Assessing and mapping drought vulnerability in agricultural systemsMaja Slejko
, Gregor Gregorič
, Klemen Bergant
, Samo Stanič
, 2010, published scientific conference contribution abstract
Found in: ključnih besedah
Summary of found: ...suša, ocena ranljivosti, kmetijstvo, GIS, Slovenia, ...
Keywords: suša, ocena ranljivosti, kmetijstvo, GIS, Slovenia
Published: 15.10.2013; Views: 6559; Downloads: 87
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Household and road dust as indicators of airborne particulate matter elemental compositionKlemen Teran
, 2020, doctoral dissertation
Abstract: Household dust (HD) and road dust (RD) are widespread and easily accessible urban sediments, which are influenced by deposition of airborne particulate matter (PM). Since airborne PM is considered to be one of the most important pollutants in urban areas, with significant adverse effects on human health, a better understanding of its elemental composition and dispersion mechanisms is needed. The present study examines whether the HD and RD elemental composition can be used as a quick alternative method for the determination of corresponding PM elemental composition over a selected area.
In summer 2016, HD, RD, and topsoil samples were collected from 249 sampling locations distributed across rural, urban, and industrial areas in Slovenia. The collected samples were sieved for particle diameters below 63 μm and analysed for 53 elements with ICP-MS after aqua regia digestion. SEM/EDS analyses were applied for the determination of characteristic particles at the microlevel. Finally, the elemental composition of HD and RD was compared with the PM10 elemental composition obtained from National Network for Ambient Air Quality Monitoring governed by Slovenian Environmental Agency (ARSO) to determine any potential connection between them.
The results show that HD and RD are considerably enriched with a large set of elements compared to the topsoil. Correlations and factor analyses show that spatial distribution of factor scores in RD revealed strong regional trends, connected with soil resuspension (Al, Ce, Ga, K, La, Li, P, Rb, Sc and Y) or with anthropogenic sources such as traffic (Ag, Bi, Cu, Sb and Sn), steel mill emissions (Cr, Mo, Mn, Ni and W) and construction material decomposition (Ca and Sr). In contrast, HD elemental composition was highly variable between sampling locations. Variability was probably caused by indoor sources, such as smoking (Ce and La), biomass combustion (K, P and Rb), construction material decomposition (Ca and Sr) and residents’ professional occupation: dental care employees (Ag, Au, Pd) and employees in the metal-processing industry (Cr, Mo, Ni).
Among deposited particles in RD, urbanization processes, such as fossil fuel combustion and traffic emissions, including brake pad abrasion and tyre wear, contributed the largest share of particles with anomalous elemental composition. Brake pad abrasion, for instance, contributed Ba-, Cu-, Sn-, and Zn-enriched irregular, angular and tabular particles, while tyre wear produced elongated rubber particles with traces of Ba, Cu, and Zn. RD from urban areas showed significantly higher elemental levels of Ag, Bi, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Fe, Mo, Nb, Pb, Pt, Sb, Sn, Sr, Ti, Zn, and W in comparison to the rural environment, indicating the strong impact of urbanization on RD elemental composition.
Another important anthropogenic source of deposited particles in RD were steel mills. Strong anomalies of Cr, Mo and Ni were detected in their vicinity. Their elemental levels decreased with distancing from the plan location, reaching urban background levels between 15 and 20 km from the mills. SEM/EDS analyses identified enrichments of Cr, Mn, Mo, Ni, V, and W in spherical particles and particles with partially melted surfaces, which were found only in the proximity of steel mills, indicating their influence of the PM deposition.
Comparison of RD and the corresponding PM10 elemental composition showed that the RD fraction with particle diameters below 63 μm reflects PM10 elemental composition for the last 30 to 90 days for Cr, Cu, Mo and Zn and can be used as a predictor for PM10 elemental levels. This is not true for HD, as indoor particle sources prevail over the deposition of ambient PM10.
Found in: ključnih besedah
Summary of found: ...across rural, urban, and industrial areas in Slovenia. The collected samples were sieved for particle...
Keywords: household dust, road dust, particulate matter, PM10, pollution, Slovenia, steel mills, topsoil, traffic, urbanization
Published: 02.12.2020; Views: 622; Downloads: 52
Fulltext (16,34 MB)
Radioactive isotopes in ground waters of SloveniaKatarina Kovačič
, 2015, doctoral dissertation
Abstract: Within the duration of three projects (J7-0363, L1-0437, L1-4280), in the period from 2008 to 2013, measurements of tritium (3H), 40K and γ-ray emitters of uranium (238U, 226Ra and 210Pb) and thorium (228Ra and 228Th) decay series in groundwaters of Slovenia were carried out. Tritium was also measured in precipitation at selected locations. Groundwater sampling sites were selected in order to cover the most representative lithological units that are found in Slovenia and were at the same time evenly distributed throughout the country. In total, 281 samples were measured from 120 different locations.
Measurements in the period 2009-2013 have shown that tritium concentrations in precipitation in Ljubljana are for about 30% lower compared to those in Vienna, however they are in line with seasonal fluctuations observed in Vienna. This was an important information in the process of the reconstruction of past tritium concentrations in precipitation in Ljubljana (tritium curve) for the missing period between 1953 and 1981. Tritium curve represents the input data when determining the average age of water.
In determining the influence of various parameters on the final interpretation of the groundwater age it has been found that the greatest uncertainty contribute the measurements of the tritium curve and the measurements of tritium in groundwater samples. Also, the interaction of other factors (continental effect, rainfall regime, infiltration) and the lack of knowledge of them may have a major impact on the misinterpretation of groundwater age.
Based on tritium concentration, groundwaters were divided into 4 major categories, into groundwaters that are older than 100 years (tritium concentration was below the detection limit), groundwaters, where the older component prevails (concentration of tritium was between 0 and 2.5 TU), groundwaters with the age between 30 and 60 years (the concentration of tritium was on average 8 TU) and recent groundwaters with age up to 15 years (tritium concentration of about 6 TU).
The natural background of γ-ray emitters was determined for each lithological unit. The most represented radionuclide was 40K with concentrations always above the detection limit. A dependency of 40K concentrations on nitrate was observed, especially in the recharge areas, where limestone prevailed. Other γ-ray emitters revealed some dependence on nitrate concentration, especially both radium isotopes (226Ra and 228Ra). The concentration of 210Pb in groundwaters is mainly due to the connection with the surface and consequently with atmospheric 210Pb. The highest concentrations of 238U and 228Ra were measured in groundwaters from recharge areas in clastic rocks with a clay component. In contrast to the expected, concentrations for all γ-ray emitters (except 210Pb) were the lowest or even not detectable, in groundwaters from recharge areas in igneous and metamorphic rocks.
Among γ-ray emitters and categorization based on tritium concentrations, elevated concentrations of 238U were observed in groundwaters with prevailing older component. Elevated concentrations of 40K were also observed in them. The largest scattering of 210Pb and 40K concentrations was observed in recent waters, which indicates a connection with the surface and application of fertilizers.
Found in: ključnih besedah
Keywords: Groundwaters, Slovenia, tritium input curve, natural gamma-ray emitters background.
Published: 05.10.2015; Views: 3775; Downloads: 131
Fulltext (8,62 MB)
Isotopic and elemental characterisation of Slovenian apple juice according to geographical origin: Preliminary resultsNives Ogrinc
, Peter Kump
, Ines Mulič
, Branka Mozetič Vodopivec
, Darja Mazej
, Klemen Eler
, Karmen Bizjak Bat
, 2016, original scientific article
Abstract: This study examined the applicability of stable isotope and multi-element data for determining the geographical
origin of fresh apple juices. Samples included three apple cultivars (Idared, Golden Delicious
and Topaz) harvested in 2011 and 2012 from five different geographical regions of Slovenia. Regional discrimination
of the juice samples was most successful when using linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and
taking into account the following parameters: d2H and d18O content of juice water; d15N and d13C content
of the pulp, (D/H)I and (D/H)II in ethanol and the concentration of S, Cl, Fe, Cu, Zn and Sr. Overall prediction
ability was 83.9%. The factors that best distinguished the different types of cultivar were the d2H and
d18O content of fruit juice water; the d13C and (D/H)I content of ethanol; and the concentration of S, Mg, K,
Cu, and Ti. Prediction ability, taking into account all ten parameters, was 75.8%.
Found in: ključnih besedah
Summary of found: ...2012 from five different geographical regions of Slovenia. Regional discrimination
of the juice samples was most...
Keywords: Apple juice, Stable isotopes, Elemental content, Geographical origin, Slovenia
Published: 15.02.2016; Views: 3346; Downloads: 0
Fulltext (892,49 KB)
CHARACTERIZATION OF SLOVENIAN APPLE JUICE WITH RESPECT TO ITS GEOGRAPHICAL ORIGIN AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION PRACTICEKarmen Bizjak Bat
, 2016, doctoral dissertation
Abstract: Determination of food authenticity is an important issue in quality control and food safety. Recent studies predict a growing demand for natural and more authentic food and beverage products. The quality and authenticity of apple juice is also of a great economic importance since the popularity and demand for apple juice consumption has increased. The growth of the market for organically produced apples and apple juice is due to the increasing demand for healthy food requirements, protection of the environment and the promotion of biotic diversity. Organic foods have a higher nutritional and health value, but they are more expensive, because their production is more difficult and less profitable. In addition to how food is produced, consumers are increasingly placing emphasis on food products of specific region, which are known for their unique natural flavours and taste.
The presented thesis is based on four separate but closely interrelated studies, in which a combination of different isotopic ratios of bioelements (2H/1H, 13C/12C, 15N/14N, 18O/16O), multi-element analysis, and major primary and secondary metabolite profiles were exploited to differentiate the geographical origin and agricultural production practice (organic vs integrated/conventional) of Slovenian apples. These parameters were used to establish the first database of authentic Slovenian apple juice, which can be used to verify the authenticity of commercially available apple juice in Slovenia.
The first preliminary study was entitled “Organic Cultivation ~ Geographical Origin (OCGO)” and was performed using apples from the 2009 growing season. Its aim was to examine the use of stable isotope and multi-element data for determining the geographical origin and agricultural production practice of fresh apple juices. Fruits of six apple (Malus domestica Borkh) cultivars (Topaz, Idared, Golden Delicious, Goldrush, Gala, Gloster) were collected from four different geographical regions of Slovenia (Alpine, Dinaric, Pannonian and Mediterranean) grown under organic and integrated/conventional orchard management systems. The results revealed that stable isotope parameters in sugar, pulp and water were the most significant variables for differentiating between the regions. Good separation was achieved between the geographical regions in Slovenia based on the δ18O and δ2H values in water and Rb and S levels in the apple fruit juice. The most significant variables that distinguished between organically and integrated/conventionally cultivated apples were the 15N/14N ratio and antioxidant activity of the apple juice. Significant differences were also observed in the ascorbic acid content of the juice. Based on these results the number and types of apples and the minimum number of samples needed from the same region for determining geographical origin were determined.
The second study was called “Organic ~ Conventional Apple Cultivation” (OCAC) and was performed in 2010 and 2011 in a Gala apple orchard. The aim was to determine the effect of different fertilizers allowed either in organic or conventional/integrated agricultural regimes on different parameters. Quality parameters, isotopic composition of C in sugars and in pulp together with N and elemental analysis were investigated. The following five fertilizers were applied: Biosol and Plantella organic (organic) and Ca cyanamide, KAN and UREA (mineral) at a rate of 60 and 120 kg of nitrogen per hectare. From the obtained data it was possible to differentiate between organic and integrated/conventional apple production when taking into account the following parameters: mass, skin and flesh firmness (SFF), total soluble solids (TSS), and the content of Cl as well as δ15N and δ13C in the pulp.
The “Organic Cultivation ~ Geographical Origin” (OCGO) study, which took place during the 2011 and 2012 growing seasons included a greater number of samples and samples from five different geographical regions: Alpine, Dinaric,
Found in: ključnih besedah
Summary of found: ...agricultural production practice (organic vs integrated/conventional) of Slovenian apples. These parameters were used to establish...
Keywords: apple juice, geographical origin, agricultural production practice, biomarkers, phenol compounds, elements, stable isotopes, Slovenia
Published: 07.06.2016; Views: 4726; Downloads: 609
Fulltext (3,97 MB)
THE IMPACT OF EUROPEANISATION ON THE NATURE PROTECTION SYSTEM OF SELECTED COUNTRIES OF SOUTHEAST EUROPE ON THE EXAMPLE OF THE ESTABLISHMENT OF MULTI-LEVEL GOVERNANCE SYSTEM OF NATURA 2000Aleksandar Šobot
, 2017, doctoral dissertation
Abstract: The Europeanisation of Southeastern Europe led to the pre-accession and accession process of joining countries of the former Yugoslavia to the European Union. Slovenia's accession to the formal process of accession to the European Union started in 1999. This process lasted until 2003. Then, in 2004, Slovenia joined the European Union. Croatia's access to the formal process of accession to the European Union started in 2003. This process lasted until 2012. Then, in 2013, Croatia joined the European Union. Bosnia and Herzegovina entered the pre-accession process with the process of stabilization and association with the European Union, which lasted from 1999 to 2015. Then, in 2016, Bosnia and Herzegovina officially submitted its application for European Union membership.
This paper examines the impact of the Europeanisation during this period on the nature protection system in the case of Slovenia, Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina while establishing multi-level governance system of protected areas within NATURA 2000 network. The analysis of the establishment of multi-level governance system is performed according to the morphogenetic model in three cycles as a case study. The case study is organized with the help of interviews and desk analysis of the relevant documents. In the first cycle were explained the projects/process of implementation of NATURA 2000 in Slovenia, Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina and its changing impacts on national legislation in the area of nature protection (environmental policy). The second cycle explains the role of the main actors in the establishment of multi-level governance system of NATURA 2000 such as the European Union institutions, competent ministries, national parks and non-governmental organisations (environmental polity). The third cycle outlines the contribution to the establishment of multi-level governance system of NATURA 2000 on the nature protection systems of Slovenia, Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina and their future challenges (environmental politics).
The main conclusions point to the major changes in the nature protection systems of Slovenia, Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina during the process of implementation/establishing multi-level governance system of NATURA 2000. Main legal and institutional points of implementation of NATURA 2000 with all positive and negative sides are presented here. In the end, implementation of the European ecological network NATURA 2000 in Slovenia is marked as an excellent example with significant changes in legal (laws on nature protection) and institutional (transformation of governmental institutions, establishment of new institutions and inclusion of NGOs in decision making) framework. This process in Croatia was marked as good with significant changes in legal (laws on nature protection, adopting new strategy of sustainable development) and institutional (transformation of governmental organisation, establishment of new institutions and inclusion of NGOs in decision making) framework. This process in Bosnia and Herzegovina was marked as satisfactory with significant changes in legal (adopting new entity laws on nature protection) and institutional (adopting coordination mechanism for inter-entity and inter-institutional cooperation as well as inclusion of NGOs in decision making) framework.
There are also significant weak points during the process of N2000 in all three countries (such as the late change of national legislative, not following the national legislative from governmental institution and not including NGOs into decision making), which during the proces of implementation of N2000 (for Croatia and Slovenia) or the process of preparation of implementation (for Bosnia and Herzegovina) cause significant problems, that call for action in the future in order to improve governance of natural resources /NATURA 2000. On the other hand, these points could serve as an example for all countries that underwent/or should undergo ...
Found in: ključnih besedah
Summary of found: ...the former Yugoslavia to the European Union. Slovenia's accession to the formal process of accession...
Keywords: The Europeanisation of Southeastern Europe, the pre-accession process, the accession process, Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the nature protection system, NATURA 2000 protected areas
Published: 06.11.2017; Views: 2487; Downloads: 201
Fulltext (2,77 MB)
Modra frankinja ali zgodba o žabjem kraljuGuillaume Antalick
, 2018, polemic, discussion, commentary
Found in: ključnih besedah
Summary of found: ...Wine, Blaufrankisch, Slovenia, typicality, terroir, world-class wine, diversity...
Keywords: Wine, Blaufrankisch, Slovenia, typicality, terroir, world-class wine, diversity
Published: 19.09.2018; Views: 1292; Downloads: 11
Fulltext (1,27 MB)