijskega vzorca težke frakcije mešanih komunalnih odpadkov z dodatkom inertnega materiala in zvišanjem pH vrednosti.
Ključne besede: Respiracijska aktivnost (AT4), sintetični kompost, težka frakcija MKO, digestat, mikroorganizmi
Objavljeno: 24.06.2016; Ogledov: 1628; Prenosov: 121
.pdf Polno besedilo (2,36 MB)

Primeri skladenjskega podvajanja veznikov okoli podrednih stavkov v slovenščini
Vesna Plesničar, 2016, magistrsko delo

Opis: V magistrskem delu utemeljim pojav podvajanja veznikov okoli podrednih stavkov v slovenščini kot skladenjski pojav. Predstavim primere vezniškega podvajanja v slovenščini ter primere in analize vezniškega podvajanja v romanskih jezikih (prim. Ledgeway 2005, Paoli 2003, 2006, Mascarenhas 2007, Dagnac 2012, Villa-Garcia 2012, Gonzalez i Planas 2014, Munaro 2015). Predhodno opravljene analize apliciram na slovenske primere. Posredno se dotaknem tudi vprašanja o možnostih stave naslonk v podrednih stavkih na splošno in bolj specifično v konstrukcijah s podvajanjem veznikov okoli podrednih stavkov. Čeprav obstajajo tudi druge analize polja leve periferije (prim. Authier 1992, Lasnik in Saito 1992, Koizumi 1995) in konkretno podvajanih vezniških konstrukcij (prim. McCloskey), predpostavljam, da je razlaga vezniškega podvajanja mogoča zgolj ob predpostavki o obstoju členjene leve periferije (prim. Rizzi 1997). Nadalje izpostavim potrebo po dopolnitvi dosedanjih predlogov za analiziranje konstrukcij s podvajanim veznikom, upoštevajoč tudi slovenske primere. Ugotavljam tudi, da naslonke v slovenščini nimajo točno določene pozicije v stavčni zgradbi (prim. Marušič 2008) ter da je jedro najvišje stavčne projekcije zgolj ena izmed možnih pozicij, v kateri se lahko pojavijo (drugače kot trdijo npr. Franks 1998, Golden in Milojević Sheppard 2000).
Ključne besede: veznik, vezniško podvajanje, vezniška zveza, podredni stavki, hipoteza o členjeni levi periferiji, naslonke
Objavljeno: 16.06.2016; Ogledov: 1624; Prenosov: 138
.pdf Polno besedilo (768,85 KB)

Variantna analiza prenove vrtca Solkan s kriteriji za skoraj nič-energijske stavbe
Aleš Velikonja, 2016, magistrsko delo

Opis: V vrtcu Solkan je raba energije za ogrevanje visoka in z njo so povezani tudi visoki obratovalni stroški. Z energijsko prenovo bi zmanjšali rabo energije in z njo povezane obratovalne stroške, hkrati pa bi izboljšali kakovost bivanja v stavbi. V magistrskem delu smo izvedli analizo trenutnega stanja ovoja stavbe in sistemov. Nadalje smo predlagali različne variante prenove, ki so v skladu s smernicami novega Energetskega zakona in v skladu z Akcijskim načrtom za skoraj nič-energijske stavbe. Pri variantah prenove smo ocenili okoljske, ekonomske in energijske učinke ter predlagali stroškovno optimalno varianto energijske obnove vrtca Solkan. Zmanjšanje toplotnih izgub smo dosegli z dodatnimi plastmi izolacijskega materiala, ki bi se jih dodalo na obstoječo konstrukcijo stavbe ter z zamenjavo stavbnega pohištva. Toplotne izgube smo še dodatno zmanjšali z vgradnjo mehanskega prezračevanja z rekuperacijo odpadne toplote. V energijsko prenovo smo s toplotnimi črpalkami za ogrevanje prostorov in pripravo tople sanitarne vode vključili obnovljive vire energije, ki so eden izmed kriterijev skoraj nič-energijske stavbe. V finančni analizi se je kot najugodnejša izkazala varianta z vgradnjo dodatnih plasti izolacijskega materiala na obstoječo konstrukcijo stavbe, zamenjavo stavbnega pohištva ter uporabo toplotnih črpalk za ogrevanje in pripravo tople sanitarne vode. Na ta način smo kriterij sNES glede 50-% minimalnega deleža OVE s preko 80 % presegli brez težav, medtem ko smo kriterij rabe največ 65 kW h/m2a primarne energije na enoto kondicionirane površine dosegli in s 56,81 kW h/m2a tudi presegli, vendar šele z vgradnjo mehanskega prezračevanja z rekuperacijo toplote.
Ključne besede: Energijska prenova, skoraj nič-energijske stavbe, toplotna bilanca, obnovljivi viri energije, energetski zakon
Objavljeno: 30.05.2016; Ogledov: 1757; Prenosov: 120
.pdf Polno besedilo (4,55 MB)

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