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1.
STREET CHILDREN IN NIŠ (SERBIA): THE CASE OF DROP IN CENTRE FOR THE MOST AT RISK ADOLESCENTS (MARA)
Miodrag Đorđević, 2016, magistrsko delo

Opis: In 2009, a Drop in centre for street children - MARA was established in Niš, Serbia. The purpose of the project was to provide health protection of adolescents, who lived in structural disadvantages, was exposed to the risk of HIV, and who have not been addressed by the institutional social care system. Once on the streets, children have difficulty meeting their basic needs such as obtaining food, clothes or shelter. Therefore, they employ a range of survival strategies. Begging, car washing, collecting secondary resources, borrowing money, and dealing drugs are common ways how to provide subsistence. Perhaps the most dangerous survival strategy pertains to exchanging sex services for food or money. Drug and alcohol use are common practices among street children. The main goal of this thesis was to obtain new knowledge about these young people in order to achieve a better understanding of their behaviours in the framework of social marginalization, their coping strategies and their own contributions to social exclusion. To provide better social, health and educational services for street children in Niš a qualitative approach is necessary to understand their survival strategies and their several needs as the persons at risk in certain social contexts. The main approach was ethnography encompassing participant observation during the fieldwork in Drop in centre in Niš. Following methods were employed: Review of the scientific literature on the issue and analytical reading; Review and analysis of existing documents and archive materials: UN/NGO/Government documents, and the documentation on the projects from Drop in centre; Participant observation in the group of MARA; Semistructured interviews with MARA; An ethnographic diary and ethnographic fieldnotes of fieldwork in the Drop in centre in Niš. This thesis was focused on the following research questions: What is the relationship between social stereotypes about MARA and MARA’s behaviour? Are the stereotypes affecting MARA’s identities, behaviour and appearance or vice versa? How do MARA act within their several environments? How MARA relate to each other? How “street groups” influence MARA’s risky behaviour? What are interactions within these groups? What are the commonly shared values among the members of the groups? My research will explore more in detail common values in the groups of drug users and sex workers. How MARA understand the risk of drug use and commercial sex? What is the social context of risk perception? Do they have any ideas how to prevent the risk? Did they have any concepts about the risk? And how their concept coincides with the mainstream, project concepts? Discussing all above research questions, the main expected result refers to obtaining new knowledge in order to find better solution to their problems compared to existing practices and understandings by several actors. Therefore, this work will fight against poorly informed images and understandings of adolescent Roma and street children, which are as a rule seen and understood within ideological, commonsensical, racial and stereotypical considerations. Roma studies have little academic research on at risk adolescent children, especially in the Western Balkans. The originality of this study is related to the unique material collected in the ethnography through participant observation and fieldwork with appropriate techniques of data collection with adolescent street children in Niš. The study was carried out on the territory of former Socialist Yugoslavia, in Central Serbia, Niš. No similar studies on structural inequality, marginality and Roma has been conducted in this region. Finally,concepts of structural inequality, marginality, street children, which have been coined and developed by several authors in the contexof the Western capitalist system, will be now reflected in the context of transition and postsocialist radical social changes.
Najdeno v: ključnih besedah
Ključne besede: Roma, marginality, childhood, street children, risky behaviour, stereotypes
Objavljeno: 16.09.2016; Ogledov: 3281; Prenosov: 211
.pdf Polno besedilo (657,26 KB)

2.
Destination: Rymden
Tanja Petrushevska, 2017, recenzija, prikaz knjige, kritika

Opis: Destination: Rymden är en nyligen översatt bildbok av astronomi, publicerad av Rabén & Sjögren. Boken är inbunden med hårt omslag och bredare än A4-format, fylld med illustrationer och teckningar som är lämpliga för små barn. Det finns inga faktiska bilder från astronomiska objekt i boken. Det finns en tvåsidig affisch i storformat i slutet, med Pillars of Creation Nebula i ena änden och himmelkartan av norra och sydliga halvklotet på den andra. Det finns lite text i boken. Enligt bokförlagets hemsida, riktar sig boken till läsålder 3-6, så det föreslås som den första astronomiboken för barn. Illustrationerna är ganska lämpliga för detta ändamål, men texten kanske inte är. Även om språket är ganska enkelt, använder författaren termer som knappast kan fångas av de yngsta barnen (till exempel neutronstjärna eller stora tal som 1,3 miljarder grader). Förklaringarna är emellertid koncisa med intuitiva exempel. Bokens koncept är att lära sig genom en resa genom rymden, som börjar i början av universum, Den Stora Smällen. Läsaren är inbjuden att följ med fem ungdomar som reser genom rymdens underverk. Detta format påminner mig om Carl Sagans rymdskepp av fantasi från Cosmos-serien (Ship of the Imagination), som framgångsrikt inspirerade mig att älska astronomi när jag var ung. Boken täcker många grundläggande moderna begrepp som vi har om vårt universum, solsystem, rymdutforskning och till och med liv på andra planeter. Därför anser jag att det är ganska komplett för 38 sidor bildbok. Författaren är en forskare i partikelfysik. Jag märkte detta från det sätt han pratar om partiklar och kärnreaktioner i solen, till exempel. Jag, som astrofysiker, skulle lägga till en del om natthimlen och konstellationerna, också för att det finns en himmelkarta med konstellationerna i slutet av boken. Sammanfattningsvis rekommenderar jag den här boken till de föräldrar/lärare som är villiga att komplettera boken med lämpligare språk för de allra små barnen. Äldre barn (som kan läsa boken själva) skulle kanske tycka att ritningarna är lite barnsliga och kanske vill ha riktiga bilder tagna med teleskop och skulle ha en bok med mer text, fakta och förklaringar.
Najdeno v: ključnih besedah
Ključne besede: review of an astronomy book for children
Objavljeno: 26.01.2018; Ogledov: 1719; Prenosov: 0
.pdf Polno besedilo (372,04 KB)

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4.
What's behind some (but not all) implicatures
Luca Surian, Francesca Panzeri, Francesca Foppolo, Greta Mazzaggio, 2018, objavljeni povzetek znanstvenega prispevka na konferenci

Opis: Several studies investigated children’s derivation of pragmatic inferences by testing different items in different languages, populations and tasks (Skordos & Papafragou, 2016). In general, pre-schoolers have difficulties in the computation of the scalar implicature (SI) related to some, while a better performance has been documented in the case of non scalar or ad hoc implicatures (AIs), even in younger kids (Horowitz, Schneider and Frank, 2017; Katsos & Bishop, 2011; Stiller, Goodman & Frank, 2015). Children’s difficulty has been accounted for by different hypotheses: children are more tolerant of pragmatic violations than adults ('tolerance account', Katsos & Bishop, 2011); children do not (always) recognize what is conversationally relevant ('relevance account', Skordos & Papafragou, 2016); children have difficulties in lexicalizing the scale and/or retrieving the lexical alternatives ('lexicalist account', Barner et al., 2011; Foppolo et al., 2012; Tieu et al., 2015). Yet, the source and nature of children’s difficulty is still unknown, as well as the interplay of different factors and their impact on different inference types.Different theoretical accounts make different predictions for SIs and AIs. In principle, no difference is expected between implicature types within a pragmatic approach (like the tolerance or the relevance accounts), provided that children’s non adult-like behavior relies in a principle of pragmatic tolerance or in a failure in accessing or recognizing relevant alternatives, that would equally affect all kinds of implicature. Under lexicalist approaches, on the other hand, a difference between AIs and SIs is expected: while in the case of AIs the alternatives depend solely on context, in SIs the set of alternatives is a feature of the language that relies on the lexical representation of scales. The crucial difference is in the access to the alternatives, which depends on a linguistic representation and a lexical retrieval mechanism in the case of scalar quantifiers, while it is purely contextually determined in the case of ad hoc scales. In our study, we compared AIs and SIs by means of a Picture Selection Task modelled after Surian & Job (1987) and Stiller, Goodman & Frank (2015). Participants had to find the target (among 4 pictures) by following instructions. The tasks included 4 implicatures of each type, interspersed with control sentences. To understand the developmental factors beyond children’s performance, children were also administered tests of cognitive and linguistic development (Raven’s Progressive Matrices; BVL for lexicon and morphosyntax; the first four tasks of Wellman & Liu 2004 to test for Theory of Mind, ToM: Diverse Desires-Diverse Beliefs-Knowledge Access-Content False Belief). We tested 141 children aged 3 to 9 (75 in kindergarten: 3;10-6;0, M = 61 months; 66 in primary school: 6;10-9;2, M=90 months). Our findings add an additional piece to the understanding of children’s failure and success with scalar inferencing. In particular, we show that younger children succeed with AIs but have difficulties with SIs. We also found a significant role of linguistic (i.e., morpho-syntactic) abilities for both type of implicatures and a contribution of ToM: KA predicts implicatures derivation, and DB seems to play a role in SIs.The overall picture is rather puzzling: focusing on pre-schoolers, their ability to derive both types of implicatures seems to depend on common mechanisms, such as morpho-syntactic skills and the ability to recognize that another person can know something only if she has access to relevant information. Nevertheless, by controlling for task effects, we confirmed that SIs are harder than AIs. This finding is not easily explained within a pragmatic approach: if children were, in general, more logical or more tolerant than adults, they would be equally so with any kind of implicature; at the same time, if they were not sensitive to informativeness or unable to recognize relevance, they would fail with all pragmatic inferences. A lexical account instead predicts that, beyond general mechanisms common to SIs and AIs, the derivation of SIs requires one further step, that takes time to be acquired or automatized, namely: the lexicalization of the relevant scales. This might be the real source of the observed difference between these types of inferences, although further research is needed to fully capture its impact on children’s performance.
Najdeno v: ključnih besedah
Povzetek najdenega: ...Several studies investigated children’s derivation of pragmatic inferences by testing different...
Ključne besede: scalar implicatures, adhoc implicatures, typically developing children, experimental pragmatics
Objavljeno: 21.09.2021; Ogledov: 182; Prenosov: 6
URL Polno besedilo (0,00 KB)
Gradivo ima več datotek! Več...

5.
The theory of mind's role in pronoun acquisition
Greta Mazzaggio, 2016, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: This study’s aim is to understand how children learn first- and second-person singular pronouns. Many researchers tried to find possible connection between Theory of Mind (ToM) and the acquisition of pronouns. The ability to produce and comprehend first- and second-person singular pronouns seems closely linked with the ability to appreciate other people’s mental states: a lack or non-mature development of ToM may thus affect their competence in using pronouns. To strengthen this hypothesis we focused on the phenomenon of pronoun reversal, which mainly consists in the substitution of I for you, and you for I, testing a group of 17 typically developing children - 38 to 70 months of age. Due to its pro-drop classification, Italian is the focus language of this study. The outcome showed a correlation between the phenomena of ToM and pronoun reversal. Further research should focus on the directionality of this correlation and better our understanding of its meaning.
Najdeno v: ključnih besedah
Povzetek najdenega: ...This study’s aim is to understand how children learn first- and second-person singular pronouns. Many...
Ključne besede: pronoun reversal, pronouns, echolalia, theory of mind, typically developing children, psycholinguistics
Objavljeno: 27.09.2021; Ogledov: 225; Prenosov: 5
URL Polno besedilo (0,00 KB)
Gradivo ima več datotek! Več...

6.
Reading between the lines
Greta Mazzaggio, 2018, doktorska disertacija

Opis: This thesis' aim is to add some pieces to the complex puzzle on the mechanism behind the comprehension of conversational implicatures. To do so, in a series of experiment we manipulated both the type of implicatures (scalar vs. ad-hoc) and the population under investigation (typical vs. atypical; children vs. adults).
Najdeno v: ključnih besedah
Povzetek najdenega: ...the population under investigation (typical vs. atypical; children vs. adults)....
Ključne besede: scalar implicatures, experimental pragmatics, autism developmental disorder, bilingualism, typically developing children, theory of mind, dissertations
Objavljeno: 20.09.2021; Ogledov: 237; Prenosov: 0
.pdf Polno besedilo (3,98 MB)

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