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1.
THE STUDY OF OPTIMAL TECHNOLOGICAL PROCEDURES OF INTERNAL PLUMBING SYSTEM DISINFECTION FACILITIES IN USE BY THE SENSITIVE HUMAN POPULATIONS
Janez Škarja, 2016, magistrsko delo

Opis: In a developed world, water is used in a variety of installations and devices for the improvement of life standard. It is important for these elements to be suitably managed and maintained, otherwise they can present a risk to people's health. Although potable water from a public plumbing system coming via the water supply into an internal plumbing system normally is compliant with the regulations, the quality of water in an internal plumbing system often changes – water gets contaminated. There are several types of microorganisms that can grow in water. They carry a great potential for the growth and proliferation of bacteria from the genus Legionella that cause Legionnaires' disease and Pontiac Fever. Even the fact that Legionella infection has for several years been mentioned in the accident insurance conditions of insurance companies in relation to receiving the insurance fee as compensation for bed day, shows the extent and foremost the seriousness of the disease (5–15% mortality rate). The research part of the master thesis focused mainly on determining the presence of bacteria from the genus Legionella in the water of internal plumbing systems of healthcare facilities. During the entire research period of 8 years, 2,676 samples of cold and hot water were acquired from 23 healthcare facilities. The main purpose of the research was to determine the efficiency or adequacy of applied approaches, i.e. physical disinfection with heat and chemical disinfection with chlorine, in eliminating or reducing the amount of Legionella present in the water of selected healthcare facilities. Another aim was to evaluate the impact of softening potable water with polyphosphates on the proliferation of certain microorganisms in water, and to determine the by-products of chemical disinfection. Upon sampling, an organoleptic examination of water (appearance, odour), electrometric measurements of water temperature, and colorimetric measurements of free chlorine concentrations in water were performed. The data for the analysis of Legionella presence were acquired by water sampling and the isolation of bacteria found in the water. In order to acquire laboratory results of specific physical and chemical parameters, ion chromatography, gas chromatography, spectrophotometry, titration, and inductively coupled plasma – mass detector were used. Although water samples from only two healthcare facilities showed no presence of Legionella, the number of water samples with the presence of Legionella decreased for at least 25% from the beginning to the end of period set. Also, after certain general sanitary and technical measures a noticeable improvement within healthcare facilities after 2008 could be observed. Regarding the initial part of the set period, a more favourable relationship between positive and negative samples, a lower number of samples with highest concentrations of present Legionella, and a higher number of samples with lower concentrations of present Legionella were determined. The research has shown that the existing system of ensuring health-compliant water is fairly efficient; however, the results could be improved additionally by investing more into the preparation and renovation of systems. Due to a limited number of samples, a direct impact of adding polyphosphates to potable water could not be linked to the occurrence of Legionella. None of the samples showed an increased concentration of by-products of potable water disinfection. In its conclusion, the research has shown that the procedures after overheating and after chlorine disinfection result in a similar success. While filtration proved to be most efficient, from the perspective of Legionella infections the use of medical bathtubs can present a high risk to people's health, therefore such devices should be subject to more frequent maintenance and supervision.
Najdeno v: ključnih besedah
Povzetek najdenega: ...potable water, internal plumbing system, biofilm, health facilities, disinfection, Legionella...
Ključne besede: potable water, internal plumbing system, biofilm, health facilities, disinfection, Legionella
Objavljeno: 05.09.2016; Ogledov: 1713; Prenosov: 110
.pdf Polno besedilo (1,70 MB)

2.
STRUCTURE AND FUNCTIONING OF THE HYPORHEIC ZONES IN THE GRAVEL-BEDS OF FIVE RIVERS IN RELATION TO CATCHMENT LAND USE
Barbara Debeljak, 2018, doktorska disertacija

Opis: The hyporheic zone has been recognised as a functionally important component of streams and rivers. Due to increasing human impact on ecosystems, studies that assess ecological responses of the hyporheic zone are of great importance. The objectives of the thesis are to study the responses of abiotic parameters, sediment biofilm characteristics (the in situ respiration (R), potential respiratory activity (ETSA), protein content), and invertebrate assemblages (analysed as total assemblages, EPT assemblages and Copepoda assemblages) in the hyporheic zones related to different land use patterns (forest, agricultural and urban areas). The focus of study also includes the impact of clogging. This research is comprised of three sampling campaigns conducted in summer (2013), winter (2013) and spring (2014) in five pre-Alpine Slovenian rivers. For each river, three or six sampling locations were chosen in the downwelling hyporheic sections of three dominant land uses (forest, agriculture and urban) within a 250 m wide impact zone. Three sampling points per location were sampled from two depths (5 –15 cm and 20 – 40 cm) using PVC tube and Bou-Rouch method. The results indicate a significant spatial and temporal heterogeneity of measured hyporheic zone components. Physical and chemical parameters of water revealed moderate response to land use. The effect of land use on the amounts of suspendable fine sediments in the hyporheic zone was observed only in the spring season. The effect of land use was significant for in situ R during summer and spring and for ETSA and protein content in all seasons, indicating that land use, such as agriculture, near a stream can affect biogeochemical processes. A relatively high diversity of invertebrates was recognised in the hyporheic zone. Groups such as Nematoda, Oligochaeta, Copepoda and Chironomidae were found in all samples. Within EPT taxa as representatives of occasional hyporheic invertebrates, 35 taxa were identified. Within Copepoda, as representatives of permanent hyporheic invertebrates, 14 Cyclopoida and 19 Harpacticida taxa were identified. Both assemblages were characterised by high abundance of widespread taxa, such as Baetis sp., Leuctra sp., Diacylops cladestinus and Acanthocyclops hispanicus. Statistically significant differences were observed among land uses in Copopoda assemblages but not for EPT assemblages. Calculated metrics on EPT assemblages showed statistically significant differences in land use in the number of EPT taxa, Simpson index and Shannon-Wiener index. Within Copepoda assemblages, the numbers of Copepoda taxa were significantly higher at forest sites. The hyporheic assemblages were relatively well explained by environmental parameters. This thesis presents a comprehensive study of the hyporheic zone, where both structural and functional measures reflected the ecological integrity of the hyporheic zone. The in situ R and ETSA were generally higher in agriculture stream reaches, indicating that hyporheic functioning responded to nutrients and carbon runoff-derived inputs from agricultural activities within the 250 m impact zone. Thus functional parameters in situ R and ETSA were more efficient indicators of land use impacts in the hyporheic zone than physical and chemical parameters. The potential of using hyporheic invertebrates as bioindicators of environmental conditions was confirmed but should be tested with wider gradients of environmental parameters. The results obtained by this study underlined that the hyporheic zone should be integrated as an additional ecological element by assessing the ecological conditions of surface water bodies.
Najdeno v: ključnih besedah
Povzetek najdenega: ...study the responses of abiotic parameters, sediment biofilm characteristics (the in situ respiration (R), potential...
Ključne besede: hyporheic zone, ecosystem functioning, land use, biofilm characteristics, invertebrates
Objavljeno: 02.07.2018; Ogledov: 442; Prenosov: 9
.pdf Polno besedilo (5,31 MB)

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