Implementation of the EPBD in Slovenia – Status in 2020Marjana Šijanec Zavrl
, Miha Tomšič
, Henrik Gjerkeš
, Erik Potočar
, 2021, final research report
Abstract: The Concerted Action EPBD (CA EPBD) addresses the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD). It aims to contribute to the reduction of energy use in European buildings, through the exchange of knowledge and best practices in the field of energy efficiency and energy savings between all 28 EU Member States plus Norway.
The CA EPBD is a joint initiative between the EU Member States and the European Commission. It involves representatives of national ministries or their affiliated institutions who are in charge of preparing the technical, legal and administrative framework for the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive in each EU Member State, plus Norway. The objective is to enhance the sharing of information and experiences from national adoption and implementation of this important European legislation.
The transposition of the EPBD in Slovenia is the overall responsibility of the Ministry of Infrastructure and was primarily transposed by the Energy Act (EZ-1), covering the topics of NZEB, energy performance certification, inspection of heating and AC systems and energy efficiency information programmes. The Act on Energy Efficiency (ZURE) integrates the EZ-1 articles related to the EPBD.
The revision of the building codes (PURES) is still in progress and planned for publication in late 2021. It will contain detailed technical requirements for NZEB based on the technical definition given in the national NZEB action plan, and the revision of the calculation methodology according to a new set of CEN EPBD standards.
Important recent steps in EPBD implementation are the application of the central national electronic register of EPCs and associated software, the independent control system for EPCs, first steps in the cross-linking of e-registries for EPCs, inspections and public buildings, as well as wide information activities implemented by the Eco Fund concerning financial instruments available for the energy renovation of buildings.
Keywords: Concerted Action, Energy Performance of Buildings Directive, Act on Energy Efficiency, Slovenia
Published in RUNG: 02.11.2023; Views: 253; Downloads: 4
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ROUND TABLE: TRANSLATION IN AN INTERCULTURAL CONTEXTBarbara Pregelj
, Ilide Carmignani
, Elisabeth Pérez Fernández
, Mariela Nagle
, other performed works
Abstract: Translating children's books into different cultures means not only processing the text into another language, but also transferring the level of illustration, which is an additional challenge. There, the different realities of children's lives play a big role: environment, skin colour, religion, etc. as well as cultural paradigms.
Introduction: Marifé Boix Garcia, Frankfurter Buchmesse GmbH, Germany
Elisabeth Pérez Fernández, illustratrice, Spagna - GoH 2022;
Barbara Pregelj, editor and translator, Malinc, Slovenia - GoH 2023;
Ilide Carmignani, translator, Italy - GoH 2024
Moderator: Mariela Nagle, consultant, Germany
Frankfurter Buchmesse GmbH
In the framework of
Keywords: translation, children's literature, Slovenian authors, Slovenia guest of Honour 2023
Published in RUNG: 22.09.2022; Views: 796; Downloads: 0
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CO2 dynamics and dissolutional processes in the karst vadose zoneLovel Kukuljan
, 2022, doctoral dissertation
Abstract: The dynamics and distribution of carbon dioxide (CO2) in karst systems are crucial for understanding fundamental karst processes, namely precipitation and dissolution, which drive karst development both at the surface and underground. The study of CO2 transport provides valuable insights into the role of karst systems in the global carbon cycle and the impact on present climate, but also into the growth of speleothems, which are one of the most reliable terrestrial archives for palaeoclimate reconstruction. Due to the complexity of karst systems, long-term monitoring and high-resolution analyses of cave air and water geochemistry are essential to better understand the controlling factors that affect these processes and their outcomes. In the framework of this dissertation, cave climate and water hydrochemistry monitoring was established in a side-passages of the renowned Postojna Cave in Slovenia during 2017–2021. In the Pisani Passage, high CO2 concentrations, large temporal variations and a heterogeneous distribution of CO2, as well as extreme dissolution features, have already been detected in previous studies. The aim of the present study was to investigate these observations in depth and to find the reasons for their occurrence. This led to creating of a conceptual model for CO2 transport in karst systems that would be valid not only in this case but in karst areas worldwide.
The first focus of the study is dedicated to understanding the spatio-temporal dynamics of the partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) in the Pisani Passage, which is mainly transported by advection (i.e., cave ventilation). Continuous measurements of airflow velocity, air temperature and pCO2 showed (1) that airflow through the karst massif is driven by both the action of the chimney effect and external winds, and (2) that the relationship between the direction of airflow, the configuration of airflow pathways and the connection to the outside explains the observed variations in pCO2. Due to the particular configuration of the airflow pathways, the terminal chamber of Pisani Passage accumulates high levels of CO2 (>10,000 ppm) and forms high vertical gradients of up to 1000 ppm/m. The pCO2 is low and uniform during updraft when outside air flows into the cave chamber through open, unobstructed passages (i.e., high-flow, low-pCO2 pathways). When the airflow reverses direction to downdraft, the chamber is fed by low-flow, high-pCO2 pathways that enter the cave passage through a CO2-rich fracture network embedded in a vadose zone. The spatial distribution of inlets and outlets results in minimal mixing between the low and high pCO2 pathways, leading to high and persistent pCO2 gradients.
In addition to the chimney effect driving the seasonal ventilation of the cave, the specific signs of a secondary wind-driven effect were also found; which is the second focus of this study. Wind flow over irregular topography leads to near-surface air pressure variations, and thus, pressure differences between cave entrances at different locations. Pressure differences depend on wind speed and direction and their relationship to surface topography and the location of cave entrances. Winds can act in the same or opposite direction as the chimney effect, either enhancing, diminishing or even reversing the direction of density-driven airflows. In the case of Postojna Cave, north and northeast winds enhance the downdraft and limit updraft, while the opposite is true for south winds, which enhance the updraft and limit downdraft. To investigate the importance of wind-driven flow, a computational fluid dynamics model was used to calculate the wind pressure field over Postojna Cave and the pressure differences between selected points for different configurations of wind speed and direction. These values were compared with those obtained from airflow measurements in the cave and from simple theoretical considerations. Despite the simplicity of the approach and the complexity of the ca
Keywords: cave climate, cave ventilation, carbon dioxide, dripwater geochemistry, speleothem corrosion, Postojna Cave, Slovenia
Published in RUNG: 22.06.2022; Views: 1358; Downloads: 62
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Hidden black carbon air pollution in hilly rural areas - a case study of Dinaric depressionKristina Glojek
, Asta Gregorič
, Griša Močnik
, Andrea Cuesta-Mosquera
, A. Wiedensohler
, Luka Drinovec
, Matej Ogrin
, 2020, original scientific article
Abstract: Air pollution is not an exclusively urban problem as wood burning is a widespread practice in rural areas. As we lack information on the air quality situation in rural mountainous regions, our aim is to examine equivalent black carbon (eBC) pollution in a typical rural karst area in the settlement of Loški Potok (Slovenia). eBC mass concentrations were measured by Aethalometer (AE-33) at two sites in Retje karst depression. The rural village station was located at the bottom of the karst depression whereas the rural background station was positioned at the top of the hill. We showthe diurnal variation of equivalent black carbon mass concentrations for different seasons. In the populated karst depression, the major source of eBC pollution are households using wood as a heating fuel reaching the highest mass concentrations in winter. Diurnal pattern of eBC from biomass burning and traffic differ due to different source activity and it is influenced by typical formation of a cold air pool from late afternoon until late morning, restricting the dispersion of local emissions. The large difference in mass concentrations between the lowest part of the village (rural station) and the top of the hill (rural background station) indicates that in a vertically stratified and stable atmosphere local sources of black carbon have a major impact onair quality conditions in the area studied. Since in Alpine and Dinaric regions there are many similar inhabited areas, we can expect similar air quality conditions also in other rural hilly areas with limited self-cleaning air capacity.
Keywords: air pollution, black carbon, hidden geographies, diurnal variation, biomass burning, relief depressions, Loški Potok, Slovenia
Published in RUNG: 04.01.2021; Views: 1972; Downloads: 0
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Household and road dust as indicators of airborne particulate matter elemental composition : dissertationKlemen Teran
, 2020, doctoral dissertation
Abstract: Household dust (HD) and road dust (RD) are widespread and easily accessible urban sediments, which are influenced by deposition of airborne particulate matter (PM). Since airborne PM is considered to be one of the most important pollutants in urban areas, with significant adverse effects on human health, a better understanding of its elemental composition and dispersion mechanisms is needed. The present study examines whether the HD and RD elemental composition can be used as a quick alternative method for the determination of corresponding PM elemental composition over a selected area.
In summer 2016, HD, RD, and topsoil samples were collected from 249 sampling locations distributed across rural, urban, and industrial areas in Slovenia. The collected samples were sieved for particle diameters below 63 μm and analysed for 53 elements with ICP-MS after aqua regia digestion. SEM/EDS analyses were applied for the determination of characteristic particles at the microlevel. Finally, the elemental composition of HD and RD was compared with the PM10 elemental composition obtained from National Network for Ambient Air Quality Monitoring governed by Slovenian Environmental Agency (ARSO) to determine any potential connection between them.
The results show that HD and RD are considerably enriched with a large set of elements compared to the topsoil. Correlations and factor analyses show that spatial distribution of factor scores in RD revealed strong regional trends, connected with soil resuspension (Al, Ce, Ga, K, La, Li, P, Rb, Sc and Y) or with anthropogenic sources such as traffic (Ag, Bi, Cu, Sb and Sn), steel mill emissions (Cr, Mo, Mn, Ni and W) and construction material decomposition (Ca and Sr). In contrast, HD elemental composition was highly variable between sampling locations. Variability was probably caused by indoor sources, such as smoking (Ce and La), biomass combustion (K, P and Rb), construction material decomposition (Ca and Sr) and residents’ professional occupation: dental care employees (Ag, Au, Pd) and employees in the metal-processing industry (Cr, Mo, Ni).
Among deposited particles in RD, urbanization processes, such as fossil fuel combustion and traffic emissions, including brake pad abrasion and tyre wear, contributed the largest share of particles with anomalous elemental composition. Brake pad abrasion, for instance, contributed Ba-, Cu-, Sn-, and Zn-enriched irregular, angular and tabular particles, while tyre wear produced elongated rubber particles with traces of Ba, Cu, and Zn. RD from urban areas showed significantly higher elemental levels of Ag, Bi, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Fe, Mo, Nb, Pb, Pt, Sb, Sn, Sr, Ti, Zn, and W in comparison to the rural environment, indicating the strong impact of urbanization on RD elemental composition.
Another important anthropogenic source of deposited particles in RD were steel mills. Strong anomalies of Cr, Mo and Ni were detected in their vicinity. Their elemental levels decreased with distancing from the plan location, reaching urban background levels between 15 and 20 km from the mills. SEM/EDS analyses identified enrichments of Cr, Mn, Mo, Ni, V, and W in spherical particles and particles with partially melted surfaces, which were found only in the proximity of steel mills, indicating their influence of the PM deposition.
Comparison of RD and the corresponding PM10 elemental composition showed that the RD fraction with particle diameters below 63 μm reflects PM10 elemental composition for the last 30 to 90 days for Cr, Cu, Mo and Zn and can be used as a predictor for PM10 elemental levels. This is not true for HD, as indoor particle sources prevail over the deposition of ambient PM10.
Keywords: household dust, road dust, particulate matter, PM10, pollution, Slovenia, steel mills, topsoil, traffic, urbanization
Published in RUNG: 02.12.2020; Views: 3266; Downloads: 166
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Orographic gravity waves in OH-airglow imaging systemsSabine Wuest
, Jonas Till
, René Sedlak
, Patrick Hannawald
, Carsten Schmidt
, Samo Stanič
, Michael Bittner
, 2020, published scientific conference contribution abstract
Abstract: Atmospheric dynamics is strongly influenced by waves on different scales. Airflow over mountains can lead to all kinds of atmospheric waves, planetary and gravity waves as well as infrasound. Under certain circumstances these waves can propagate through the atmosphere and lead to a re- distribution of energy. In the case of gravity waves, a stably stratified atmosphere is a mandatory requirement for their generation and vertical propagation. Additionally, the vertical propagation depends on the horizontal wind field. In the Alpine and pre-Alpine region, we currently operate five OH-airglow imaging systems, which allow the investigation of orographic gravity waves. Depending on tropo-, strato- and mesospheric wind and temperature, it is checked which wavelengths can propagate into the fields of view of our instruments. This is done for a whole year in order to take into account annual and semi- annual cycles in wind and temperature. Concerning the generation of gravity waves, we put our focus on our OH-airglow imager (FAIM) deployed at Otlica (45.9°N, 13.9°E), Slovenia. Here, we also have additional measurements of an OH-airglow spectrometer (GRIPS). In case studies, we investigate whether strong wind events (Bora) lead to strong gravity waves activity or enhanced potential energy density.
Keywords: Orographic gravity waves, Bora, Otlica, Slovenia, OH-airglow imaging
Published in RUNG: 08.10.2020; Views: 2109; Downloads: 0
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Factors influencing collected quantities of municipal solid wasteSlavica Schuster
, 2019, doctoral dissertation
Abstract: The first part of the survey, using the survey (enclosed with the annexes), tried in various ways to identify samples and facts by which we could predict the amount of waste collected according to some social and economic indicators of all municipalities of the Republic of Slovenia. Data were collected through surveys to determine the way we work and think about the collection of waste and landfills. For my research I have selected the Republic of Slovenia and its 212 municipalities. It is precisely Slovenia that in many respects represents a bright spot in waste management and management.
In the second part of the research we used statistical methods to find the factors that influence the increase of waste. From the results we have proved our hypotheses and one of the most important is how the average age of people influences the increase of waste. We did the research over a period of 6 years (2012-2017). Where, by comparison, we find that they do not change significantly in structure by age, but of course socio-economic indicators such as average age change.
In the last section, we compared the growth of waste collected with GDP growth. We show that with the growth of GDP, the amount of waste collected also increases. The research is also based on the Republic of Slovenia and beyond. In the second part of the last survey we also included data for EU Member States (28 of them).
Keywords: waste, waste management, amount of waste, socio-economic impacts, Slovenia, wild-landfills, GDP
Published in RUNG: 02.10.2019; Views: 3710; Downloads: 224
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Network per la riabilitazione mentale e motoria dell' ictus: Združenje za kognitivno in gibalno rehabilitacijo po možganski kapi: lecture by dr Aleš Pražnikar (Trieste, Italy, 5 to 7 April 2018)Milena Kovačević
Abstract: Lecture by dr Aleš Pražnikar, Ljubljana, delivered at Società Italiana di Riabilitazione Neurologica (SIRN), Trieste, Italy, in early April 2018; translation of the lecture from English.
Keywords: medical research, medical practice, Slovenia, stroke, early stroke rehabilitation, neuro rehabilitation
Published in RUNG: 10.07.2019; Views: 2610; Downloads: 0
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