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1.
Carcinogenic organic content of particulate matter at urban locations with different pollution sources
Gordana Pehnec, Ivana Jakovljević, Ranka Godec, Sabina Žero, Jasna Huremović, Katja Džepina, Zdravka Sever Štrukil, 2020, original scientific article

Abstract: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are compounds known for their adverse effects on human health. Many of them are proven carcinogens, especially those with 5 and 6 aromatic rings, which under normal tropospheric conditions are found in the particle-phase. Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) is often measured as their general representative. Sarajevo, the capital of Bosnia and Herzegovina, is among the European cities with the poorest air quality. However, in Sarajevo PAHs are neither routinely measured within the air quality monitoring network nor have been a subject of extended, continuous field studies during the most polluted cold periods of the year. The capital of Croatia, Zagreb, is located approximately 300 km air distance north-west from Sarajevo. PAH mass concentrations in Zagreb have been measured continuously since 1994 within air quality monitoring networks. During winter 2017/2018, the SAFICA project (Sarajevo Canton Winter Field Campaign 2018) was carried out in order to characterize the chemical composition of organic and inorganic aerosol in the Sarajevo Canton. This paper presents the results of PAH measurements in the cities of Sarajevo and Zagreb at one urban location per city. Daily (24 h), continuous samples of PM10 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters ≤10 μm) were collected during heating season, from December 27, 2017 to February 27, 2018. Mass concentrations of eleven particle-phase PAHs in Sarajevo and Zagreb from filter samples collected during the same period were compared. The average BaP ambient mass concentrations in Sarajevo and Zagreb were 6.93 ng m−3 and 3.11 ng m−3, respectively. The contribution of BaP to the total PAH mass concentration was similar at both locations (11%). However, much higher contributions of particle-phase fluoranthene and pyrene were found in Sarajevo. Contributions of individual PAH, diagnostic ratios and factor analysis indicate that combustion of gasoline and diesel from vehicle traffic are a potential source of PAHs at both locations, as well as combustion of other liquid fossil fuels (petroleum and fuel oil). Wood burning was occasionally indicated as a PAH emission source in Zagreb, while in Sarajevo the contribution of PAHs from wood and coal combustion was more evident. Calculated value for total carcinogenic potency (TCP) of PAHs, which was estimated using toxic equivalence factors from the literature, in PM10 samples collected in Sarajevo was more than twice higher than in Zagreb (10.6 ng m−3 and 4.7 ng m−3, respectively). BaP had the highest contribution to the TCP at both locations (69 and 67%).
Found in: ključnih besedah
Summary of found: ... Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are compounds known for...
Keywords: carcinogenic potency, diagnostic ratio, factor analysis, PM10, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
Published: 09.04.2021; Views: 514; Downloads: 0
.pdf Fulltext (661,08 KB)

2.
Evaluation of recently-proposed secondary organic aerosol models for a case study in Mexico City
Katja Džepina, R. M. Volkamer, Sasha Madronich, P. Tulet, I. M. Ulbrich, Q. Zhang, C. D. Cappa, P. J. Ziemann, Jose L. Jimenez, 2009, original scientific article

Abstract: Recent field studies have found large discrepancies in the measured vs. modeled SOA mass loadings in both urban and regional polluted atmospheres. The reasons for these large differences are unclear. Here we revisit a case study of SOA formation in Mexico City described by Volkamer et al. (2006), during a photochemically active period when the impact of regional biomass burning is minor or negligible, and show that the observed increase in OA/Delta CO is consistent with results from several groups during MILAGRO 2006. Then we use the case study to evaluate three new SOA models: 1) the update of aromatic SOA yields from recent chamber experiments (Ng et al., 2007); 2) the formation of SOA from glyoxal (Volkamer et al., 2007a); and 3) the formation of SOA from primary semivolatile and intermediate volatility species (P-S/IVOC) (Robinson et al., 2007). We also evaluate the effect of reduced partitioning of SOA into POA (Song et al., 2007). Traditional SOA precursors (mainly aromatics) by themselves still fail to produce enough SOA to match the observations by a factor of similar to similar to 7. The new low-NOx aromatic pathways with very high SOA yields make a very small contribution in this high-NOx urban environment as the RO2 center dot+NO reaction dominates the fate of the RO2 center dot radicals. Glyoxal contributes several mu g m(-3) to SOA formation, with similar timing as the measurements. P-S/IVOC are estimated from equilibrium with emitted POA, and introduce a large amount of gas-phase oxidizable carbon that was not in models before. With the formulation in Robinson et al. (2007) these species have a high SOA yield, and this mechanism can close the gap in SOA mass between measurements and models in our case study. However the volatility of SOA produced in the model is too high and the O/C ratio is somewhat lower than observations. Glyoxal SOA helps to bring the O/C ratio of predicted and observed SOA into better agreement. The sensitivities of the model to some key uncertain parameters are evaluated.
Found in: ključnih besedah
Summary of found: ... polycyclic aromatic-hydrocarbons, positive matrix factorization, mass-spectrometry, volati...
Keywords: polycyclic aromatic-hydrocarbons, positive matrix factorization, mass-spectrometry, volatility measurements
Published: 11.04.2021; Views: 497; Downloads: 0
.pdf Fulltext (1,18 MB)

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