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In Situ Techniques for Characterization of Layered Double Hydroxide-Based Oxygen Evolution Catalysts
Andraž Mavrič, Matjaž Valant, 2023, review article

Abstract: Functional layered double hydroxide (LDH) usually contains different cationic substitutes to increase the activity of the oxygen evolution reaction (OER). The intrinsic OER activity of LDH materials is connected with the chemical composition and dispersion of metal cations substitutions in the matrix phase. The potential induced phase transitions, in particular hydroxide-to-oxyhydroxide transitions, are a predisposition for the high OER activity of LDH materials and can be followed by coupling the electrochemical experiments with spectroscopic techniques. The understanding of LDH catalysts under electrochemical conditions also allows an understanding of the behavior of OER catalysts based on transition metals, metal-chalcogenides, -pnictides, -carbides, and metal–organic frameworks. The surfaces of those materials are intrinsically poor OER catalysts. However, they act as precursors to catalysts, which are oxidized into a metal (oxy)hydroxide. This review summarizes the use of in situ techniques for the characterization of LDH-based OER electrocatalysts and presents the influence of these techniques on the understanding of potential induced phase transitions, identification of active sites, and reaction mechanisms.
Keywords: oxygen evolution reaction, layered double hydroxide, in-situ characterization
Published in RUNG: 14.07.2023; Views: 599; Downloads: 5
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Stable seawater oxidation with a self-healing oxygen-evolving catalyst
Xiaojian Zhang, Chao Feng, Zeyu Fan, Beibei Zhang, Yequan Xiao, Andraž Mavrič, Nadiia Pastukhova, Matjaz Valant, Yi-Fan Han, Yanbo Li, 2023, original scientific article

Abstract: Direct seawater electrolysis is key to massive hydrogen fuel production without the depletion of precious freshwater resources and the need for high-purity electrolytes. However, the presence of high-concentration chloride ions (Cl−) and alkaline-earth metal ions (Mg2+, Ca2+) poses great challenges to the stability and selectivity of the catalysts for seawater splitting. Here, we demonstrate a self-healing oxygen evolution reaction (OER) catalyst for long-term seawater electrolysis. By suppressing the competitive chlorine evolution reaction and precipitating the alkaline-earth metal ions through an alkaline treatment of the seawater, stable seawater oxidation is achieved owing to the self-healing ability of the borate-intercalated nickel–cobalt–iron oxyhydroxides (NiCoFe-Bi) OER catalyst under highly-alkaline conditions. The self-healing NiCoFe-Bi catalyst achieves stable seawater oxidation at a large current density of 500 mA cm−2 for 1000 h with near unity Faraday efficiency. Our results have demonstrated strong durability and high OER selectivity of the self-healing catalyst under harsh conditions, paving the way for industrial large-scale seawater electrolysis.
Keywords: chemistry, electrocatalysis, seawater oxidation, oxygen evolution reaction
Published in RUNG: 08.05.2023; Views: 640; Downloads: 0
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Effect of the Morphology of the High-Surface-Area Support on the Performance of the Oxygen-Evolution Reaction for Iridium Nanoparticles
Leonard Moriau, Marjan Bele, Živa Marinko, Francisco Ruiz-Zepeda, Gorazd Koderman, Martin Šala, Angelija Kjara Šurca, Janez Kovač, Iztok Arčon, Primož Jovanovič, Nejc Hodnik, Luka Suhadolnik, 2021, original scientific article

Abstract: The development of affordable, low-iridium-loading, scalable, active, and stable catalysts for the oxygen-evolution reaction (OER) is a requirement for the commercialization of proton-exchange membrane water electrolyzers (PEMWEs). However, the synthesis of high-performance OER catalysts with minimal use of the rare and expensive element Ir is very challenging and requires the identification of electrically conductive and stable high-surface-area support materials. We developed a synthesis procedure for the production of large quantities of a nanocomposite powder containing titanium oxynitride (TiONx) and Ir. The catalysts were synthesized with an anodic oxidation process followed by detachment, milling, thermal treatment, and the deposition of Ir nanoparticles. The anodization time was varied to grow three different types of nanotubular structures exhibiting different lengths and wall thicknesses and thus a variety of properties. A comparison of milled samples with different degrees of nanotubular clustering and morphology retention, but with identical chemical compositions and Ir nanoparticle size distributions and dispersions, revealed that the nanotubular support morphology is the determining factor governing the catalyst’s OER activity and stability. Our study is supported by various state-of-the-art materials’ characterization techniques, like X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopies, Xray powder diffraction and absorption spectroscopy, and electrochemical cyclic voltammetry. Anodic oxidation proved to be a very suitable way to produce high-surface-area powder-type catalysts as the produced material greatly outperformed the IrO2 benchmarks as well as the Ir-supported samples on morphologically different TiONx from previous studies. The highest activity was achieved for the sample prepared with 3 h of anodization, which had the most appropriate morphology for the effective removal of oxygen bubbles.
Keywords: electrocatalysis, oxygen-evolution reaction, TiONx-Ir powder catalyst, iridium nanoparticles, anodic oxidation, morphology−activity correlation
Published in RUNG: 04.01.2021; Views: 2200; Downloads: 0
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