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31.
The impact of cloudiness and cloud type on the atmospheric heating rate of black and brown carbon in the Po Valley
Niccolò Losi, Ezio Bolzacchini, Gian Paolo Gobbi, Luca Di Liberto, Luca Ferrero, Asta Gregorič, Griša Močnik, Francesca Barnaba, Sergio Cogliati, Martin Rigler, 2021, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: We experimentally quantified the impact of cloud fraction and cloud type on the heating rate (HR) of black and brown carbon (HRBC and HRBrC). In particular, we examined in more detail the cloud effect on the HR detected in a previous study (Ferrero et al., 2018). High-time-resolution measurements of the aerosol absorption coefficient at multiple wavelengths were coupled with spectral measurements of the direct, diffuse and surface reflected irradiance and with lidar–ceilometer data during a field campaign in Milan, Po Valley (Italy). The experimental set-up allowed for a direct determination of the total HR (and its speciation: HRBC and HRBrC) in all-sky conditions (from clear-sky conditions to cloudy). The highest total HR values were found in the middle of winter (1.43 ± 0.05 K d−1), and the lowest were in spring (0.54 ± 0.02 K d−1). Overall, the HRBrC accounted for 13.7 ± 0.2 % of the total HR, with the BrC being characterized by an absorption Ångström exponent (AAE) of 3.49 ± 0.01. To investigate the role of clouds, sky conditions were classified in terms of cloudiness (fraction of the sky covered by clouds: oktas) and cloud type (stratus, St; cumulus, Cu; stratocumulus, Sc; altostratus, As; altocumulus, Ac; cirrus, Ci; and cirrocumulus–cirrostratus, Cc–Cs). During the campaign, clear-sky conditions were present 23 % of the time, with the remaining time (77 %) being characterized by cloudy conditions. The average cloudiness was 3.58 ± 0.04 oktas (highest in February at 4.56 ± 0.07 oktas and lowest in November at 2.91 ± 0.06 oktas). St clouds were mostly responsible for overcast conditions (7–8 oktas, frequency of 87 % and 96 %); Sc clouds dominated the intermediate cloudiness conditions (5–6 oktas, frequency of 47 % and 66 %); and the transition from Cc–Cs to Sc determined moderate cloudiness (3–4 oktas); finally, low cloudiness (1–2 oktas) was mostly dominated by Ci and Cu (frequency of 59 % and 40 %, respectively). HR measurements showed a constant decrease with increasing cloudiness of the atmosphere, enabling us to quantify for the first time the bias (in %) of the aerosol HR introduced by the simplified assumption of clear-sky conditions in radiative-transfer model calculations. Our results showed that the HR of light-absorbing aerosol was ∼ 20 %–30 % lower in low cloudiness (1–2 oktas) and up to 80 % lower in completely overcast conditions (i.e. 7–8 oktas) compared to clear-sky ones. This means that, in the simplified assumption of clear-sky conditions, the HR of light-absorbing aerosol can be largely overestimated (by 50 % in low cloudiness, 1–2 oktas, and up to 500 % in completely overcast conditions, 7–8 oktas). The impact of different cloud types on the HR was also investigated. Cirrus clouds were found to have a modest impact, decreasing the HRBC and HRBrC by −5 % at most. Cumulus clouds decreased the HRBC and HRBrC by −31 ± 12 % and −26 ± 7 %, respectively; cirrocumulus–cirrostratus clouds decreased the HRBC and HRBrC by −60 ± 8 % and −54 ± 4 %, which was comparable to the impact of altocumulus (−60 ± 6 % and −46 ± 4 %). A higher impact on the HRBC and HRBrC suppression was found for stratocumulus (−63 ± 6 % and −58 ± 4 %, respectively) and altostratus (−78 ± 5 % and −73 ± 4 %, respectively). The highest impact was associated with stratus, suppressing the HRBC and HRBrC by −85 ± 5 % and −83 ± 3 %, respectively. The presence of clouds caused a decrease of both the HRBC and HRBrC (normalized to the absorption coefficient of the respective species) of −11.8 ± 1.2 % and −12.6 ± 1.4 % per okta. This study highlights the need to take into account the role of both cloudiness and different cloud types when estimating the HR caused by both BC and BrC and in turn decrease the uncertainties associated with the quantification of their impact on the climate.
Najdeno v: osebi
Ključne besede: black carbon, brown carbon, cloud, atmospheric heating rate, climate change
Objavljeno: 29.03.2021; Ogledov: 49; Prenosov: 0
.pdf Polno besedilo (8,61 MB)

32.
33.
Performance of microAethalometers: Real-world Field Intercomparisons from Multiple Mobile Measurement Campaigns in Different Atmospheric Environments
Honey Alas, Thomas Mueller, Kay Weinhold, Sascha Pfeifer, Kristina Glojek, Asta Gregorič, Griša Močnik, Luka Drinovec, Francesca Costabile, Martina Ristorini, A. Wiedensohler, 2020, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Small aethalometers are frequently used to measure equivalent black carbon (eBC) mass concentrations in the context of personal exposure and air pollution mapping through mobile measurements (MM). The most widely used is the microAethalometer (AE51). Its performance in the laboratory and field is well documented, however, there is not sufficient data in the context of its performance in different environments. In this investigation, we present the characterization of the performance of the AE51 through field unit-to-unit intercomparisons (IC), and against a reference absorption photometer from three MM campaigns conducted in drastically different environments. Five IC parameters were considered: i) study area, ii) location of IC, iii) time of day, iv) duration of IC, and v) correction for the filter-loading effect. We can conclude that it is crucial where and how long the IC have been performed in terms of the correlation between the mobile and reference instruments. Better correlations (R2 > 0.8, slope = 0.8) are achieved for IC performed in rural, and background areas for more than 10 minutes. In locations with more homogenous atmosphere, the correction of the loading effect improved the correlation between the mobile and reference instruments. In addition, a newer microAethalometer model (MA200) was characterized in the field under extreme cold conditions and correlated against another MA200 (R2 > 0.8, slope ≈ 1.0), AE51(R2 > 0.9, slope ≈ 0.9), and a stationary Aethalometer (AE33) across all wavelengths (R2 > 0.8, slope ≈ 0.7). For MA200, the loading effect was more pronounced, especially at the lower wavelengths, hence the correction of the loading effect is essential to improve the correlation against the AE33. The MA200 and AE51 proved to be robust and dependable portable instruments for MM applications. Real-world quality assurance of these instruments should be performed through field IC against reference instruments with longer durations in areas of slowly changing eBC concentration.
Najdeno v: osebi
Ključne besede: Portable instruments, Mobile monitoring, Black carbon, Instrument intercomparisons
Objavljeno: 15.09.2020; Ogledov: 410; Prenosov: 19
.pdf Polno besedilo (3,54 MB)

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