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Calibration of the underground muon detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory
A. Aab, Andrej Filipčič, Jon Paul Lundquist, Samo Stanič, Marta Trini, Serguei Vorobiov, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, Lukas Zehrer, 2021, original scientific article

Abstract: To obtain direct measurements of the muon content of extensive air showers with energy above 10[sup]16.5 eV, the Pierre Auger Observatory is currently being equipped with an underground muon detector (UMD), consisting of 219 10 m[sup]2-modules, each segmented into 64 scintillators coupled to silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs). Direct access to the shower muon content allows for the study of both of the composition of primary cosmic rays and of high-energy hadronic interactions in the forward direction. As the muon density can vary between tens of muons per m[sup]2 close to the intersection of the shower axis with the ground to much less than one per m[sup]2 when far away, the necessary broad dynamic range is achieved by the simultaneous implementation of two acquisition modes in the read-out electronics: the binary mode, tuned to count single muons, and the ADC mode, suited to measure a high number of them. In this work, we present the end-to-end calibration of the muon detector modules: first, the SiPMs are calibrated by means of the binary channel, and then, the ADC channel is calibrated using atmospheric muons, detected in parallel to the shower data acquisition. The laboratory and field measurements performed to develop the implementation of the full calibration chain of both binary and ADC channels are presented and discussed. The calibration procedure is reliable to work with the high amount of channels in the UMD, which will be operated continuously, in changing environmental conditions, for several years.
Keywords: ultra-high energy cosmic rays, extensive air showers (EAS), EAS muonic component, Pierre Auger Observatory, underground muon detector, detector calibration
Published in RUNG: 14.04.2021; Views: 2347; Downloads: 137
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Status and Prospects of the Auger Engineering Radio Array
Johannes Schulz, Andrej Filipčič, Gašper Kukec Mezek, Ahmed Saleh, Samo Stanič, Marta Trini, Darko Veberič, Serguei Vorobiov, Lili Yang, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, 2015, published scientific conference contribution

Abstract: The Auger Engineering Radio Array (AERA) is an extension of the Pierre Auger Observatory. It is used to detect radio emission from extensive air showers in the 30 - 80 MHz frequency band. A focus of interest is the dependence of the radio emission on shower parameters such as the energy and the atmospheric depth of the shower maximum. After three phases of deployment, AERA now consists of 153 autonomous radio stations with different spacings, covering an area of about 17 km2. The size, station spacings, and geographic location at the same site or near other Auger extensions, are all targeted at cosmic ray energies above 10[sup]17 eV. The array allows us to explore different technical schemes to measure the radio emission as well as to cross calibrate our measurements with the established baseline detectors of the Auger Observatory. We present the most recent technological developments and selected experimental results obtained with AERA.
Keywords: Pierre Auger Observatory, the Auger Engineering Radio Array (AERA), radio emission from extensive air showers, detector cross-calibration
Published in RUNG: 03.03.2016; Views: 4224; Downloads: 194
.pdf Full text (2,79 MB)

Automated procedures for the Fluorescence Detector calibration at the Pierre Auger Observatory
Gaetano Salina, Andrej Filipčič, Gašper Kukec Mezek, Ahmed Saleh, Samo Stanič, Marta Trini, Darko Veberič, Serguei Vorobiov, Lili Yang, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, 2015, published scientific conference contribution

Abstract: The quality of the physics results, derived from the analysis of the data collected at the Pierre Auger Observatory depends heavily on the calibration and monitoring of the components of the detectors. It is crucial to maintain a database containing complete information on the absolute calibration of all photomultipliers and their time evolution. The low rate of the physics events implies that the analysis will have to be made over a long period of operation. This requirement imposes a very organized and reliable data storage and data management strategy, in order to guarantee correct data preservation and high data quality. The Fluorescence Detector (FD) consists of 27 telescopes with about 12,000 phototubes which have to be calibrated periodically. A special absolute calibration system is used. It is based on a calibrated light source with a diffusive screen, uniformly illuminating photomultipliers of the camera. This absolute calibration is performed every few years, as its use is not compatible with the operation of the detector. To monitor the stability and the time behavior, another light source system operates every night of data taking. This relative calibration procedure yields more than 2×10[sup]4 raw files each year, about 1 TByte/year. In this paper we describe a new web-interfaced database architecture to manage, store, produce and analyse FD calibration data. It contains the configuration and operating parameters of the detectors at each instant and other relevant functional parameters that are needed for the analysis or to monitor possible instabilities, used for the early discovery of malfunctioning components. Based on over 10 years of operation, we present results on the long term performance of FD and its dependence on environmental variables. We also report on a check of the absolute calibration values by analysing the signals left by stars traversing the FD field of view.
Keywords: Pierre Auger Observatory, Fluorescence Detector, detector calibration and monitoring, automated calibration procedure
Published in RUNG: 03.03.2016; Views: 3949; Downloads: 200
.pdf Full text (1,06 MB)

Measurement of the water-Cherenkov detector response to inclined muons using an RPC hodoscope
Pedro Assis, Andrej Filipčič, Gašper Kukec Mezek, Ahmed Saleh, Samo Stanič, Marta Trini, Darko Veberič, Serguei Vorobiov, Lili Yang, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, 2015, published scientific conference contribution

Abstract: The Pierre Auger Observatory operates a hybrid detector composed of a Fluorescence Detector and a Surface Detector array. Water-Cherenkov detectors (WCD) are the building blocks of the array and as such play a key role in the detection of secondary particles at the ground. A good knowledge of the detector response is of paramount importance to lower systematic uncertainties and thus to increase the capability of the experiment in determining the muon content of the extensive air showers with a higher precision. In this work we report on a detailed study of the detector response to single muons as a function of their trajectories in the WCD. A dedicated Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC) hodoscope was built and installed around one of the detectors. The hodoscope is formed by two stand-alone low gas flux segmented RPC detectors with the test water-Cherenkov detector placed in between. The segmentation of the RPC detectors is of the order of 10 cm. The hodoscope is used to trigger and select single muon events in different geometries. The signal recorded in the water-Cherenkov detector and performance estimators were studied as a function of the trajectories of the muons and compared with a dedicated simulation. An agreement at the percent level was found, showing that the simulation correctly describes the tank response.
Keywords: Pierre Auger Observatory, Water-Cherenkov detectors, detector calibration, inclined cosmic ray muons, Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC) hodoscope
Published in RUNG: 03.03.2016; Views: 4348; Downloads: 196
.pdf Full text (1,27 MB)

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