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The Nature and Origin of Ultra-high Energy Cosmic Ray Particles
J. P. Lundquist, P.L. Biermann, 2016, published scientific conference contribution (invited lecture)

Abstract: We outline two concepts to explain Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECRs), one based on radio galaxies and their relativistic jets and terminal hot spots, and one based on relativistic Super-Novae (SNe) or Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) in starburst galaxies, one matching the arrival direction data in the South (the radio galaxy Cen A) and one in the North (the starburst galaxy M82). The most likely identification of the origin of observed Gravitational Wave (GW) events is stellar binary black hole (BH) mergers in starburst galaxies such as M82 with the highest rate of star formation, so the highest far-infrared (FIR) luminosity, at the edge of the universe visible in 10 - 300 Hz GWs; at low heavy element abundance Zch the formation of stellar BHs extends to a larger mass range. A radio galaxy such as Cen A sequence of events involves first the merger of two Super-Massive Black Holes (SMBHs), with the associated ejection of low frequency GWs, then the formation of a new relativistic jet aiming into a new direction: ubiquitous neutrino emission follows accompanied by compact TeV photon emission, detectable more easily if the direction is towards Earth. The ejection of UHECRs is last. Both these sites are the perfect high energy physics laboratory: We have observed particles up to ZeV, neutrinos up to PeV, photons up to TeV, 30 - 300 Hz GW events, and hope to detect soon of order µHz to mHz GW events. Energy turnover in single low frequency GW events may be of order ∼1063 erg. How can we further test these concepts? First of all by associating individual UHECR events, or directional groups of events, with chemical composition in both the Telescope Array (TA) Coll. and the Auger Coll. data. Second by identifying more TeV to PeV neutrinos with recent SMBH mergers. Third by detecting the order < mHz GW events of SMBH binaries, and identifying the galaxies host to the stellar BH mergers and their GW events in the range up to 300 Hz. Fourth by finally detecting the formation of the first generation of SMBHs and their mergers, surely a spectacular discovery.
Found in: osebi
Keywords: UHECR, cosmic rays, anisotropy
Published: 29.04.2020; Views: 1064; Downloads: 77
.pdf Fulltext (372,72 KB)

Cosmic Ray Shower Profile Track Finding for Telescope Array Fluorescence Detectors
J. P. Lundquist, 2016, published scientific conference contribution

Abstract: A simple cosmic ray track finding pattern recognition analysis (PRA) method for fluorescence detectors (FD) has been developed which significantly improves Xmax resolution and its dependence on energy. Events which have a clear rise and fall in the FD view contain information on Xmax that can be reliably reconstructed. Shower maximum must be extrapolated for events with Xmax outside the field of view of the detector, which creates a systematic dependence on the fitting function. The PRA method is a model and detector independent approach to removing these events, by fitting shower profiles to a set of triangles and applying limits on the allowable geometry.
Found in: osebi
Keywords: UHECR, cosmic rays, fluorescence detector, track finding, pattern recognition
Published: 29.04.2020; Views: 1262; Downloads: 67
.pdf Fulltext (1,59 MB)

Study of UHECR Composition Using Telescope Array's Middle Drum Detector and Surface Array in Hybrid Mode
J. P. Lundquist, 2016, published scientific conference contribution

Abstract: The seven year Telescope Array (TA) Middle Drum hybrid composition measurement shows agreement between Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Ray (UHECR) data and a light composition obtained with QGSJetII-03 or QGSJet-01c models. The data are incompatible with a pure iron composition, for all models examined, for energies log10(E/eV)>18.4. This is consistent with previous TA results. This analysis is presented using an updated version of the pattern recognition analysis (PRA) technique developed by TA.
Found in: osebi
Keywords: UHECR, cosmic rays, hybrid detection, composition
Published: 29.04.2020; Views: 1112; Downloads: 45
.pdf Fulltext (150,19 KB)

Report of the Working Group on the Composition of Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays
J. P. Lundquist, M. Unger, 2016, published scientific conference contribution

Abstract: The atmospheric depth, Xmax, at which the particle number of an air shower reaches its maximum is a good indicator for the mass of the primary particle. We present a comparison of the energy evolution of the mean of Xmax as measured by the Telescope Array and Pierre Auger Collaborations. After accounting for the different resolutions, acceptances and analysis strategies of the two experiments, the two results are found to be in good agreement within systematic uncertainties.
Found in: osebi
Keywords: UHECR, cosmic rays, composition
Published: 29.04.2020; Views: 1325; Downloads: 43
.pdf Fulltext (329,86 KB)

TARA: Forward-scattered radar detection of UHECR at the telescope array
J. P. Lundquist, J. Belz, 2013, published scientific conference contribution

Abstract: Increased event statistics will be required to definitively answer the question of the origin(s) of Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECR). Using current technologies however, achieving the necessary statistics may be financially and practically impossible. We describe the status and plans of the TARA project, an effort to detect Ultra-High-Energy Cosmic Rays by their forward scattered or “bistatic” radar signature. Bistatic radar holds promise as a new remote sensing technique for UHECR, without the duty cycle limitations of nitrogen fluorescence detectors. Such a technique could prove key in advancing the study of UHECR beyond the constraints of the current generation of cosmic ray observatories. TARA consists of a low-VHF television transmitter illuminating the air above the Telescope Array (TA), and a set of radio receivers on the far side of TA approximately 50 km distant from the transmitter. We have collected radar data since April 2011 using a 2 kW transmitter at 54.1 MHz. Recently, we received permission to increase our broadcast power to 40 kW and our effective radiated power (ERP) to 6 MW. On the receiver end, we are employing software-defined radio receivers and developing real-time trigger algorithms based on the expected air shower radar echo. In addition to presenting an overview of the project status and future plans, we will present the most recent results of searches for coincidences between radar echoes and Telescope Array air shower events.
Found in: osebi
Keywords: UHECR, cosmic rays, radar detection
Published: 29.04.2020; Views: 1177; Downloads: 53
.pdf Fulltext (623,59 KB)

Search for point sources of ultra-high-energy photons with the Telescope Array surface detector
J. P. Lundquist, R.U. Abbasi, 2020, original scientific article

Abstract: The surface detector (SD) of the Telescope Array (TA) experiment allows us to detect indirectly photons with energies of the order of 10^18 eV and higher, and to separate photons from the cosmic ray background. In this paper, we present the results of a blind search for point sources of ultra-high-energy (UHE) photons in the Northern sky using the TA SD data. The photon-induced extensive air showers are separated from the hadron-induced extensive air shower background by means of a multivariate classifier based upon 16 parameters that characterize the air shower events. No significant evidence for the photon point sources is found. The upper limits are set on the flux of photons from each particular direction in the sky within the TA field of view, according to the experiment’s angular resolution for photons. The average 95 per cent confidence level upper-limits for the point-source flux of photons with energies greater than 10^18, 10^18.5, 10^19, 10^19.5 and 10^20 eV are 0.094, 0.029, 0.010, 0.0073 and 0.0058 km−2yr−1, respectively. For energies higher than 10^18.5 eV, the photon point-source limits are set for the first time. Numerical results for each given direction in each energy range are provided as a supplement to this paper.
Found in: osebi
Keywords: methods: data analysis, cosmic rays, gamma-rays: general
Published: 29.04.2020; Views: 1194; Downloads: 0
.pdf Fulltext (1,05 MB)

Air Shower Detection by Bistatic Radar
J. P. Lundquist, M. Abou Bakr Othman, 2011, published scientific conference contribution

Abstract: Progress in the field of high‐energy cosmic rays is currently limited by the rarity of the most interesting rays striking the Earth. Indeed, the continuation of the field beyond the current generation of observatories may become financially and practically impossible if new ways are not found to achieve remote coverage over large portions of the Earth’s surface. We describe the development of an observatory based on such a new technique: the remote sensing via bistatic radar technology of cosmic ray induced extensive air showers. We build on pilot studies performed by MARIACHI which have demonstrated that air shower radar echoes are detectable, the opportunity afforded by the location of the Northern Hemisphere’s largest “conventional” cosmic ray observatory (The Telescope Array) in radio‐quiet western Utah, and the donation of analog television transmission equipment to this effort by a local television station.
Found in: osebi
Keywords: UHECR, Remote sensing, Television broadcasting, Cosmic rays, General procedures and instrumentation, Radar telescopes
Published: 29.04.2020; Views: 1151; Downloads: 0
.pdf Fulltext (4,99 MB)

Energy response of ISS-CREAM calorimeter with attenuation effect
J. P. Lundquist, H.G. Zhang, 2020, other component parts

Abstract: The NASA mission, Cosmic Ray Energetic And Mass experiment for the International Space Station (ISS-CREAM) is to measure individual cosmic-ray particle energy spectra from protons to iron nuclei, with an energy range from ~1 TeV to the so-called "knee", near 1015eV. Energies of cosmic-ray particles are measured from electromagnetic showers induced by particles in the calorimeter. As a pioneer mission, the balloon-borne CREAM instrument has successfully flown seven times over the Antarctica for a cumulative exposure of 191 days. The CREAM calorimeter has shown sufficient capability to measure energies of cosmic-ray particles by capturing the electromagnetic shower profile within the interested energy range. The ISS-CREAM calorimeter is expected to have a similar performance and, before it was launched, an engineering-unit calorimeter was shipped to CERN for a full beam test. The full performance test includes position, energy, and angle scans of electron and pion beams together with a high voltage scan for calibration and characterization. In addition to the regular analysis for performance test, we also applied an additional step to generate the universal energy responses by correcting the attenuation effect in the calorimeter readout. The general energy responses could be obtained after shifting the incident beam positions to a reference position near the center of the calorimeter, which provided improved energy resolutions. The result of this analysis will be used to determine the incident energies of the cosmic-ray particles in the flight data.
Found in: osebi
Keywords: cosmic rays, high-energy, particle physics, detectors
Published: 29.04.2020; Views: 1209; Downloads: 57
.pdf Fulltext (2,54 MB)

Constraints on the diffuse photon flux with energies above 10^18 eV using the surface detector of the Telescope Array experiment
J. P. Lundquist, R.U. Abbasi, 2018, original scientific article

Abstract: We present the results of the search for ultra-high-energy photons with nine years of data from the Telescope Array surface detector. A multivariate classifier is built upon 16 reconstructed parameters of the extensive air shower. These parameters are related to the curvature and the width of the shower front, the steepness of the lateral distribution function, and the timing parameters of the waveforms sensitive to the shower muon content. A total number of two photon candidates found in the search is fully compatible with the expected background. The 95% CL limits on the diffuse flux of the photons with energies greater than 10^18.0, 10^18.5, 10^19.0, 10^19.5 and 10^20.0 eV are set at the level of 0.067, 0.012, 0.0036, 0.0013, correspondingly.
Found in: osebi
Keywords: Ultra-high-energy photons, Telescope array experiment, Extensive air showers
Published: 30.04.2020; Views: 1289; Downloads: 0
.pdf Fulltext (1,33 MB)

The Cosmic Ray Energy Spectrum between 2 PeV and 2 EeV Observed with the TALE Detector in Monocular Mode
J. P. Lundquist, R.U. Abbasi, 2018, original scientific article

Abstract: We report on a measurement of the cosmic ray energy spectrum by the Telescope Array Low-Energy Extension (TALE) air fluorescence detector (FD). The TALE air FD is also sensitive to the Cherenkov light produced by shower particles. Low-energy cosmic rays, in the PeV energy range, are detectable by TALE as Cherenkov events. Using these events, we measure the energy spectrum from a low energy of ~2 PeV to an energy greater than 100 PeV. Above 100 PeV, TALE can detect cosmic rays using air fluorescence. This allows for the extension of the measurement to energies greater than a few EeV. In this paper, we describe the detector, explain the technique, and present results from a measurement of the spectrum using ~1000 hr of observation. The observed spectrum shows a clear steepening near 10^17.1 eV, along with an ankle-like structure at 10^16.2 eV. These features present important constraints on the origin of galactic cosmic rays and on propagation models. The feature at 10^17.1 eV may also mark the end of the galactic cosmic ray flux and the start of the transition to extragalactic sources.
Found in: osebi
Keywords: astroparticle physics, cosmic rays, UHECR, energy spectrum
Published: 30.04.2020; Views: 1239; Downloads: 0
.pdf Fulltext (4,40 MB)

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