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Title:VSEBNOST IZBRANIH ELEMENTOV V VODI, SEDIMENTIH IN BIOLOŠKIH VZORCIH REKE SAVE
Authors:Brodar, Ana (Author)
Ščančar, Janez (Mentor) More about this mentor... New window
Zuliani, Tea (Mentor) More about this mentor... New window
Files:.pdf Ana_Brodar.pdf (13,39 MB)
 
Language:Slovenian
Work type:Master's thesis/paper (mb22)
Tipology:2.09 - Master's Thesis
Organization:FZO - Faculty of Environmental Sciences
Abstract:Glavni namen magistrskega dela je bil ugotoviti kolikšna je obremenjenost reke Save s potencialno strupenimi elementi kot so: As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni in Zn. V ta namen smo določili koncentracije potencialno strupenih elementov v vzorcih sedimentov, vode, različnih vrstah rib in školjk. Vzorci so bili odvzeti iz reke Save v 12 vzorčnih točkah razporejenih od izvira do izliva v Donavo. Določitev posameznih koncentracij v vzorcih vod in sedimentov je pokazala, da koncentracije elementov naraščajo dol vodno. Najnižje koncentracije potencialno strupenih elementov smo izmerili na območju prvega merilnega mesta, v Mojstrani, ki predstavlja referenčno točko, kjer ni virov onesnaženja. Najvišje koncentracije elementov smo izmerili ob večjih mestih vzdolž reke, in sicer v Zagrebu, Sremski Mitrovici ter Beogradu. Ekološko stanje sedimentov smo ocenili s smernicami za kakovost sedimentov, ki smo jih povzeli po literaturi. Rezultati so pokazali na slabo stanje sedimentov v Radovljici, Jasenovcu, Županji, Slavonskem Brodu, Sremski Mitrovici, Šabcu in Beogradu, kar je najverjetneje posledica vpliva težke industrije, kmetijstva in neočiščenih komunalnih odpadnih vod. V školjkah in ribah so bile določene koncentracije As, Cd, Cu, Cr, Pb, Ni in Zn v območju koncentracij določenih v školjkah in ribah iz Donave. Z izračunom faktorja prenosa (TF) med sedimentom in ribami smo ugotovili, da vnos potencialno strupenih elementov v ribo ni povezan izključno s sedimentom, medtem ko je TF med klenom in ščuko za Cr in Pb na vzorčnih mestih Slavonski Brod in Beograd ter za Ni v Beogradu pokazal na morebitni prenos elementov po trofični verigi. Na vseh vzorčnih mestih so koncentracije Pb, Cd in As v mišicah rib pod maksimalno dovoljeno koncentracijo, ki je predpisana v EU direktivi 1881/2006, ki opredeljuje maksimalne dovoljene koncentracije v človeški prehrani. Kljub temu smo z izračunom indeksa zdravstvenega tveganja (HRI) ocenili tveganje, ki ga za zdravje ljudi predstavlja vnos potencialno strupenih elementov z uživanjem rib. HRI je pokazal potencialno tveganje samo za As, saj je bila vrednost 1 presežena za mreno v Čatežu, Zagrebu, Šabcu in Beogradu, za ščuko v Šabcu in Beogradu ter za klena v Beogradu.
Keywords:bioakumulacija, potencialno strupeni elementi, reka Sava, ribe, sedimenti, školjke, voda.
Year of publishing:2017
Source:Nova Gorica
COBISS_ID:4794363 Link is opened in a new window
URN:URN:SI:UNG:REP:CAQGKY5O
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Secondary language

Language:English
Title:The content of selected elements in water, sediments and biological samples from the Sava River
Abstract:The main purpose of the master's work was to determine the contamination level of the Sava River with potentially toxic elements, which are laid down in the water framework directive, namely As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn. To this end, we determined the levels of potentially toxic elements in samples of sediments, water, various types of fish and mussels that have been sampled along the Sava River in 12 sampling points, from the source to the confluence with the Danube River. The determined concentrations of selected elements revealed an increase of concentrations in the downstream direction. The lowest concentrations were determined in Mojstrana, which represents the reference point where there are no sources of pollution. The highest concentrations of the elements were determined near the major cities along the river, namely, in Zagreb, Sremska Mitrovica and Belgrade. Ecological sediments status was assessed by applying the sediment quality guidelines obtained from the literature. The results show the poor state of the sediments in Radovljica, Jasenovac, Županja, Slavonski Brod, Sremska Mitrovica, Šabac and Belgrade, most likely due to the impact of heavy industry, agriculture and untreated urban wastewater. In mussels and fish the concentration of As, Cd, Cu, Cr, Pb, Ni and Zn determined were in the range of concentrations found in mussls and fish from the Danube River. By calculating the transfer factor (TF) between sediments and fish, it was found that the introduction of potentially toxic elements in the fish is not directly related to the sediment, while the TF between chub and pike for Cr and Pb at the sampling sites Slavonski Brod and Belgrade and Ni in Belgrade indicated a possible transfer of elements through the trophic chain. At all sampling sites, concentrations of Pb, Cd and As in fish muscle were below the maximum permissible concentration prescribed by EU Directive 1881/2006, which defines the maximum allowable concentrations in the human diet. Nevertheless, we calculated the health risk index (HRI) to assess the risk posed to human health by the entry of potentially toxic elements through fish consumption. HRI has indicated the potential risk only for As, as the value of 1 was exceeded in Čatež, Zagreb, Šabac and Belgrade for barbel and for pike in Šabac and Belgrade, and for chub in Belgrade.
Keywords:bioaccumulation, potentially toxic elements, Sava river, fish, sediments, mussels, water.


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