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Flexible non-volatile optical memory thin-filmtransistor device with over 256 distinct levelsbased on an organic bicomponent blend
Gvido Bratina, Egon Pavlica, 2016, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Flexible non-volatile optical memory thin-filmtransistor device with over 256 distinct levelsbased on an organic bicomponent blendTim Leydecker1, Martin Herder2, Egon Pavlica3,GvidoBratina3,StefanHecht2*, Emanuele Orgiu1*and Paolo Samorì1*Organic nanomaterials are attracting a great deal of interest for use in flexible electronic applications such as logiccircuits, displays and solar cells. These technologies have already demonstrated good performances, but flexible organicmemories are yet to deliver on all their promise in terms of volatility, operational voltage, write/erase speed, as well asthe number of distinct attainable levels. Here, we report a multilevel non-volatile flexible optical memory thin-filmtransistor based on a blend of a reference polymer semiconductor, namely poly(3-hexylthiophene), and a photochromicdiarylethene, switched with ultraviolet and green light irradiation. A three-terminal device featuring over 256 (8 bitstorage) distinct current levels was fabricated, the memory states of which could be switched with 3 ns laser pulses.We also report robustness over 70 write–erase cycles and non-volatility exceeding 500 days. The device was implementedon a flexible polyethylene terephthalate substrate, validating the concept for integration into wearable electronics andsmart nanodevices.
Najdeno v: ključnih besedah
Povzetek najdenega: semiconductors time of flight...
Ključne besede: organic semiconductors time of flight
Objavljeno: 22.06.2016; Ogledov: 1574; Prenosov: 0
.pdf Polno besedilo (2,78 MB)

The role of local potential minima on charge transport in thin organic semiconductor layers
Egon Pavlica, Raveendra Babu Penumala, Bratina Gvido, 2016, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: We have performed a systematic study of dependence of time-resolved photocurrent on the point of charge excitation within the organic semiconductor channel formed by two coplanar metal electrodes. The results confirm that spatial variation of electric field between the electrodes crucially determines transport of photogenerated charge carriers through the organic layer. Time-of-flight measurements of photocurrent demonstrate that the transit time of photogenerated charge carrier packets drifting between the two electrodes decreases with increasing travelling distance. Such counterintuitive result cannot be reconciled with the spatial distribution of electric field between coplanar electrodes, alone. It is also in contrast to expected role of space-charge screening of external electric field. Supported by Monte Carlo simulations of hopping transport in disordered organic semiconductor layer, we submit that the space-charge screens the external electric field and captures slower charge carriers from the photogenerated charge carrier packet. The remaining faster carriers, exhibit velocity distribution with significantly higher mean value and shorter transit time.
Najdeno v: ključnih besedah
Povzetek najdenega: ...Charge transport, Organic semiconductors, Time of flight, Mobility, Traps...
Ključne besede: Charge transport, Organic semiconductors, Time of flight, Mobility, Traps
Objavljeno: 23.12.2016; Ogledov: 1580; Prenosov: 0
.pdf Polno besedilo (950,46 KB)

Interface-controlled growth of organic semiconductors on graphene
Jinta Mathews, Saim Emin, Egon Pavlica, Matjaž Valant, Gvido Bratina, 2017, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: We have studied submonolayer coverages of N,N-1H,1H-perfluorobutyl dicyanoperylenecarboxydiimide (PDIF-CN2) on mechanically exfoliated graphene transferred onto SiO2 substrates. Our atomic force microscopy (AFM) data show that PDIF-CN2 forms irregularly-shaped 1.4 nm-high islands. From the selected area diffraction performed with transmission electron microscope (TEM) we conclude that this height corresponds to π−π stacks of molecules, which are inclined for 43° relative to the graphene surface. AFM also showed complete absence of PDIF-CN2 on single-layer graphene (SLG). Electric force microscopy revealed a marked difference in surface charge density between a single-layer graphene and bilayer graphene, with a higher surface charge on SLG than on the bilayer graphene. We associate this behavior with p− type doping of graphene due to the electrostatic dipole induced by the molecular water layer present at the graphene/SiO2 interface. The crucial role of the graphene/SiO2 interface in determining growth of PDIF-CN2 was further confirmed by TEM examination of PDIF-CN2 deposited onto unsupported SLG.
Najdeno v: ključnih besedah
Ključne besede: afm, organic semiconductors, graphene
Objavljeno: 18.05.2017; Ogledov: 1033; Prenosov: 0
.pdf Polno besedilo (2,02 MB)

Negative field‐dependent charge mobility in crystalline organic semiconductors with delocalized transport
Andrey Kadashchuk, Egon Pavlica, Gvido Bratina, Fei Tong, 2018, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Charge-carrier mobility has been investigated by time-of-flight (TOF) transient photocurrent in a lateral transport con- figuration in highly crystalline thin films of 2,7-dioctyl[1]benzothieno [3,2-b][1] benzothiophene (C8-BTBT) grown by a zone-casting alignment technique. High TOF mobility has been revealed that it is consistent with the delocalized nature of the charge transport in this material, yet it featured a positive temperature dependence at T ≥ 295 K. Moreover, the mobility was surprisingly found to decrease with electric field in the high-temperature region. These observations are not compat- ible with the conventional band-transport mechanism. We have elaborated an analytic model based on effective-medium approximation to rationalize the puzzling findings. The model considers the delocalized charge transport within the energy landscape formed by long-range transport band-edge variations in imperfect organic crystalline materials and accounts for the field-dependent effective dimensionality of charge transport percolative paths. The results of the model calculations are found to be in good agreement with experimental data.
Najdeno v: ključnih besedah
Ključne besede: time of flight, organic semiconductors, single crystals
Objavljeno: 07.05.2018; Ogledov: 621; Prenosov: 0
.pdf Polno besedilo (2,01 MB)

Nadiia Pastukhova, 2018, doktorska disertacija

Opis: In this work, we experimentally studied the influence of photoexcitation energy influence on the charge transport in organic semiconductors. Organic semiconductors were small molecules like corannulene, perylene and pentacene derivatives, polymers such as polythiophene and benzothiophene derivatives, and graphene, along with combinations of these materials in heterojunctions or composites. The first part of this study is focused on the photoexcitation energy influence on the transient photoconductivity of non-crystalline curved π-conjugated corannulene layers. The enhanced photoconductivity, in the energy range where optical absorption is absent, is deduced from theoretical predictions of corannulene gas-phase excited state spectra. Theoretical analysis reveals a consistent contribution involving transitions to Super Atomic Molecular Orbitals (SAMOs), a unique set of diffuse orbitals typical of curved π-conjugated molecules. More, the photoconductivity of the curved corannulene was compared to the π-conjugated planar N,N′-1H,1H- perfluorobutyldicyanoperylene-carboxydi-imide (PDIF-CN2), where the photoexcitation energy dependence of photocurrent closely follows the optical absorption spectrum. We next characterized charge transport in poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) layers deposited from solution. Our results indicate that time-of-flight (TOF) mobility depends on the photoexcitation energy. It is 0.4× 10 −3 cm 2 /Vs at 2.3 eV (530 nm) and doubles at 4.8 eV (260 nm). TOF mobility was compared to field-effect (FET) mobility of P3HT field-effect transistors (OFETs). The FET mobility was similar to the 2.3 eV excitation TOF mobility. In order to improve charge mobility, graphene nanoparticles were blended within a P3HT solution before the deposition. We found that the mobility significantly improves upon the addition of graphene nanoparticles of a weight ratio as low as 0.2 %. FET mobility increases with graphene concentration up to a value of 2.3× 10 −2 cm 2 /Vs at 3.2 %. The results demonstrate that phase segregation starts to influence charge transport at graphene concentration of 0.8 % and above. Hence, the graphene cannot form a bridged conduction channel between electrodes, which would cancel the semiconducting effect of the polymer composite. An alternative approach to enhance mobility is to optimize the molecular ordering of organic semiconductors. For that purpose, we studied an innovative nanomesh device. Free-standing nanomesh devices were used to form nanojunctions of N,N′- iiDioctyl-3,4,9,10-perylenedicarboximide (PTCDI-C8) nanowires and crystalline bis(triisopropylsilylethinyl)pentacene (TIPS-PEN). We characterized the photocurrent response time of this novel nanomesh scaffold device. The photoresponse time depends on the photon energy. It is between 4.5 − 5.6 ns at 500 nm excitation wavelength and between 6.7 − 7.7 ns at 700 nm excitation wavelength. In addition, we found that thermal annealing reduces charge carrier trapping in crystalline nanowires. This confirms that the structural defects are crucial to obtaining high photon-to-charge conversion efficiency and subsequent transport from pn junction in heterostructured materials. Structural defects also influence the power conversion efficiency of organic heterostructured photovoltaics (OPVs). Anticipating that polymers with different backbone lengths produce different level of structural defects, we examined charge transport dependence on the molecular weight of poly[4,8-bis(5-(2- ethylhexyl)thiophen-2-yl)benzo[1,2-b;4,5-b']dithiophene-2,6-diyl-alt-(4-(2- ethylhexyl)-3-fluorothieno[3,4-b]thiophene-)-2-carboxylate-2-6-diyl] (PTB7-Th) from 50 kDa to 300 kDa. We found p-type hopping transport in PTB7-Th, characterized by 0.1 – 3× 10 −2 cm 2 /Vs mobility, which increases with temperature and electric field. The polymer molecular weight exhibits a non-trivial influence on charge transport. FET mobility in the saturation regime increases with molecular weight. A similar trend is observed in TOF mobility and FET mobility in the linear regime, except for the 100kDa polymer, which manifests in the highest mobility due to reduced charge trapping. The lowest trapping at the dielectric interface of OFET is observed at 200 kDa. In addition, the 200 kDa polymer exhibits the lowest activation energy of the charge transport. Although the 100 kDa polymer indicates the highest mobility, OPVs using the 200 kDa polymer exhibit the best performance in terms of power conversion efficiency.
Najdeno v: ključnih besedah
Ključne besede: organic semiconductors, optical absorption spectroscopy, time-of-flight photoconductivity, transient photocurrent spectroscopy, organic thin film transistors, atomic force microscopy, superatomic molecular orbitals, pn heterojunction, organic nanowires, graphene, composites, charge mobility, charge trapping, temperature dependence, photodetector, photovoltaic, solar cell, organic electronics
Objavljeno: 08.10.2018; Ogledov: 145; Prenosov: 11
.pdf Polno besedilo (4,56 MB)

Characterisation of charge carrier transport in thin organic semiconductor T layers by time-of-flight photocurrent measurements
Gvido Bratina, Egon Pavlica, 2019, pregledni znanstveni članek

Opis: The paper reviews recent advances in characterisation of charge carrier transport in organic semiconductor layers by time-of-flight photocurrent measurements, with the emphasis on the measurements of the samples with co-planar electrodes. These samples comprised an organic semiconductor layer whose thickness is on the order of a μm or less, and thus mimic the structures of organic thin film transistors. In the review we emphasise the importance of considering spatial variation of electric field in these, essentially two-dimensional structures, in interpretation of photocurrent transients. We review the experimental details of this type of measurements and give examples that demonstrate exceptional sensitivity of the method to minute concentration of electrically active defects in the organic semiconductors as well as the capability of probing charge transport along the channels of different mobility that reside in the same sample.
Najdeno v: ključnih besedah
Povzetek najdenega: ...of electrically active defects in the organic semiconductors as well as the capability of probing...
Ključne besede: organic semiconductors, time of flight, mobiulity
Objavljeno: 24.10.2018; Ogledov: 52; Prenosov: 0
.pdf Polno besedilo (2,53 MB)

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