THE ROLE OF SPECT/CT SCINTIGRAPHY IN LOCALIZATION OF PARATHYROID ADENOMASSebastijan Rep
, 2016, magistrsko delo
Opis: Parathyroid scintigraphy is based on the different accumulation and distribution of radiopharmaceutical 99mTc-MIBI (MIBI) in parathyroid and adjacent tissues. Different scintigraphic techniques can be used: subtraction scintigraphy is a combination of MIBI and 99mTc-pertehnetate (pertehnetate) scintigraphy; SPECT can be performed after intravenous injection of MIBI or in the combination with low-dose computerized tomography (SPECT/CT) which allows precise anatomical localization of enlarged parathyroid glands (EPG).
The objectives of our study were: to assess diagnostic performance of preoperative localization of EPG (adenomas and hyperplasia) of the early, delayed and combined SPECT/CT and of subtraction scintigraphy in patients with biochemically proven primary hyperparathyroidism (PHP); to determine whether size of EPG, serum parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcium (Ca) and phosphate (P) correlate with successful localization; to assess radiation exposure of patients with early and late SPECT/CT and subtraction scintigraphy
The study included 41 patients in whom early, delay SPECT/CT and subtraction scintigraphy were performed. For all scintigraphic methods sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy were calculated. Receiver Operating Characteristic analysis was used to express relationship between scintigraphy results and size of the EPG and serum Ca, P and PTH levels. ImPACT CT Patient Dosimetry Calculator and weighting factors for radiopharmaceuticals (MIBI and pertechnetate) were used for calculating patient expose dose.
Sensitivity and specificity were 51.1% and 98.3 for subtraction scintigraphy, 65.1% and 97.5% for early SPECT/CT and 65.1% and 95.5% for delay SPECT/CT. In combined early and delay SPECT/CT sensitivity and specificity were 74.4% and 95.1%.Only size of the EPG correlated with successful localization in our study (AUC of 0.791-0.810). The highest average ED per patient had subtraction scintigraphy (7.37±0.40 mSv), which was statistically significant higher in comparison to combined early and delayed SPECT/CT (6.81±0.44 mSv).
The most sensitive and most accurate method of preoperative localization of EPG in patients with PHP is combined early and delayed SPECT/CT. Only size of the EPG correlates with successful localization. The highest radiation exposure is after subtraction scintigraphy.
Ključne besede: Enlarged parathyroid glands, early SPECT/CT, delayed SPECT/CT, combined SPECT/CT, subtraction scintigraphy, 99mTc-MIBI, 99mTc-pertechnetate, effective dose, serum parathyroid hormone, calcium, phosphate
Objavljeno: 03.10.2016; Ogledov: 2288; Prenosov: 114
Polno besedilo (1,03 MB)
ASSESSMENT OF THE DEVELOPMENT POTENTIAL OF FOREST-WOOD PROCESSING CHAINSlavica Ilc
, 2016, magistrsko delo
Opis: Slovenia is the third most forested country in Europe. Nevertheless, in the last twenty five years this natural wealth did not get the adequate role in national development strategies, which unnecessary reduced their sustainability potential and lead the Slovenian forest-wood industry in a very bad situation. The forest-based sector in Europe is in a period of profound structural changes, which requires reassessment of the wood-chain products outlook.
In the master’s thesis, the importance of integration of forestry and wood industry has been evaluated with the meaningful connection of different analytical methods: material flow analysis (MFA), SWOT analysis and life cycle assessment (LCA). With comparison of the roundwood and sawnwood material flow in Slovenia, Italy and Austria, the critical points in the Slovenian forest-wood chain were identified. In contrast to Austria and Italy, where wood is intensively reworked, Slovenia exports large amounts of untreated roundwood. As a consequence, the gross value added (GVA) per employee of wood sector in Slovenia reaches only 40 % of GVA in Austria and 50 % of GVA in Italy. Not only MFA, but also the SWOT and LCA analyses show, that wood processing into finished products is important both in terms of the value added and the environmental impact, as well as for more decisive shift of the economy towards a low-carbon society.
Slovenian economy could take advantage of its sustainable development potential to a great extent by increasing the level of raw material self-sufficiency and energy independency. It is essential to re-establish forest-wood processing chain, to rework wood at home into products with the highest added value, and to use wood residues as renewable feedstock in green chemistry industry and for transformation into energy with novel technologies. Slovenian vision of sustainable economy has great potential, but requires enhanced cross-sectoral integration of forestry, wood processing, construction, chemistry and energy.
Ključne besede: sustainability, forest-wood processing chain, development potential, material flow analysis (MFA), SWOT analysis, life cycle assessment (LCA)
Objavljeno: 30.09.2016; Ogledov: 2384; Prenosov: 129
Polno besedilo (1,77 MB)
PREVENTION AND MANAGEMENT OF LEGIONELLA SPP. SPREAD IN HOSPITAL WATER SYSTEM (ESTABLISHING AN EFFECTIVE SYSTEM WITHOUT USING CHEMICALS IN UNIVERSITY CLINIC OF RESPIRATORY AND ALLERGIC DISEASES GOLNIK)Mojca Novak
, 2016, magistrsko delo
Opis: The hospital water system can be a causative agent for acquiring hospital-acquired infection. Many microorganisms can be detected in potable water and one of this is Legionella spp. These bacteria live also in nature, but are usually present in low numbers. When entering into the buildings and their water supply, Legionella finds ideal conditions to multiply, especially if this systems are extensive and old. To control the conditions in the levels that cannot harm humans, many procedures – physical and chemical – have been established. All of them have advantages as well as limitations. According to these facts, in University Clinic of Respiratory and Allergic Diseases Golnik we tried to reestablish the protocols that would keep us on the safe side and be environmentally and health friendly as well. We have been trying to use the protocol without added chemicals – just with maintaining proper temperatures, heat disinfection and flushing for many years now. With this study we wanted to extend our knowledge of our hospital water system, so we intensified the sampling and introduced extended measures. We found out that the presence of Legionella in water system is connected to moderate temperatures and it is present more frequently in high risk zones (inappropriate temperatures, dead legs, water stagnation). With constant measures, the Legionella can be controlled but not eradicated. To contain it on a safe level, the group of experts must work together and introduce procedures that will provide safe environment for the patients and employees.
Ključne besede: Legionella spp., hospital water system, prevention, temperature, flushing.
Objavljeno: 30.09.2016; Ogledov: 1937; Prenosov: 139
Polno besedilo (2,81 MB)
ASSESSMENT OF EFFECTIVE DOSES BASED ON VARIOUS RADON MEASURING TECHNIQUESNataša Smrekar
, 2016, magistrsko delo
Opis: In my master's thesis, I have focused on radon gas in 43 buildings used for different purposes (23 schools, 3 kindergartens, 16 offices and a residential house) in which preliminary measurements had shown higher concentrations of radon gas. I carried out measurements of radon and short-lived radon products whilst simultaneously employing different measurement techniques. In all 43 buildings, I measured the instantaneous concentration of radon by using scintillation cells; in 18 buildings, I additionally measured the average concentration of radon by using solid state nuclear track detectors and in 10 buildings, I measured concentration retrospectively with solid state nuclear track detectors. In four selected buildings (a school, a kindergarten, an office and a residential house), I carried out the measurements by using all of the available equipment. I monitored the daily fluctuations of concentration of radon and short-lived radon products by using continuous monitors in 14 buildings. This is how I obtained the factor of radioactive equilibrium between radon and its short-lived products. Based on the results obtained, I calculated the effective doses. As the basis for calculating the doses, I used the instantaneous and average concentrations of radon and the equilibrium factor taken from literature (0.40) or own measurements. I compared the doses and critically evaluated them.
In contrast to the previous research, I researched radon exclusively in areas with increased risk for radon. I studied the influence of the working regime on the concentration of radon in different working environments (i.e. a school, a kindergarten and an office).
Ključne besede: Radon, short-lived radon products, measurement technique, scintillation cell, solid-state nuclear track detector, retrospective detector, equilibrium factor, effective dose, comparison.
Objavljeno: 28.09.2016; Ogledov: 1832; Prenosov: 153
Polno besedilo (1,86 MB)
Poetični jezik in ponavljanjeMojca Pretnar
, 2016, magistrsko delo
Opis: Delo Poetični jezik in ponavljanje se loteva razmerja med poetičnim jezikom in navadnim jezikom skozi psihoanalitične koncepte. Poetični jezik, kakor ga vidi psihoanaliza, je neločljivi del jezika in temelji na prepletu Lacanovih treh registrov: simbolnega, imaginarnega in realnega - tudi poetični jezik strukturo boromejskega vozla. Poetični jezik, ki ga najdemo v poetičnih besedilih, v primerjavi z navadnim jezikom pomeni spremembo v kodu, ustvarja kršitve in se od navadnega jezika loči po večjem deležu realnega, ki proizvaja različne učinke, zaradi katerih posegamo po poetičnih besedilih.
Jezik se konstituira skozi ponavljanje in ponavljanje je moč jezika. Ponavljanje je vse prej kot zaviralna sila, ravno ponavljanje ponuja možnost, da se ustvarja novo. Pretresanje poetičnega jezika skozi dva različna koncepta ponavljanja, ponavljanje, kakor ga vidita Lacanova psihoanaliza in Deleuzova filozofija, potrdi, da se poetični jezik konstituira skozi vse plati ponavljanja. Če poetični jezik proizvaja realne učinke in stvori umetniško poetično besedilo, sestoji iz ponavljanja v vseh treh registrih po Lacanovi tipologiji ali mora biti sklop vseh treh sintez po Deleuzovi tipologiji. To vednost mora v zakup vzeti tudi prevajanje poetičnih besedil, ki je tudi en primer ponavljanja.
Ključne besede: poetični jezik, jejezik, boromejski vozel, ponavljanje v psihoanalizi, Deleuzov koncept ponavljanja, objekt a, literarno prevajanje
Objavljeno: 28.09.2016; Ogledov: 1820; Prenosov: 126
Polno besedilo (1,03 MB)
Subverzivni elementi v (mladinskih) besedilih Andreja Rozmana RozeŠpela Brajer
, 2016, magistrsko delo
Opis: V magistrkem delu kratko opredelim recepcijo mladinske književnosti v luči subverzije. Predstavim teorijo srednjeveške smehovne kulture in opišem njene elemente (karneval, parodija, jezik) ter pokažem, kako se subverzija navezuje na teorijo srednjeveške smehovne kulture, še posebej karnevala.
V drugem, obsežnejšem delu magistrskega dela predstavim opus Andreja Rozmana Roze. V nadaljevanju s formalno in motivno-tematsko analizo ter interpretacijo prikažem, kako se elementi subverzije kažejo v vsaki skupini besedil posebej (otroška in mladinska besedila ter besedila za odrasle). Vsakega od treh elementov subverzije podrobneje razčlenim: pretiravanje, groteskno opisovanje telesa, karnevalski smeh (praznični in ambivalentni smeh ter ironijo), groteskni realizem ter obredne dogodke in utopijo. Dodam jim še jezikovne prvine, kot so frazemi, uporabo ljubkovalnic, olepševalnic, kletvic, zmerljivk ipd. Poleg tega analiziram poliglosijo in heteroglosijo ter neologizme, blizuzvočnice in oksimoron. Kot tretji element subverzije teoretiki navajajo parodijo, ki pa jo analiziram na nivoju celotnega besedila.
Izsledke analize besedil interpretiram tako, da pokažem, kako se elementi pojavljajo skozi različne zvrsti in glede na tematiko.
Ključne besede: subverzija, subverzivni elementi, Andrej Rozman Roza, karneval, smehovna kultura
Objavljeno: 28.09.2016; Ogledov: 1714; Prenosov: 115
Polno besedilo (585,47 KB)
RAPID UPLC-ESI-MS/MS BASED ASSAY FOR DISCOVERY OF UDP-N-ACETYLMURAMOYL-L-ALANINE:D-GLUTAMATE (MurD) LIGASE INHIBITORSVjekoslava Car
, 2016, magistrsko delo
Opis: A rapid, selective, robust and sensitive analytical assay method, operating in a short time frame with acceptable levels of precision, linear range and the accuracy necessary for successful Mur ligases inhibitors discovery, was developed.
An LC-MS/MS analytical procedure was designed for the determination of a MurD ligase reaction product (UMAG). The special focus of this work was on UDP-N-acetylmuramyl-L-alanine:D-glutamate ligase (MurD) activity. The assay method is especially valuable as an orthogonal (secondary) assay for the primary high throughput fluorescent-based assay screening of potential Mur ligase inhibitors. The LC-MS/MS assay is fully compatible with the components from the primary fluorescent-based assay and enables the analysis of the same samples by both methodologies. The presented LC-MS/MS assay procedure is used for the evaluation of the false positive hits (molecules) from the primary, fluorescence based, high throughput screening assay experiments. This is important for the elimination of false positive hits from the prohibitively expensive and time-consuming investigation process.
Method development describes the evaluation and optimization of the various stages of sample preparation, chromatographic separation, MS/MS determination and quantification. An enzyme reaction is performed in a 96-well plate. The quenched reaction mixture samples were spiked with an internal standard (phenacetin). The permeate was injected onto the U(H)PLC-MS/MS triple quadrupole system after sample ultrafiltration. Chromatographic separation was achieved on the ACQUITY UPLCTM HSS T3 column (100 x 2.1 mm i.d., 1.8 µm particle size) using an ammonium format buffer at pH 2.8 and acetonitrile as eluent. Elution initiated with an isocratic-hold for 1.1 min, followed by a two-step linear gradient of up to 3 min, giving a total run time of 5 min including equilibration. The flow rate was kept at a constant 0.4 mL/min.
UMAG quantitative analysis was performed by positive electrospray ionization, followed by tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS). The analytical assay quantifies UMAG in a linear range from 0.25 to 20 µM using 70 µL of samples. Validation results demonstrated that UMAG concentrations can be accurately and precisely determined in samples from the primary assay.
Evaluation of inhibitory activities of compounds measured by both the fluorescence and the LC-MS/MS method demonstrated that the values were in a very good agreement. This analytical method can be used to screen a compound library at a defined concentration of each compound to obtain the percentage of inhibition, or with a series of compound concentrations to obtain inhibition potency of a compound (IC50). The selected Lek compounds no. 1 and 2 from the virtual screening campaign were presented, tested and further investigated due to the expression of significant MurD ligase inhibitory action acquired by primary high throughput tests.
This assay has been developed for MurD, but during development, chromatographic and MS/MS conditions for UM and UMA were studied and defined as well. Therefore, this analytical assay method can easily be applied to other Mur ligases (i.e. MurC, MurE) enzyme activity monitoring in the process of bacteria cell wall peptidoglycan formation. This method enables the identification of many different Mur ligase inhibitors in a continued search for new Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria antibiotics.
Ključne besede: Mur ligases, UDP-N-acetylmuramyl-L-alanine:D-glutamate (MurD) inhibitors, UNAM-Ala-Glu, LC-MS/MS, liquid chromatography, tandem mass spectrometry, antibiotics, drug discovery
Objavljeno: 23.09.2016; Ogledov: 2484; Prenosov: 145
Polno besedilo (2,62 MB)
FLOODPLAIN FORESTS OF SOČA RIVER BETWEEN KOBARID AND CONFLUENCE WITH RIVER TOLMINKA: CURRENT SITUATION AND DEVELOPMENTJanez Pagon
, 2016, magistrsko delo
Opis: In its upper course the Soča River is one of the best preserved Alpine rivers. Despite that, there have been few studies of its riverine forests, which are an integral part of the river. The research in this thesis encompasses part of the river basin between the towns of Kobarid and the confluence with the Tolminka River. It was found that the riverine forests in the study area are not a homogeneous habitat. Rather, they consist of numerous phytosociological communities with a syn-dynamic connection. The majority of riverine forests in the study area is younger than 50 years old and were established either by the overgrowing of agricultural land or from degraded forests. Accordingly, the forest structure is characterised mainly by uneven-aged stands or younger structural stages, which are frequently returned to their earlier stages due to human impacts. The majority of these forests have low quality prospects. Based on their vegetation and stand characteristics, the riverine forests under study were classified into six stand types. A comparison of the functions and characteristics of particular forest types revealed similarities between the stand types of initial willow, white willow and grey alder. Forests in this cluster are under the influence of soil water and high floodwaters. Their most pronounced function is ecological. In their growing stock, there is a large share of deciduous softwood. Forests in this cluster cover 62% of all riverine forests in the study area. Silvicultural measures are rare in these forests and are less important for the existence of the stands than environmental features like a high level of soil water and minimised human impact on their habitat and the river course. An important characteristic of the second cluster, which consists of pioneer forest on higher-lying river terraces and the riparian corridor stand type is a lack of contact with soil water. In the tree layer of the growing stock in this cluster, species appearing on drier riverine-forest sites prevail (European ash, small-leaved lime, European hornbeam, sessile oak). These forest stands have a greater timber industry potential; therefore, modest measures and limited human impact (especially that which leads to a change in land use like forest grazing and clearing) are recommended. The stands in this cluster cover 30% of the analysed riverine forest area. The third cluster of riverine forests consists of anthropogenic riverine forest stands where the human impact is so significant that they mainly perform a social function. The stand type of this cluster represents 8% of the riverine forests in the study area, and it is suggested that they should be managed as parkland and not as forest areas. Directing visitors to these areas would unburden other, more preserved stand types from the pressures created by human activities (tourism, recreation, construction work). Growth and increment analyses of the most common tree species in the riverine forests in the study area show that mainly olive and white willow, followed by grey alder, have substantial current height (both willow types up to 1.14 m/year), diametric (willow up to 1.4 cm/year) and volumetric increments. However, their rapid growth makes these subjects prone to rapid ageing. The region of northern Primorska was inhabited early in history. Accordingly, there was great pressure imposed on riverine forests already in the past. The analysis of old maps revealed that up to the beginning of the 20th century, the riverine forest area within the scope of analysis was under 50 ha. Within the process of the overgrowing of agricultural land in Slovenia, a process that is currently still underway, the aforementioned riverine forest area increased to 229.16 ha. This thesis shows that the study area is not an unspoiled wilderness. On contrary, just as in the past, it is a crossroads of numerous and frequently conflicting interests. The riverine forest situation on the Soča River in the area b
Ključne besede: the Soča river, riverine forests, successional stage, forest stand
Objavljeno: 20.09.2016; Ogledov: 1998; Prenosov: 22
Polno besedilo (8,00 MB)
Time restrictions in forest operations planningBoštjan Kepic
, 2016, magistrsko delo
Opis: This master’s thesis deals with annual harvest operations (AHO) planning with consideration of time restrictions. We developed five models of binary integer linear programming (BILP) that schedule working groups to harvest unit areas (HUAs) according to the lowest cost possible. Total AHO costs include felling and skidding costs, transportation costs, and machine relocation costs. The first model is based on the presumption that harvesting can be planned and executed freely throughout the year. In other four, scheduling was subject to time restrictions in HUAs and differed according to the extent of time restrictions. The second model takes into account time restrictions due to unfavourable natural conditions, the third model due to disturbance-free areas of animal species, the fourth and fifth model concurrently include the impact of time restrictions due to natural conditions and disturbance-free areas. The annual workplace time in Model 2 is reduced by 14.2 %, in Model 3 by 16.9 %, in Model 4 by 29.3 % and in Model 5 by 42.3 %. The model tool used to test all the models was designed in Microsoft Excel. All five models were tested with OpenSolver 2.7.1 software. Increasing the extent of time restrictions in forest operations reduces the utilization of the annual workplace time. In testing the second model, we demonstrated that with proper organisation of an AHO plan the planner can influence the working days fallout. In the other three models, we were able to ensure the implementation of AHO plan by introducing extra working groups. Further, we confirmed that time restrictions affect the scheduling of the working groups and the sequencing of tasks. The increases in total AHO costs were explained as an increase in working groups’ costs due to lower utilization rate, an increase in depreciation costs of machines and costs due to unrealized allowable annual cut and timber sales planned for the current year. We tested each model on two examples.
Ključne besede: time restrictions, binary integer programming, forestry, annual harvest operations planning, harvesting, scheduling working teams
Objavljeno: 20.09.2016; Ogledov: 2049; Prenosov: 125
Polno besedilo (4,11 MB)
Birokratski stil v srbskem in slovenskem časopisju v času socializmaJelena Budimirović
, 2016, magistrsko delo
Opis: Glavni namen birokratskega stila ni komunikativen, temveč ritualno-ideološki. Takšen stil služi kot sredstvo jezikovne manipulacije in birokratom zagotavlja monopol pri političnem odločanju. Birokratski stil je v srbščini razcvet doživel v socializmu, v slovenščini pa se je razvijal pod vplivom srbščine. V tej nalogi analiziramo jezik srbskega časopisa Borba, oziroma slovenskih časopisov Ljudska pravica in Delo v času socializma, in sicer skozi dve obdobji – obdobje začetka socialističnega sistema v Jugoslaviji (1944–1947) ter poznejše obdobje, v katerem je imel socializem v Jugoslaviji za seboj že več desetletij (1974–1979). Za jezik prvega obdobja so značilni enostavnost, ideološkost in čustvenost. Za stil drugega obdobja je opazna izjemno močna birokratiziranost novinarskega stila, in smo ga zato analizirali glede na klasifikacijo značilnosti birokratskega stila: nominalnost, splošnost, nedoločenost, eksplicitnost, evfemizmi, presežek besed, kvaziznanstvenost in uporaba besed tujega izvora. Analiza opisuje slovnična in leksična sredstva birokratizacije in razlaga njihove učinke v sociolingvističnem kontekstu.
Ključne besede: birokratski stil, socializem, Borba, Ljudska pravica, Delo, manipulacija
Objavljeno: 19.09.2016; Ogledov: 1737; Prenosov: 21
Polno besedilo (7,29 MB)