Earthen architecture, tradition and modernity: Local self construction through building tradition and technological innovation opportunities in Chiapas, MexicoKarla Sánchez Torres
, 2015, doctoral dissertation
Abstract: Earthen architecture represents a long building tradition of numerous indigenous communities in Mexico, in particular in the state of Chiapas, where a significant number of examples represent a rich historical tradition of earthen architecture and a valuable source of information, hence a fertile ground for a deeper investigation on its potential significance and, more broadly, for a greater understanding of sustainable building today.
Despite the fact that the relevance of earthen architecture is widespread all over the world, traditional earthen architecture in Chiapas is scarcely documented, it lacks systematic research projects aimed at preserving this important tradition of these indigenous groups who often live in precarious conditions. Hence, this research highlights not only the widespread employment of earth as a traditional building material for the indigenous groups of Chiapas, but also its additional function as being an authentic expression of the architectural legacy of indigenous culture and thus a key potential factor for the development of the self construction.
The first part of the dissertation introduces a general overview and prevailing knowledge on earthen architecture, mainly through investigating the bibliographic, historical and technical sources as well as the particular studies on earthen architecture in Mexico. The second part discusses the results of the field studies related to the specific conditions of earthen architecture in Chiapas through sampling, testing, photographic reference and interviews.
On analysing the results of the field studies it can be established that the local population has shown a particular interest in the continuity of the earthen building tradition, in spite of this period of far-reaching globalisation building trends.
For this reason the final part of dissertation propooses the manual. The main objective of the manual is to improve the traditional earthen building system by introducing a number of minor variations to the building technologies and new sustainable suggestions for the management of the living space, without sacrificing the flair and simplicity found within the local building tradition, thus giving new opportunities for the development of local populations through the preservation of the earthen building tradition.
Found in: ključnih besedah
Summary of found: ...represents a long building tradition of numerous indigenous communities in Mexico, in particular in the...
Keywords: earthen architecture, indigenous, self-construction, manual, tradition, local communities
Published: 01.12.2015; Views: 3429; Downloads: 70
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Biodiversity of cider yeasts and their cider-making potentialLorena Butinar
, Branka Mozetič Vodopivec
, Melita Sternad Lemut
, Eivind Vangdal
, 2017, published scientific conference contribution abstract
Abstract: In the area of Hardanger, a part of the fjord region in Western Norway, the production of apple wine (cider) has a long tradition that goes back to the 12th century, when monks introduced apple growing in this area. Nowadays, this is also the main area of fruit production in Norway. Despite the strict regulation of the alcoholic beverage production in Norway, traditional cider is still produced on some farms in this area. By tradition cider is produced by a spontaneous fermentation process of apple juice, performed by naturally occurring indigenous yeasts that originate from the fruit or the surfaces of the processing equipment. Therefore, our aim was primarily to study the ecology and biodiversity of the yeasts associated with the production of traditional cider in the Hardanger area. For two consecutive years, we sampled at 11 different locations in the observed region, where we collected cider samples and surface swabs of processing facilities from the cideries, and also soil and various parts of apple trees in orchards owned by the same producers. Thus, by enriching collected samples with the selective medium with high sugar and ethanol concentration, we managed to isolate about 1,300 yeasts. Based on the multiplex PCR results the yeasts were grouped into the Saccharomyces sensu stricto complex and non-Saccharomyces yeasts. The isolates were determined to the species level by performing the restriction analysis of ITS PCR products, and in some cases identifications were confirmed by sequencing of the D1/D2 domain of the 26S rDNA and/ or ITS region. As expected, non-Saccharomyces yeasts from the genus Metschnikowia and Hanseniaspora mainly populated the orchards, while the Saccharomyces yeasts were isolated in the orchards from the soil and fruits. In contrast, in ciders the species S. uvarum was predominantly found, occasionally also S. cerevisiae, Torulaspora delbrueckii and P. membranifacies. Indigenous cider yeasts were further on characterized in micro-plate format for the most important cider-making technological parameters (tolerance to ethanol, SO2, growth at low pH), for the presence of glucoside hydrolase activity, H2S production ability, and assimilation of malic acid. Based on this screenings the micro-scale fermentations of apple juice were performed with 13 different indigenous cider yeasts as monocultures. The most promising indigenous yeasts, T. delbrueckii and S. uvarum, were also tested as mixed cultures in sequential fermentations. Since the tested strain of T. delbrueckii as monoculture was not able to complete the alcoholic fermentation, better results were obtained in sequential fermentation with the mixed culture in combination with S. uvarum.
Found in: ključnih besedah
Summary of found: ...of apple juice, performed by naturally occurring indigenous yeasts that originate from the fruit or...
Keywords: indigenous yeasts, biodiversity, spontaneous fermentation, cider-making
Published: 08.11.2017; Views: 3285; Downloads: 0
Fulltext (10,33 MB)
2020, radio or television broadcast
Found in: ključnih besedah
Summary of found: ...data sets, indigenous, heritage, ancestry, data ownership, artistic research, intermedia,...
Keywords: data sets, indigenous, heritage, ancestry, data ownership, artistic research, intermedia, identity, data science, coding
Published: 25.02.2021; Views: 973; Downloads: 3
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