PHOTOLYSIS AND ECOTOXICITY OF THE ANTIBIOTIC CIPROFLOXACINKetevan Neparidze
, 2017, undergraduate thesis
Abstract: Over the last few decades, numerous pharmaceuticals coming from domestic sewage, livestock, hospitals and industries have been determined in ground, surface and drinking waters. A common example of these pollutants are fluoroquinolones, which are powerful antibiotics used in human and veterinary medicine. The presence of fluoroquinolones in the environment even at low concentration constitutes a threat to ecosystems and human health because they can lead to bacterial resistance issues. Up to now the environmental impacts of fluoroquinolones and their degradation products are not fully understood but it is known that they can negatively affect plants and aquatic organisms. In this study the degradation of ciprofloxacin (CIP) present in synthetic freshwater was investigated under simulated sunlight. Concentrations before and after degradation were determined using HPLC-DAD. The mineralisation rate of the treated solution was monitored on a total organic carbon analyser. The ecotoxicity of the initial samples and the degradation mixtures was assessed on organisms belonging to different trophic levels: a marine bacterium (Vibrio fischeri), a freshwater invertebrate (Daphnia magna) and seed clover (Trifolium repens). In parallel, the EC50 of CIP was determined for all organisms. The Vibrio fischeri and Trifolium repens tests showed that EC50 value was more than 250 mg/L and for Daphnia magna was 190 mg/L. Photolysis of CIP showed that after 90 min of irradiation, CIP was almost totally degraded (99%). Photolysis process of CIP led to the formation of toxic by-products towards Vibrio fischeri. The toxicity test results on Trifolium repens did not show significant difference between the control and the treated plants. Thus, CIP and its degradation products have no effect on the germination or root length of Trifolium repens. Tests on Daphnia magna after 240 min irradiation showed a 94% reduction of the toxic effect. Non-purgeable organic carbon (NPOC) analysis showed that there is no significant mineralisation of the sample even after 240 min of irradiation.
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Summary of found: ...seed clover (Trifolium repens). In parallel, the EC50 of CIP was determined for all organisms....
Keywords: Key words: fluoroquinolones, ciprofloxacin, photolysis, toxicity tests, EC50 determination
Published: 31.01.2017; Views: 4813; Downloads: 279
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