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Chemical characterization of PM2.5 and source apportionment of organic aerosol in New Delhi, India
Urs Baltensperger, Griša Močnik, Surender Singh, Suresh Tiwari, Deewan Bisht, Atul Srivastava, Suneeti Mishra, Navaneeth Thamban, Ashutosh Shukla, Vipul Lalchandani, Francesco Canonaco, Deepika Bhattu, Anna Tobler, Sachchida Tripathi, J. G. Slowik, Andre S. H. Prevot, 2020, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Delhi is one of the most polluted cities worldwide and a comprehensive understanding and deeper insight into the air pollution and its sources is of high importance. We report 5 months of highly time-resolved measurements of non-refractory PM2.5 and black carbon (BC). Additionally, source apportionment based on positive matrix factorization (PMF) of the organic aerosol (OA) fraction is presented. The highest pollution levels are observed during winter in December/January. During that time, also uniquely high chloride concentrations are measured, which are sometimes even the most dominant NR-species in the morning hours. With increasing temperature, the total PM2.5 concentration decreases steadily, whereas the chloride concentrations decrease sharply. The concentrations measured in May are roughly 6 times lower than in December/January. PMF analysis resolves two primary factors, namely hydrocarbon-like (traffic-related) OA (HOA) and solid fuel combustion OA (SFC-OA), and one or two secondary factors depending on the season. The uncertainties of the PMF analysis are assessed by combining the random a-value approach and the bootstrap resampling technique of the PMF input. The uncertainties for the resolved factors range from ±18% to ±19% for HOA, ±7% to ±19% for SFC-OA and ±6 % to ±11% for the OOAs. The average correlation of HOA with eBCtr is R2 = 0.40, while SFC-OA has a correlation of R2 = 0.78 with eBCsf. Anthracene (m/z 178) and pyrene (m/z 202) (PAHs) are mostly explained by SFC-OA and follow its diurnal trend (R2 = 0.98 and R2 = 0.97). The secondary oxygenated aerosols are dominant during daytime. The average contribution during the afternoon hours (1 pm–5 pm) is 59% to the total OA mass, with contributions up to 96% in May. In contrast, the primary sources are more important during nighttime: the mean nightly contribution (22 pm–3 am) to the total OA mass is 48%, with contributions up to 88% during some episodes in April.
Ključne besede: New Delhi, PM2.5, Source apportionment, PMF
Objavljeno: 20.07.2020; Ogledov: 29; Prenosov: 0
.pdf Polno besedilo (4,71 MB)

Water reveals non-Arrhenius kinetics in protein folding experiments
Artem V. Badasyan, 2020, objavljeni povzetek znanstvenega prispevka na konferenci (vabljeno predavanje)

Opis: Statistical theories describe systems in equilibrium, and cannot be used to study kinetics. However, the theo- ries are based on coarse-grained parameters, that include assumptions regarding the underlying kinetics. If such assumptions are incorrect, the theoretical expressions, used to process the experimental data, will not fit. I report on one such case we have met within the application of Zimm-Bragg [1] theory to process folding experiments, and discuss the reasons and consequences. Studies of relaxation phenomena in glass-forming liquids by default account for the shift in temperature by some value, corresponding to the glass formation temperature, .In particular, temperature shift appears in hydrated proteins because of the presence of partially glassy states giving rise to non- Arrhenius relaxation times log τ ~ [2]. A phenomenological approach was suggested by Adam and Gibbs as early as in 1965 to describe the sudden increase of viscosity and the slowing down of the collective modes in super-cooled liquids as the temperature is approaching[3]. The key idea of Adam-Gibbs theory was to consider the supercooled liquid as a set of clusters (cooperatively rearranging regions) of different sizes that change with temperature, giving rise to the shift in re- laxation time. The temperature shift factor is present in many theories describing properties of water. Thus, Truskett and Dill had to include the Adamm-Gibbs temperature shift into their simple analytical model of water to achieve the agreement with experimental data on the tem- perature dependence of self-diffusion coefficient [4]. Later, Schiro and Weik have summarised recent in vitro and in silico experimental results regarding the role of hydration water in the onset of protein structural dy- namics, and have reported the presence of super-Arrhenius relaxation region above the ”protein dynamic transition” temperature [4]. Recently, Mallamace et al have used the Adam-Gibbs theory in their NMR meas- urements of protein folding-unfolding in water [4] and to rationalise the complicated pressure-temperature diagrams in these glass-forming systems. Motivated by the considerations above, and taking into account the relationship between the unimolecular rate of folding in water and the relaxation time 45 , we introduce the tem- perature shift into the formulas used to fit experimental data on hydrated polypeptides. By doing so we resolve the paradox and complete the new method of processing the Circular Dichroism ex- perimental data on protein folding
Ključne besede: water, protein folding, non-Arrhenius kinetics
Objavljeno: 20.07.2020; Ogledov: 28; Prenosov: 3
.pdf Polno besedilo (2,35 MB)

Electromagnetic emission of white dwarf binary mergers
Jorge Armando Rueda, Remo Ruffini, Yu Wang, Carlo Luciano Bianco, J.M. Blanco-Iglesias, Mile Karlica, P. Lorén-Aguilar, Rahim Moradi, Narek Sahakyan, 2019, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: It has been recently proposed that the ejected matter from white dwarf (WD) binary mergers can produce transient, optical and infrared emission similar to the "kilonovae" of neutron star (NS) binary mergers. To confirm this we calculate the electromagnetic emission from WD-WD mergers and compare with kilonova observations. We simulate WD-WD mergers leading to a massive, fast rotating, highly magnetized WD with an adapted version of the smoothed-particle-hydrodynamics (SPH) code Phantom. We thus obtain initial conditions for the ejecta such as escape velocity, mass and initial position and distribution. The subsequent thermal and dynamical evolution of the ejecta is obtained by integrating the energy-conservation equation accounting for expansion cooling and a heating source given by the fallback accretion onto the newly-formed WD and its magneto-dipole radiation. We show that magnetospheric processes in the merger can lead to a prompt, short gamma-ray emission of up to ≈ 1046 erg in a timescale of 0.1-1 s. The bulk of the ejecta initially expands non-relativistically with velocity 0.01 c and then it accelerates to 0.1 c due to the injection of fallback accretion energy. The ejecta become transparent at optical wavelengths around ~ 7 days post-merger with a luminosity 1041-1042 erg s-1. The X-ray emission from the fallback accretion becomes visible around ~ 150-200 day post-merger with a luminosity of 1039 erg s-1. We also predict the post-merger time at which the central WD should appear as a pulsar depending on the value of the magnetic field and rotation period.
Ključne besede: Astrophysics - High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena
Objavljeno: 20.07.2020; Ogledov: 25; Prenosov: 0
.pdf Polno besedilo (8,22 MB)

On the GeV Emission of the Type I BdHN GRB 130427A
Laura Beccera, She Sheng Xue, Yu Wang, Narek Sahakyan, Mile Karlica, Yen-Chen Chen, Simonetta Filippi, Christian Cherubini, Carlo Luciano Bianco, Jorge Armando Rueda, Rahim Moradi, Remo Ruffini, 2019, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: We propose that the inner engine of a type I binary-driven hypernova (BdHN) is composed of Kerr black hole (BH) in a non-stationary state, embedded in a uniform magnetic field B_0 aligned with the BH rotation axis and surrounded by an ionized plasma of extremely low density of 10^−14 g cm−3. Using GRB 130427A as a prototype, we show that this inner engine acts in a sequence of elementary impulses. Electrons accelerate to ultrarelativistic energy near the BH horizon, propagating along the polar axis, θ = 0, where they can reach energies of ~10^18 eV, partially contributing to ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays. When propagating with $\theta \ne 0$ through the magnetic field B_0, they produce GeV and TeV radiation through synchroton emission. The mass of BH, M = 2.31M ⊙, its spin, α = 0.47, and the value of magnetic field B_0 = 3.48 × 10^10 G, are determined self consistently to fulfill the energetic and the transparency requirement. The repetition time of each elementary impulse of energy ${ \mathcal E }\sim {10}^{37}$ erg is ~10^−14 s at the beginning of the process, then slowly increases with time evolution. In principle, this "inner engine" can operate in a gamma-ray burst (GRB) for thousands of years. By scaling the BH mass and the magnetic field, the same inner engine can describe active galactic nuclei.
Ključne besede: black hole physics, binaries, gamma-ray burst, neutron stars, supernovae, Astrophysics - High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena
Objavljeno: 20.07.2020; Ogledov: 29; Prenosov: 0
.pdf Polno besedilo (1,09 MB)

Magnetic Fields and Afterglows of BdHNe: Inferences from GRB 130427A, GRB 160509A, GRB 160625B, GRB 180728A, and GRB 190114C
Jorge Armando Rueda, Remo Ruffini, Mile Karlica, Rahim Moradi, Yu Wang, 2020, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: GRB 190114C is the first binary-driven hypernova (BdHN) fully observed from initial supernova (SN) appearance to the final emergence of the optical SN signal. It offers an unprecedented testing ground for the BdHN theory, which is here determined and further extended to additional gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). BdHNe comprise two subclasses of long GRBs, with progenitors a binary system composed of a carbon–oxygen star (COcore) and a neutron star (NS) companion. The COcore explodes as an SN, leaving at its center a newborn NS (νNS). The SN ejecta hypercritically accretes on both the νNS and the NS companion. BdHNe I are very tight binaries, where the accretion leads the companion NS to gravitationally collapse into a black hole (BH). In BdHN II, the accretion rate onto the NS is lower, so there is no BH formation. We observe the same afterglow structure for GRB 190114C and other selected examples of BdHNe I (GRB 130427A, GRB 160509A, GRB 160625B) and for BdHN II (GRB 180728A). In all cases, the afterglows are explained via the synchrotron emission powered by the νNS, and their magnetic field structures and their spin are determined. For BdHNe I, we discuss the properties of the magnetic field embedding the newborn BH, which was inherited from the collapsed NS and amplified during the gravitational collapse process, and surrounded by the SN ejecta.
Ključne besede: Astrophysics - High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena, Astrophysics - Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics, General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology
Objavljeno: 20.07.2020; Ogledov: 19; Prenosov: 0
.pdf Polno besedilo (1,37 MB)

A new optical-based technique for real-time measurements of mineral dust concentration in PM10 using a virtual impactor
Luka Drinovec, Jean Sciare, Iasonas Stavroulas, S. Bezantakos, Michael Pikridas, Florin Unga, Chrysanthos Savvides, Bojana Višnjić, Maja Remškar, Griša Močnik, 2020, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Atmospheric mineral dust influences Earth’s radiative budget, cloud formation, and lifetime; has adverse health effects; and affects air quality through the increase of regulatory PM10 concentrations, making its real-time quantification in the atmosphere of strategic importance. Only few near-real-time techniques can discriminate dust aerosol in PM10 samples and they are based on the dust chemical composition. The online determination of mineral dust using aerosol absorption photometers offers an interesting and competitive alternative but remains a difficult task to achieve. This is particularly challenging when dust is mixed with black carbon, which features a much higher mass absorption cross section. We build on previous work using filter photometers and present here for the first time a highly timeresolved online technique for quantification of mineral dust concentration by coupling a high-flow virtual impactor (VI) sampler that concentrates coarse particles with an aerosol absorption photometer (Aethalometer, model AE33). The absorption of concentrated dust particles is obtained by subtracting the absorption of the submicron (PM1) aerosol fraction from the absorption of the virtual impactor sample (VIPM1 method). This real-time method for detecting desert dust was tested in the field for a period of 2 months (April and May 2016) at a regional background site of Cyprus, in the Eastern Mediterranean. Several intense desert mineral dust events were observed during the field campaign with dust concentration in PM10 up to 45 μgm
Ključne besede: aerosol absorption, mineral dust, on-line detection, air quality
Objavljeno: 20.07.2020; Ogledov: 12; Prenosov: 0
.pdf Polno besedilo (2,38 MB)

Substantial brown carbon emissions from wintertime residential wood burning over France
Jean-Luc Jaffrezo, Valérie Gros, Griša Močnik, Gilles Levigoureux, Marta Dominik-Sègue, Eve Chrétien, Sabrina Pontet, Gregory Gille, Florie Chevrier, Véronique Jacob, Jean-Eudes Petit, Alexandre Albinet, Yunjiang Zhang, Olivier Favez, 2020, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Brown carbon (BrC) is known to absorb light at subvisible wavelengths but its optical properties and sources are still poorly documented, leading to large uncertainties in climate studies. Here, we show its major wintertime contribution to total aerosol absorption at 370 nm (18–42%) at 9 different French sites. Moreover, an excellent correlation with levoglucosan (r2 = 0.9 and slope = 22.2 at 370 nm), suggesting important contribution of wood burning emissions to ambient BrC aerosols in France. At all sites, BrC peaks were mainly observed during late evening, linking to local intense residential wood burning during this time period. Furthermore, the geographic origin analysis also highlighted the high potential contribution of local and/or small-regional emissions to BrC. Focusing on the Paris region, twice higher BrC mass absorption efficiency value was obtained for less oxidized biomass burning organic aerosols (BBOA) compared to more oxidized BBOA (e.g., about 4.9 ± 0.2 vs. 2.0 ± 0.1 m2 g−1, respectively, at 370 nm). Finally, the BBOA direct radiative effect was found to be 40% higher when these two BBOA fractions are treated as light-absorbing species, compared to the non-absorbing BBOA scenario.
Ključne besede: Brown carbon, Multi sites, Residential wood burning, Mass absorption efficiency, France
Objavljeno: 20.07.2020; Ogledov: 49; Prenosov: 0
.pdf Polno besedilo (2,94 MB)

Solvothermal synthesis of iron phosphides and their application for efficient electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution
Saim Emin, Takwa Chouki, Manel Machreki, 2020, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Abstract In this paper, we present a solvothermal synthesis of iron phosphide electrocatalysts using a triphenylphosphine (TPP) precursor. The synthetic protocol generates Fe2P phase at 300 °C and FeP phase at 350 °C. To enhance the catalytic activities of obtained iron phosphide particles heat-treatments were carried out at elevated temperatures. Annealing at 500 °C under reductive atmosphere induced structural changes in the samples: (i) Fe2P provided a pure Fe3P phase (Fe3P−500 °C) and (ii) FeP transformed into a mixture of iron phosphide phases (Fe2P/FeP−500 °C). Pure Fe2P films was prepared under argon atmosphere at 450 °C (Fe2P−450 °C). The electrocatalytic activities of heat-treated Fe2P−450 °C, Fe3P−500 °C, and Fe2P/FeP−500 °C catalysts were studied for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) in 0.5 M H2SO4. The HER activities of the iron phosphide catalyst were found to be phase dependent. The lowest electrode potential of 110 mV vs. a reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE) at 10 mA cm−2 was achieved with Fe2P/FeP−500 °C catalyst.
Ključne besede: Solvothermal synthesis, Iron phosphide, Electrocatalyst, Hydrogen evolution, Overpotential
Objavljeno: 20.07.2020; Ogledov: 31; Prenosov: 0
.pdf Polno besedilo (2,52 MB)

Determination of biogenic amine-forming potential of naturally occuring lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains isolated from the grapes of Vitis vinifera cv. Refošk grape variety
Dorota Korte, Branka Mozetič Vodopivec, Lorena Butinar, Martina Bergant Marušič, Jelena Topić, 2020, objavljeni povzetek znanstvenega prispevka na konferenci

Opis: Biogenic amines are naturally occurring compounds that have been reported in variety of food, such as fish, meat, cheese, vegetables, and wines. When biogenic amines are formed by microorganisms such as lactic acid bacteria (LAB) they may have adverse effect on human health. The most common biogenic amines found in foodstuff are histamine, tyramine, putrescine and cadaverine. LAB are used as starters in the production of several foods and beverages. In wines they are used in malolactic fermentation, where the conversion of malic acid to lactic acid occurs. The aim of this work was to determine biogenic amine-forming capacity of indigenous LAB strains isolated from grapes which were PCR positive and screening medium positive for biogenic amines. Three methods for the confirmation of LAB biogenic amine-forming potential were developed and compared: HPLC-DAD and TLC methods both using derivatization agent dansyl chloride and enzymatic method using horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and diamine oxidase (DAO) enzymes. The applicability of methods was tested on the three known biogenic amine-producing LAB strains: 0006, 9809, 9906 (IOEB, France). The limit of detection (LOD) of the methods was <1 mg/L for HPLC-DAD, 5 mg/L for TLC and 25 mg/L for enzymatic method. Although the LODs between the proposed methods differed, all of the three methods confirmed BA-forming potential of the three strains. Furthermore, the proposed methods were applied for the analysis of three indigenous strains: MKBT-282 (BA+), MKBT-307 (BA-) and MKBT-325 (BA+). The positive or negative BA-forming potential was confirmed with all of the three proposed methods.
Ključne besede: lactic acid bacteria, biogenic amines, histamine, grape
Objavljeno: 10.07.2020; Ogledov: 96; Prenosov: 0
.pdf Polno besedilo (225,99 KB)

Soft set theory and hypercompositional algebras
Hashem Bordbar, 2020, objavljeni povzetek znanstvenega prispevka na konferenci

Opis: Some applications of soft set theory and fuzzy soft set theory (as a generalization of the soft set theory) in the decision-making problem were investigated by Maji et al. in [1]. The aim of this manuscript is to apply the concept of (fuzzy) soft set theory in some hypercompositional structure and especially hyper BCK-algebra. Some notations related to our hyperstructure are introduced and some examples are provided.
Ključne besede: Soft set theory, Hyper BCK-algebra, Fuzzy soft set theory.
Objavljeno: 08.07.2020; Ogledov: 51; Prenosov: 0
.pdf Polno besedilo (60,17 KB)

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