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21.
Postcommunism as a Contradictory Combination of Competing Elements
Gal Kirn, 2015, review, book review, critique

Found in: ključnih besedah
Summary of found: ...postcommunist cinema, transition in Eastern films, postcommunism...
Keywords: postcommunist cinema, transition in Eastern films, postcommunism
Published: 19.08.2020; Views: 1049; Downloads: 0
.pdf Fulltext (111,96 KB)

22.
Characterization of bacterial cellulose films combined with chitosan and polyvinyl alcohol: Evaluation of mechanical and barrier properties
Manuel Vazquez, Gonzalo Velazquez, Patricia Cazón, 2019, original scientific article

Abstract: Bacterial cellulose (BC) produced by Komagataeibacter xylinus is a biomaterial with a unique three-dimensional structure. To improve the mechanical properties and reinforce the BC films, they were immersed in polyvinyl alcohol (0–4%) and chitosan (0–1%) baths. Moisture content, mechanical properties and water vapour perme- ability were measured to assess the effect of polyvinyl alcohol and chitosan. The morphology, optical, structural and thermal properties were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy, spectral analysis, thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry. Results showed that moisture content was significantly affected by the chitosan presence. Tensile strength values in the 20.76–41.65 MPa range were similar to those of synthetic polymer films. Percentage of elongation ranged from 2.28 to 21.82% and Young's modulus ranged from 1043.88 to 2247.82 MPa. The water vapour permeability (1.47×10−11–3.40×10−11 g/m s Pa) decreased with the addition of polyvinyl alcohol. The developed films own UV light barrier properties and optimal visual appearance.
Found in: ključnih besedah
Keywords: Films, Bacterial cellulose, Water vapor permeability, Chitosan, Polyvinyl alcohol, UV protection
Published: 14.12.2020; Views: 1056; Downloads: 0
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23.
24.
Structural, morphological and chemical properties of metal/topological insulator interfaces
Katja Ferfolja, 2021, doctoral dissertation

Abstract: Topological insulators (TIs) represent a new state of matter that possess a different band structure than regular insulators or conductors. They are characterized with a band gap in the bulk and conductive topological states on the surface, which are spin polarized and robust toward contamination or deformation of the surface. Since the intriguing properties of the TIs are localized at the surface, it is important to obtain knowledge of the possible phenomena happening at the interface between TIs and other materials. This is especially true in the case of metals, due to the fact that such interfaces will be present in the majority of foreseen TI applications. The presented study combines microscopy and spectroscopy techniques for characterization of morphology, stability and chemical interaction at the interface between TI and metals deposited by means of physical vapor deposition. Our research is based on the interface of Bi2Se3 topological insulator with Ag, Ti and Pt – metals that can be encountered in devices or applications predicted to utilize the special properties of topological insulators. STM and SEM imaging of Ag/Bi2Se3 interface showed that Ag atoms arrange on the surface in the form of islands, whereas significantly bigger agglomerates are found at the surface steps. The interface was found to be unstable in time and resulted in the absorption of the metal into the crystal at room temperature. Evidences of a chemical reaction at the Ag/Bi2Se3 interface are presented, showing that new phases (Ag2Se, AgBiSe2 and metallic Bi) are formed. Deposition of Ti on Bi2Se3 resulted in different morphologies depending on the film thickness. At a very low coverage (<1 Å) islands are formed. However, the islands growth is hindered before the completion of a full layer due to the occurrence of a chemical reaction. No surface features could be detected by SEM for Ti coverage up to 20 nm. In contrary, when Ti thickness reached 40 nm, compressive stress triggered buckling of the deposited film. XPS analysis revealed that a redox solid-state reaction occurs at the Ti/Bi2Se3 interface at room temperature forming titanium selenides and metallic Bi. The reaction has significant kinetics even at cryogenic temperature of 130 K. Pt forms a homogenous film over the whole substrate surface, which is stable in time at room temperature. Although the interface of Pt with Bi2Se3 was found to be i less reactive compared to Ag and Ti, an interfacial phase formed upon annealing to ∼90 °C was detected by TEM cross section experiment. A model for prediction of interfacial reactions between a metal and Bi2Se3 based on the standard reduction potential of the metals and Gibbs free energy for a model reaction is presented. Based on these two values the reaction can be expected to result in the formation of binary and/or ternary selenides and Bi. Presented work shows on the importance of metal/topological insulator interfaces characterization taking into account the possibility of a chemical reaction with all of its consequences. Results should be considered for future theoretical and applicative studies involving such interfaces as well as for the possible engineering of 2D TI heterostructures.
Found in: ključnih besedah
Summary of found: ...topological insulators, topological surface states, Bi2Se3, thin films, Ag, Ti, Pt, morphology, interfaces, solid-state reaction,...
Keywords: topological insulators, topological surface states, Bi2Se3, thin films, Ag, Ti, Pt, morphology, interfaces, solid-state reaction, metal selenides, reactivity, stability, electron microscopy, dissertations
Published: 09.06.2021; Views: 1256; Downloads: 87
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25.
Preparation of porous [alpha]-Fe[sub]2O[sub]3 thin films for efficient photoelectrocatalytic degradation of basic blue 41 dye
Saim Emin, Lorena Butinar, Branka Mozetič Vodopivec, Mitja Martelanc, Manel Machreki, Takwa Chouki, 2021, original scientific article

Abstract: A novel method was developed for the preparation of porous hematite (α-Fe2O3) thin films. First, a solution containing iron precursor was spin-coated on fluorine-doped tin oxide substrate and later short heat-treated at 750 °C. The prepared α-Fe2O3 thin films were applied as dual-function catalyst in photoelectrochemical (PEC) water oxidation and textile dye degradation studies. For the first time, α-Fe2O3 thin films were used in efficient PEC degradation of a textile dye (Basic Blue 41 – B41) using in-situ generated reactive chlorine species. In comparison with photocatalytic and electrocatalytic approaches, the PEC technique allows faster degradation of B41 dye at an applied bias potential of 1.5 V versus reversible hydrogen electrode and under visible light illumination. In the presence of Cl− using the PEC approach the degradation of B41 reaches 99.8%. High-performance liquid chromatography coupled with UV–VIS system confirmed the degradation of B41 dye using PEC. Gas-chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry was used to study the by-products obtained during PEC degradation. Chemical oxygen demand analyses confirmed that the mineralization level of B41 is in the order of 68%. The α-Fe2O3 films developed in this study give a higher level of PEC degradation efficiency compared to other iron oxide-based systems.
Found in: ključnih besedah
Keywords: thin films, photoelectrocatalysis, kinetics, visible light, degradation, textile dye
Published: 10.05.2021; Views: 840; Downloads: 4
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26.
Electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution with textured iron phosphides thin films
Saim Emin, 2019, published scientific conference contribution abstract

Abstract: We used wet-chemistry techniques to prepare colloidal iron phosphides (F2P) nanoparticles (NPs). The synthesis of Fe2P NPs was conducted using the so called hot-matrix method [1]. The sizes of obtained Fe2P NPs are in the order of 2 - 5 nm. The colloidal Fe2P NPs are coated with hydrophobic molecules which allow preparation of stable dispersion in organic solvents like choloroform (CHCl3). The colloidal F2P NPs are very suitable for the preparation of thin films via spin-coated, spray coated or inkjet-printed on various conductive substrates. The obtained Fe2P films were used in hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). In addition, to HER the Fe2P films were used for electrocatalytic degradation of organics.
Found in: ključnih besedah
Keywords: Fe2P, electroctalysis, thin films
Published: 13.05.2021; Views: 891; Downloads: 0
.pdf Fulltext (224,16 KB)

27.
Photoelectrocatalytic water splitting and dye degradation with fluorine doped tin oxides films
Saim Emin, Takwa Chouki, Manel Machreki, 2019, published scientific conference contribution abstract

Abstract: We report the photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting with flourine doped tin oxide (FTO) films. This is the first study where efficient water splitting is achieved with FTO films under light illumination. Potentiostatic test at 1.7 V vs reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE) show that FTO material is very stable for water oxidation without occurence of a noticable current drop over a span of 6 hours. Mass spectrometry analysis of evolved gasses confermed the formation of oxygen and hydrogen in the two half cells (separated by a membrane). Moreover, it was demonstrated that the water splitting reaction involve formation of hydroxyl radicals (•OH) which are known oxidants for organics. We applied these FTO films for degradation of a model pollutant rhodamine B dye (1×10−5 mol/l). PEC assisted degradation of rhodamine B took about 30 min to achieve complete degradation of 60 ml model dye solution.
Found in: ključnih besedah
Keywords: FTO, thin films, dye degradation
Published: 13.05.2021; Views: 703; Downloads: 0
.pdf Fulltext (3,87 MB)

28.
Sn-modified TiO[sub]2 thin film photocatalysts prepared by low-temperature sol-gel processing
Ksenija Maver, 2021, doctoral dissertation

Abstract: Due to many advantageous physiochemical properties, titanium dioxide (TiO2) is the most widely used photocatalyst in numerous applications, such as wastewater treatment and air purification, self-cleaning surfaces and energy conversion (H2 generation). However, one of its disadvantages is the high electron-hole recombination rate, and coupling with other semiconductors is one of the strategies to improve it. The objective of this dissertation was to investigate how the photocatalytic activity of pure TiO2 can be improved by tin modification and to explain the mechanism of increased or hindered photoactivity in correlation with the structural properties of the modified TiO2 photocatalysts. A new low-temperature sol-gel synthesis route was developed to prepare Sn- or SnO2-modified TiO2 photocatalysts. In both cases, organic tin and titanium precursors were used. Tin in the form of Sn cations was used to prepare Sn-modified TiO2. In this case, the precursors went through the sol-gel reaction together to form a Sn-TiO2 sol. In the case of SnO2 modification, the SnO2 sol was prepared separately and additionally mixed with the TiO2 sol to form a TiO2/SnO2 bicomponent semiconductor system. Different molar ratios of tin to titanium were prepared to investigate the correlation between the tin concentration and the photocatalytic properties of the photocatalysts in the form of thin films. The results were used to optimize the synthesis conditions to obtain an improved activity of the modified TiO2 photocatalysts under UV-irradiation. The photocatalytic activity of the thin films was determined by measuring the degradation rate of an azo dye. An increase of up to 40 % in the photocatalytic activity of the dried samples (at 150 °C) was achieved when the TiO2 was modified with the Sn or SnO2 in a concentration range of 0.1 to 1 mol.%. At higher Sn or SnO2 loadings and after calcination of the samples at 500 °C, the photocatalytic activity of the photocatalyst was reduced compared to the unmodified TiO2. Different characterization techniques (UV-Vis, XRD, nitrogen physisorption, TEM, SEM and XAS) were employed to clarify the mechanism responsible for the enhanced and hindered photocatalytic performance of the Sn- and SnO2-modified TiO2 photocatalysts. The results showed that a nanocrystalline structure is already achieved in the samples by the low-temperature film treatment (drying at 150 °C) and that the photocatalytic efficiency is mainly influenced by the crystalline phase composition: anatase/rutile in the case of Sn-modified and TiO2/SnO2 in the case of SnO2-modified TiO2. The crystal size and specific surface area differ insignificantly between the equally thermally treated samples and partly explain the differences in photoefficiency of the calcined samples compared to the dried samples. The structural study at the atomic level, using the Sn K-edge EXAFS, revealed that Sn cations act as nucleation sites for the anatase to rutile transformation in the Sn-modified TiO2 photocatalysts, while in the SnO2-modified TiO2 samples the nanocrystalline cassiterite SnO2 is bound to the TiO2 nanocrystallites via the Sn-O-Ti bond. In both cases, the advantage of coupling the two semiconductors was achieved by separating the charge carriers and thus prolonging their lifetime for accessibility to participate in the redox reactions. The maximum activity enhancement was achieved in the low concentration range (0.1–1 mol.%), which means that an optimal ratio and contact of the two phases are obtained for the given physical parameters, such as particle size, shape and specific surface area of the catalyst.
Found in: ključnih besedah
Summary of found: ...the photocatalysts in the form of thin films. The results were used to optimize the...
Keywords: Sn-modified TiO2, SnO2-modified TiO2, low-temperature sol-gel, thin films, photocatalytic activity, anatase/rutile system, Sn K-edge EXAFS, dissertations
Published: 09.06.2021; Views: 1400; Downloads: 75
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29.
Improved photocatalytic activity of SnO[sub]2-TiO[sub]2 nanocomposite thin films prepared by low-temperature sol-gel method
Urška Lavrenčič Štangar, Giovanni Palmisano, Matjaž Valant, Mattia Fanetti, Samar Al Jitan, Iztok Arčon, Ksenija Maver, 2021, original scientific article

Abstract: The objective of this research was to investigate how the photocatalytic activity of pure TiO2 can be improved by SnO2 modification. Different molar ratios of tin to titanium were prepared. The correlation between tin concentration and structural properties was investigated to explain the mechanism of photocatalytic efficiency and to optimize the synthesis conditions to obtain enhanced activity of the SnO2-modified TiO2 photocatalysts under UV-irradiation. The SnO2-modified TiO2 photocatalysts were prepared by a low-temperature sol-gel method based on organic tin and titanium precursors. The precursors underwent sol-gel reactions separately to form SnO2-TiO2 sol. The sol-gels were deposited on a glass substrate by a dip-coating technique and dried at 150 ◦C to obtain the photocatalysts in the form of a thin film. To test the thermal stability of the material, an additional set of photocatalysts was prepared by calcining the dried samples in air at 500 ◦C. The photocatalytic activity of the samples was determined by measuring the degradation rate of an azo dye. An increase of up to 30% in the photocatalytic activity of the air-dried samples was obtained when the TiO2 was modified with the SnO2 in a concentration range of 0.1–1 mol.%. At higher SnO2 loadings, the photocatalytic activity of the photocatalyst was reduced compared to the unmodified TiO2. The calcined samples showed an overall reduced photocatalytic activity compared to the air-dried samples. Various characterization techniques (UV-Vis, XRD, N2-physisorption, TEM, EDX, SEM, XAS and photoelectrochemical characterization) were used to explain the mechanism for the enhanced and hindered photocatalytic performances of the SnO2-modified TiO2 photocatalysts. The results showed that the nanocrystalline cassiterite SnO2 is attached to the TiO2 nanocrystallites through the Sn-O-Ti bonds. In this way, the coupling of two semiconductors, SnO2 and TiO2, was demonstrated. Compared to single-phase photocatalysts, the coupling of semiconductors has a beneficial effect on the separation of charge carriers, which prolongs their lifetime for accessibility to participate in the redox reactions. The maximum increase in activity of the thin films was achieved in the low concentration range (0.1–1 mol.%), which means that an optimal ratio and contact of the two phases is achieved for the given physical parameters such as particle size, shape and specific surface area of the catalyst.
Found in: ključnih besedah
Keywords: photocatalytic activity, Sn-modified TiO2, low-temperature, thin films, XAS analysis
Published: 05.07.2021; Views: 811; Downloads: 0
.pdf Fulltext (5,18 MB)

30.
Towards a novel method for iron species determination in Antarctic sea ice
Hanna Budasheva, Arne Bratkič, Dorota Korte, Mladen Franko, 2021, published scientific conference contribution abstract

Abstract: Sea-ice borne iron has been found to be an important factor controlling Southern Ocean phytoplankton growth [1]. Knowing the amount and chemical speciation of its labile fraction in sea ice would advance our understanding of the involved processes. Unfortunately, it is rather difficult to perform their measurement because of limited access to the Antarctic. Thus there is a strong need for the development of a quick, simple and reliable technique for determination of iron and its speciation in sea-ice that ensures also low enough limits of detection. Recently, diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) have been widely used as passive samplers for collecting time-averaged data on the concentrations of transition metals in different media [2]. DGTs are further coupled to an analytical technique that in case of detecting metals in passive sampler films primarily requires their extraction [3], which may potentially lead to changes of the metal specification. In the present study, the beam deflection spectrometry (BDS) is coupled to DGT and used to determine the average concentration of iron in the sea ice samples collected at the Davis Station in the Antarctic. Such a combined technique has been already successfully applied for detecting labile iron species in freshwater sediments [4]. The obtained BDS data were validated by thermal lens spectrometry (TLS) and UV-Vis spectrophotometry (SPEC). The distribution of iron species over a given ice surface area using the DGT-BDS technique revealed total iron concentrations in the range of 0.6 – 5.3 μgL-1, whereas the Fe2+ content was found to be in the range of 0.1 – 1.5 μgL-1. The range taking into account all of the measurement points (5×4), the precision of a single measured point is 0.2 μgL-1. The calculated 24 h-average concentration of total Fe labile species in the ice by using BDS is 2.3 ± 0.5 μgL-1, which coincides with data obtained by SPEC (2.5 ± 0.4 μgL-1) and TLS (2.39 ± 0.02 μgL-1). Our results indicate that it is possible to develop a robust, contamination-resilient detection method for measuring the labile iron species concentration in the sea ice. In opposite to TLS and SPEC, BDS-DGT provides reliable information not only about the speciation of iron but also about their distribution on the ice surface.
Found in: ključnih besedah
Summary of found: ...of detection. Recently, diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) have been widely used as passive...
Keywords: beam deflection spectrometry, diffusive gradients, thin films, iron species, photothermal techniques, Antarctic sea ice
Published: 30.11.2021; Views: 532; Downloads: 0
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