STREET CHILDREN IN NIŠ (SERBIA): THE CASE OF DROP IN CENTRE FOR THE MOST AT RISK ADOLESCENTS (MARA)Miodrag Đorđević
, 2016, magistrsko delo
Opis: In 2009, a Drop in centre for street children - MARA was established in Niš,
Serbia. The purpose of the project was to provide health protection of adolescents,
who lived in structural disadvantages, was exposed to the risk of HIV, and who have
not been addressed by the institutional social care system.
Once on the streets, children have difficulty meeting their basic needs such as
obtaining food, clothes or shelter. Therefore, they employ a range of survival
strategies. Begging, car washing, collecting secondary resources, borrowing money,
and dealing drugs are common ways how to provide subsistence. Perhaps the most
dangerous survival strategy pertains to exchanging sex services for food or money.
Drug and alcohol use are common practices among street children.
The main goal of this thesis was to obtain new knowledge about these young
people in order to achieve a better understanding of their behaviours in the
framework of social marginalization, their coping strategies and their own
contributions to social exclusion. To provide better social, health and educational
services for street children in Niš a qualitative approach is necessary to understand
their survival strategies and their several needs as the persons at risk in certain social
The main approach was ethnography encompassing participant observation
during the fieldwork in Drop in centre in Niš. Following methods were employed:
Review of the scientific literature on the issue and analytical reading; Review and analysis of existing documents and
archive materials: UN/NGO/Government documents, and the documentation on the
projects from Drop in centre; Participant observation in the group of MARA; Semistructured
interviews with MARA; An ethnographic diary and ethnographic
fieldnotes of fieldwork in the Drop in centre in Niš.
This thesis was focused on the following research questions: What is the
relationship between social stereotypes about MARA and MARA’s behaviour? Are
the stereotypes affecting MARA’s identities, behaviour and appearance or vice
versa? How do MARA act within their several environments? How MARA relate to
each other? How “street groups” influence MARA’s risky behaviour? What are
interactions within these groups? What are the commonly shared values among the
members of the groups? My research will explore more in detail common values in
the groups of drug users and sex workers. How MARA understand the risk of drug
use and commercial sex? What is the social context of risk perception? Do they have
any ideas how to prevent the risk? Did they have any concepts about the risk? And
how their concept coincides with the mainstream, project concepts?
Discussing all above research questions, the main expected result refers to
obtaining new knowledge in order to find better solution to their problems compared
to existing practices and understandings by several actors. Therefore,
this work will fight against poorly informed images and understandings of
adolescent Roma and street children, which are as a rule seen and understood within
ideological, commonsensical, racial and stereotypical considerations.
Roma studies have little academic research on at risk adolescent children,
especially in the Western Balkans.
The originality of this study is related to the unique material collected in the
ethnography through participant observation and fieldwork with appropriate
techniques of data collection with adolescent street children in Niš. The study was
carried out on the territory of former Socialist Yugoslavia, in Central Serbia, Niš. No
similar studies on structural inequality, marginality and Roma has been conducted in
Finally,concepts of structural inequality, marginality, street children, which
have been coined and developed by several authors in the contexof the Western
capitalist system, will be now reflected in the context of transition and postsocialist
radical social changes.
Ključne besede: Roma, marginality, childhood, street children, risky behaviour, stereotypes
Objavljeno: 16.09.2016; Ogledov: 1672; Prenosov: 123
Polno besedilo (657,26 KB)
PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF HIGHLY PHOTOACTIVE COATINGS ON GLASS SUPPORTS FOR DEGRADATION OF PHARMACEUTICAL SUBSTANCE PARACETAMOL IN WATERLidija Sinovčić
, 2016, magistrsko delo
Opis: Pharmaceuticals in aquatic environment are considered as emerging environmental contaminants due to their constant presence, evironmental resistance and toxic effect they could have on aquatic organisms. Studies for Slovenia have shown the presence of pharmaceutical substances in waters to be comparable with published results of pharmaceutical water pollution in Europe. As conventional methods do not reach efficient pharmaceutical removal from water sources, more powerful and effective methods like heterogeneous photocatalysis using TiO2/UV have been implemented. Titanium dioxide coatings in silicate binder were prepared by the sol-gel process and deposited on a glass support with dip-coating technique. The films showed good quality and possibility of multiple use. The characterization of the films was performed with scanning electron microscope (SEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD) and hardness test (Elcometer 501 Pencil Hardness Tester). Effectiveness and quality of prepared TiO2 coatings for photodegradation of pharmaceutical compound paracetamol (PCT) were assessed during photocatalytic treatment and compared to photolysis, a process without presence of a catalyst. Photolysis caused substantial changes in paracetamol concentration between 120 and 180 minutes of irradiation where 92% of degradation was achieved, but with no changes in mineralization. Photocatalytic treatment was much faster and effective where 95% of paracetamol degraded within 90 minutes of UV irradiation and after prolonged irradiation time from 120 to 240 minutes also mineralization of paracetamol solution increased from 59% to 83%. Accordingly, toxicity decreased, but it was still not lower than in the starting PCT solution as it was shown by acute toxicity test on Daphnia magna aquatic organisms. The master thesis represents a step forward in studying photocatalytic removal of paracetamol from water, because to my knowledge all the published investigations on this pharmaceutical up to now include photocatalyst mostly in powder and not in immobilized form, which is more advantageous from application point of view.
Ključne besede: Pharmaceuticals, paracetamol, titanium dioxide, photocatalytic degradation, Daphnia magna.
Objavljeno: 14.09.2016; Ogledov: 2485; Prenosov: 147
Polno besedilo (2,50 MB)
Kontrabantka. Njene poti s koščkom svobode. Življenje in vloga žensk v Vipavskih brdih prve polovice 20. stoletja.Darja Gorup
, 2016, magistrsko delo
Opis: V magistrski nalogi so predstavljene trgovske poti Gaberk iz Vipavskih brd ter vpliv le-teh na spreminjajočo se družbeno vlogo ženske v družini in vasi. Zaradi specifičnih družbeno-gospodarskih razmer, v katerih so živele, je bilo njihovo življenje kmečke gospodinje vse prej kot vpeto med štiri stene. Igrale so več vlog: bile so matere, žene, vaščanke, trgovke oziroma brangerce, kontrabantke in migrantke. Brangerca je ženska, ki je na razne nelegalne ali pollegalne načine nosila jajca, maslo, sezonsko zelenjavo, maline, meso, žganje in druge pridelke v italijanska mesta, jih tam prodala ali menjala in prinesla domov nekaj denarja ali živil in gospodinjskih potrebščin. Ker je državna oblast brangerski način trgovanja omejevala s plačilom taks in dajatev, predvsem pa je bila obdavčena dobičkonosna trgovina z žganjem in tobakom, so ženske pričele s tihotapljenjem. Tako so iz legalnih brangerc postale kontrabantke oziroma tihotapke, trgovke, ki so skušale priti do svojih strank po skrivnih poteh, predvsem pa z domiselno skritim trgovskim blagom. V iskanju boljših pogojev za življenje so se Gaberke tudi izseljevale v bližnja italijanska mesta.
V uvodu je predstavljen koncept naloge, teze in metodološka izhodišča. Jedrni del vstavi zgodbe brangerc v različne zgodovinske okoliščine (prva svetovna vojna, vinska kriza po postavitvi rapalske meje ter končno postavitev državne meje med Jugoslavijo in Italijo). Na podlagi podatkov, pridobljenih z metodo ustne zgodovine ter ohranjenega arhivskega ter matičnega gradiva, je predstavljeno vsakdanje življenje žensk ter njihove vloge.
V sklepnemu poglavju so zgoščena spoznanja o vrednotenju ženskega dela in vlogah ženske znotraj družine ter vasi. Sklepnemu poglavju sledi seznam literature in virov ter povzetek v angleškem jeziku.
Ključne besede: brangerca, kontrabant, krožne selitve, izseljevanje, Trst, Vipavska brda, rapalska meja
Objavljeno: 14.09.2016; Ogledov: 1648; Prenosov: 124
Polno besedilo (906,06 KB)
About TimeUna Rebić
, 2016, magistrsko delo
Opis: The practical work of my master project about time was carried out as processbased
experiments in practice. As a result, the thesis is a combination of
theoretical research taken from several fields—examining the notion of time from
perspective of psychology, sociology, science and spirituality. Alongside mentioned
research the thesis pairs artistic practices associated with each field discussed—
considering most significant artist and his/her practice or project(s) in which they
explore time. The third layer of the thesis pairs each section with my own personal
practice through experiments carried out in the process—each exploring time from
a different perspective. Since the thesis is the final project of the study developed
within a certain time frame, the last chapter discusses how I approached this
project in regard to my artistic practice.
Ključne besede: time, perception, On Kawara, sociology, speed, Hamish Fulton, quantum
entanglement, arrow of time, Hiroshi Sugimoto, spirituality, consciousness, Marina
Objavljeno: 14.09.2016; Ogledov: 1264; Prenosov: 1
Polno besedilo (8,39 MB)
EVALUATION OF MARINE SEDIMENTS FROM THE PORT OF LUKA KOPER FROM THE ENVIRONMENTAL PERSPECTIVE AND IN TERMS OF THEIR USABILITY IN THE BRICK INDUSTRYPatrik Baksa
, 2016, magistrsko delo
Opis: The majority of the world’s goods are transported over water and dredging is essential for the development of harbors and ports. Therefore, the management of dredged material is a worldwide issue. Due to its chemical and petrographic, mineralogical and homogeneity composition, marine sediments are an appropriate raw material to use in the brick industry. Marine sediments can serve as raw material for the production of clay blocks, roofing and ceramic tiles.
Different analyses were carried out in order to determine if the dredged material from the Port of Koper is environmentally friendly and suitable to use in the brick industry. These analyses included: a chemical analysis, a mineralogical analysis, a particle size analysis and a chloride content (Cl-) analysis, and tests of firing in a gradient furnace. Furthermore, tests of mechanical properties, as well as tests of frost-resistance of the samples were carried out.
On the basis of primary analyses and samples prepared in a lab, it was established that marine sediments from the Port of Koper without any additives are only conditionally suitable as a source material for producing brick products. In collaboration with Gorica brickworks (Goriške opekarne), a pilot production from a mixture of 60% component B from Gorica brickworks and 40% component A (marine sediments) from the Port of Koper was prepared. Different tests showed the mixture could be appropriate for brick production.
Ključne besede: marine sediments, recycling, clay bricks, chemical analysis, mechanical properties, brick production.
Objavljeno: 05.09.2016; Ogledov: 1617; Prenosov: 133
Polno besedilo (3,30 MB)
THE STUDY OF OPTIMAL TECHNOLOGICAL PROCEDURES OF INTERNAL PLUMBING SYSTEM DISINFECTION FACILITIES IN USE BY THE SENSITIVE HUMAN POPULATIONSJanez Škarja
, 2016, magistrsko delo
Opis: In a developed world, water is used in a variety of installations and devices for the improvement of life standard. It is important for these elements to be suitably managed and maintained, otherwise they can present a risk to people's health. Although potable water from a public plumbing system coming via the water supply into an internal plumbing system normally is compliant with the regulations, the quality of water in an internal plumbing system often changes – water gets contaminated. There are several types of microorganisms that can grow in water. They carry a great potential for the growth and proliferation of bacteria from the genus Legionella that cause Legionnaires' disease and Pontiac Fever. Even the fact that Legionella infection has for several years been mentioned in the accident insurance conditions of insurance companies in relation to receiving the insurance fee as compensation for bed day, shows the extent and foremost the seriousness of the disease (5–15% mortality rate).
The research part of the master thesis focused mainly on determining the presence of bacteria from the genus Legionella in the water of internal plumbing systems of healthcare facilities. During the entire research period of 8 years, 2,676 samples of cold and hot water were acquired from 23 healthcare facilities.
The main purpose of the research was to determine the efficiency or adequacy of applied approaches, i.e. physical disinfection with heat and chemical disinfection with chlorine, in eliminating or reducing the amount of Legionella present in the water of selected healthcare facilities. Another aim was to evaluate the impact of softening potable water with polyphosphates on the proliferation of certain microorganisms in water, and to determine the by-products of chemical disinfection.
Upon sampling, an organoleptic examination of water (appearance, odour), electrometric measurements of water temperature, and colorimetric measurements of free chlorine concentrations in water were performed. The data for the analysis of Legionella presence were acquired by water sampling and the isolation of bacteria found in the water. In order to acquire laboratory results of specific physical and chemical parameters, ion chromatography, gas chromatography, spectrophotometry, titration, and inductively coupled plasma – mass detector were used.
Although water samples from only two healthcare facilities showed no presence of Legionella, the number of water samples with the presence of Legionella decreased for at least 25% from the beginning to the end of period set. Also, after certain general sanitary and technical measures a noticeable improvement within healthcare facilities after 2008 could be observed. Regarding the initial part of the set period, a more favourable relationship between positive and negative samples, a lower number of samples with highest concentrations of present Legionella, and a higher number of samples with lower concentrations of present Legionella were determined. The research has shown that the existing system of ensuring health-compliant water is fairly efficient; however, the results could be improved additionally by investing more into the preparation and renovation of systems. Due to a limited number of samples, a direct impact of adding polyphosphates to potable water could not be linked to the occurrence of Legionella. None of the samples showed an increased concentration of by-products of potable water disinfection.
In its conclusion, the research has shown that the procedures after overheating and after chlorine disinfection result in a similar success. While filtration proved to be most efficient, from the perspective of Legionella infections the use of medical bathtubs can present a high risk to people's health, therefore such devices should be subject to more frequent maintenance and supervision.
Ključne besede: potable water, internal plumbing system, biofilm, health facilities, disinfection, Legionella
Objavljeno: 05.09.2016; Ogledov: 1970; Prenosov: 129
Polno besedilo (1,70 MB)
KINETICS OF CELLULOSE DEGRADATION STUDIED USING SIZE EXCLUSION CHROMATOGRAPHYAneta Balažic Fabjan
, 2016, magistrsko delo
Opis: For more than five centuries, paper has been the predominant carrier of information and numerous medieval manuscripts bear witness of its durability. However, increasing demand for paper led to several changes in its production in the 19th century. High quality rag fibres were replaced by inferior wood-originating ones. Acid manufacturing technology was introduced which, due to its simplicity and low cost, continued to be used until the end of the 20th century. Inherently stable paper rapidly degrades in the presence of acids and its decay is further promoted by the poor storage conditions and environmental pollutants. As a result, the amount of degraded paper in libraries, archives and museums is reaching enormous proportions. In order to prolong the usable time of the vast quantities of original materials, paper collections may be deacidified and/or stored at lower temperatures. While preservation options are known, lack of the competent comparative studies leaves collection keepers hesitant of their use. The introductory part of the project is focused on development of analytical methodologies and model materials, representative of historical acid paper. As uniqueness and inherent value of cellulose-based cultural heritage limits the use of analytical methodologies to the non-destructive or micro-destructive ones. A new methodology for determination of the condition of paper was developed. The analytical technique-size exclusion chromatography for the first time allows us to reproducible determine the condition of paper which contains a significant amount of wood derived lignin. A few fibres suffice for the analysis, which renders the methodology suitable for characterisation of historical materials. The results of the research will represent the effect of deacidification processes with use of micro destructive analytical methodologies. As written word is all what we have for our legacy from generation to generation, evaluating preservation strategies for decaying collections, safekeeping and long term access to the endangered written cultural heritage is one of the most important facts.
Ključne besede: paper, size exclusion chromatography, kinetics, deacidification process
Objavljeno: 02.09.2016; Ogledov: 2192; Prenosov: 143
Polno besedilo (1,33 MB)
STRUCTURAL PROPERTIES OF MANGANESE-FUNCTIONALIZED SILICA AEROGELSTatjana Kobal
, 2016, magistrsko delo
Opis: Manganese-functionalized silica with interparticle mesoporosity and isolated Mn sites (Mn/Si = 0.01) is an excellent Fenton catalyst for water cleaning. However, there is a problem that needs to be solved, i.e., Mn leaching from the silica support during the reaction. The solution may lie in using aerogels as the silicate supports for the manganese. The goal of this master thesis is the synthesis and characterization of manganese-functionalized silica aerogels with different Mn/Si molar ratios and a determination of their structural properties. The emphasis is on the preparation of manganese-functionalized silica aerogels with isolated manganese sites.
Firstly, manganese-functionalized microporous and mesoporous silicates with a molar ratio Mn/Si = 0.005–0.02 were synthesized according to the literature and characterized as reference materials for manganese-functionalized aerogels. Manganese silicalite-1 (MnS-1) as a microporous zeolite-type silicate and manganese-functionalized silica (MnKIL-2) as a mesoporous silicate were prepared by the sol-gel process with a hydrothermal and solvothermal treatment, respectively. MnS-1 and MnKIL-2 with a molar ratio of Mn/Si ≤ 0.01 contain manganese as isolated sites in the silica framework and with a molar ratio of Mn/Si > 0.01 contain manganese as manganese oxides.
Secondly, manganese-functionalized aerogels (MnAEG) with a molar ratio Mn/Si = 0.005–0.02, were prepared according to the acid-base of the sol-gel polymerization of a tetraethylorthosilicate precursor, which is followed in combination with a supercritical drying using CO2. The prepared materials were characterized using the following techniques: X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive X-ray elemental analysis (EDX), nitrogen physisorption, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The characterization results on manganese-functionalized aerogels (MnAEG) showed Mn oxide nanoparticles incorporated into the aerogel already at a low Mn concentration (Mn/Si = 0.005), which means that Mn aerogels are not promising silica supports for Mn catalysts applied for water cleaning, because they do not contain isolated Mn sites.
Ključne besede: : SiO2 aerogels, manganese-functionalized SiO2 aerogels, sol–gel process, CO2 supercritical drying
Objavljeno: 02.09.2016; Ogledov: 2145; Prenosov: 118
Polno besedilo (4,37 MB)
Slovenska mladinska literatura z ekološko tematikoAnja Vogrinc
, 2016, magistrsko delo
Opis: Glavni cilj mojega magistrskega dela je bil pripraviti pregleden seznam literarnih besedil z ekološko tematiko, izdelati tipologijo izvirnih slovenskih besedil ter predstaviti značilnosti korpusa teh besedil. V svojem magistrskem delu najprej predstavljam povezavo mladinske književnosti z ekologijo, okoljsko vzgojo in ekokritiko, v nadaljevanju pa se posvečam vprašanju vrednotenja mladinskih besedil z ekološko tematiko. Naredila sem tipologijo pravljic z ekološko tematiko ter analizirala in ovrednotila 22 besedil. Izoblikovala sem lasten model vrednotenja, pri tem pa uporabila spoznanja znanih slovenskih literarnih znanstvenikov (razmerje med spoznavno, etično in estetsko funkcijo po Janku Kosu) ter raziskovalcev mladinske književnosti (jezikovni, vsebinski, likovni, recepcijski, bralno-razvojni kriterij po Igorju Saksidi). Upoštevala sem tudi spoznanja vodilnih ekokritkov (Cheryll Glotfelty, Ursule K. Heise). Sklep svoje magistrske naloge sem zapisala v obliki krajšega pregleda infrastrukture mladinske književnosti, kjer sem predstavila naslednje dejavnike: literarnega proizvajalca (avtorje: Alenko Klopčič, Toma Kočarja, Mojicejo Podgoršek, Jernejo Pavček ter Heleno Kraljič), literarnega sprejemnika (mladi in odrasli bralci), literarne institucije (knjižnice, univerze), literarni trg (založbe: Eko knjigo, Založbo Tolovaj, Založbo Epistola ter Založbo Morfem), literarni repertoar (vsa izdana besedila, zbirke, priporočilni seznami) ter literarni produkt (mladinska književnost, spremljevalni projekti, literarne delavnice).
Ključne besede: Mladinska književnost, besedila z ekološko tematiko, ekologija, okoljska vzgoja, literarno vrednotenje, ekokritika.
Objavljeno: 30.08.2016; Ogledov: 2099; Prenosov: 142
Polno besedilo (1,32 MB)
Characterization of Nd2Fe14B sintered magnets and effect of addition TbF and DyF by Grain Boundary Diffusion ProcessJan Ferjančič
, 2016, magistrsko delo
Opis: Sintrani Nd2Fe14B magneti tretje generacije so večinoma uporabljeni v avtomobilski in transportni industriji. Sintranim magnetom s strukturo Nd2Fe14B so dodane težke redke zemlje (TRZ, e.g. Dy in Tb). Ta vrsta magnetov je uporabljena v električnih pomožnih sistemih (EPS), ki vrtijo volanski drog. Zahtevani lastnosti magnetov v EPS motorjih (v MAHLE Letriki d.o.o.) sta remanenca (Br) 1240-1350 mT in koercitivnost (Hcj) ≥1592 kA/m. Dodajanje TRZ omogoča, da magnet ohranja svojo magnetnost tudi pri visokih temperaturah, kar pa občutno poveča ceno magneta. V zadnjih letih so proizvajalci magnetov razvili novo metodo, tako imenovan postopek interkristalne difuzije Tb in Dy. Difuzija prične med termično obdelavo končanega magneta prevlečenim s slojem TRZ. Med termično obdelavo TRZ difundirajo s površine v notranjost magneta prek kristalne strukture Nd in med zrna Fe, rezultat je visoka prostorska razpršenost TRZ. Interkristalna difuzija omogoča, da lahko ima magnet z manjšo vsebnostjo TRZ enako ali boljšo koercitivnost in remanenco v primerjavi s standardnim postopkom.
Cilj naloge je karakterizacija magnetov, z osredotočenostjo na opis mikrostrukturne homogenosti, homogenosti kristalnih območij in homogenost posameznih elementov v magnetni strukturi. S ciljem, da se definira posebnost interkristalnega difuzijskega postopka. Analiza magnetov v prerezu je bila izvedena z vrstičnim elektronskim mikroskopom (SEM) v povezavi z energijsko disperzijsko rentgensko spektroskopijo (EDX), s katero smo določali lokalne elemente.
Z opazovanjem mikrostrukture smo želeli potrditi homogenost celotne magnetne strukture, kljub nekaterim nehomogenostim pridobljenih iz drugih člankov. Opazili smo razlike v homogenosti med različnimi magneti le pri standardnem postopku. Kljub vsemu povprečna vrednost komponent in prostorska razporeditev elementov potrjuje naše predpostavke.
Ključne besede: NdFeB magneti, interkristalna difuzija TRZ, SEM in EDX
Objavljeno: 29.07.2016; Ogledov: 2607; Prenosov: 157
Polno besedilo (4,17 MB)