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Monte Carlo simulations for the Pierre Auger Observatory using the VO auger grid resources
E. Santos, Andrej Filipčič, Jon Paul Lundquist, Samo Stanič, Serguei Vorobiov, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, Lukas Zehrer, 2022, published scientific conference contribution

Abstract: The Pierre Auger Observatory, located near Malargüe, Argentina, is the world’s largest cosmic-ray detector. It comprises a 3000 km^2 surface detector and 27 fluorescence telescopes, which measure the lateral and longitudinal distributions of the many millions of air-shower particles produced in the interactions initiated by a cosmic ray in the Earth’s atmosphere. The determination of the nature of cosmic rays and studies of the detector performances rely on extensive Monte Carlo simulations describing the physics processes occurring in extensive air showers and the detector responses. The aim of the Monte Carlo simulations task is to produce and provide the Auger Collaboration with reference libraries used in a wide variety of analyses. All multipurpose detector simulations are currently produced in local clusters using Slurm and HTCondor. The bulk of the shower simulations are produced on the grid, via the Virtual Organization auger, using the DIRAC middleware. The job submission is made via python scripts using the DIRAC-API. The Auger site is undergoing a major upgrade, which includes the installation of new types of detectors, demanding increased simulation resources. The novel detection of the radio component of extensive air showers is the most challenging endeavor, requiring dedicated shower simulations with very long computation times, not optimized for the grid production. For data redundancy, the simulations are stored on the Lyon server and the grid Disk Pool Manager and are accessible to the Auger members via iRODS and DIRAC, respectively. The CERN VMFile System is used for software distribution where, soon, the Auger Offline software will also be made available.
Keywords: Pierre Auger Observatory, indirect detection, fluorescence detection, surface detection, radio detection, ultra-high energy, cosmic rays, Monte Carlo simulation, computing resources, compute clusters, high capacity storage
Published in RUNG: 04.10.2023; Views: 330; Downloads: 7
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Update of the Offline Framework for AugerPrime
L. Nellen, Andrej Filipčič, Jon Paul Lundquist, Samo Stanič, Serguei Vorobiov, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, Lukas Zehrer, 2022, published scientific conference contribution

Abstract: Work on the Offline Framework for the Pierre Auger Observatory was started in 2003 to create a universal framework for event reconstruction and simulation. The development and installation of the AugerPrime upgrade of the Pierre Auger Observatory require an update of the Offline Framework to handle the additional detector components and the upgraded Surface Detector Electronics. The design of the Offline Framework proved to be sufficiently flexible to accommodate the changes needed to be able to handle the AugerPrime detector. This flexibility has been a goal since the development of the code started. The framework separates data structures from processing modules. The detector components map directly onto data structures. It was straightforward to update or add processing modules to handle the additional information from the new detectors. We will discuss the general structure of the Offline Framework, explaining the design decisions that provided its flexibility and point out the few of the features of the original design that required deeper changes, which could have been avoided in hindsight. Given the disruptive nature of the AugerPrime upgrade, the developers decided that the update for AugerPrime was the moment to change also the language standard for the implementation and move to the latest version of C++, to break strict backward compatibility eliminating deprecated interfaces, and to modernize the development infrastructure. We will discuss the changes that were made to the structure in general and the modules that were added to the framework to handle the new detector components.
Keywords: Pierre Auger Observatory, AugerPrime, indirect detection, surface detection, ground array, fluorescence detection, ultra-high energy, cosmic rays, event reconstruction, simulation, software framework
Published in RUNG: 04.10.2023; Views: 343; Downloads: 5
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Simulation cases of advanced driver-assistance systems
Oliver Angelov, 2023, undergraduate thesis

Abstract: In the bachelor’s thesis, advanced driver-assistance systems are discussed and explained. The focus of the explanation is placed on two specific systems, the anti-lock braking system and the automatic transmission system. To provide a deeper understanding of these systems, simulations were created using the computer program. Computer simulation is explained and the types of computer simulation are discussed. Programs used for computer simulation are presented and explained. The program used for computer simulation in this bachelor’s thesis is Scicos, and the visual and interactive representation of the anti-lock braking system and the automatic transmission system is made. For the anti-lock braking system, the simulation scheme is divided into models representing various components of the system, such as the vehicle, wheel, slip, friction, and control. Each of these models interacts with one another to replicate the functioning of the anti-lock braking system. Similarly, for the automatic transmission system, the simulation scheme is divided into models representing the driver and environment, engine, transmission, vehicle, and controller. These models interact to simulate the operation of the automatic transmission system. The thesis presents the results from the simulation of these two systems to analyze the difference in using the systems in different driving scenarios. The effect of the advanced driver-assistance systems in the vehicles is also showcased.
Keywords: Advanced driver-assistance systems, computer simulation, Scicos, anti-lock braking system, automatic transmission system.
Published in RUNG: 03.10.2023; Views: 377; Downloads: 4
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Taj Jankovič, 2023, doctoral dissertation

Abstract: Stellar tidal disruption events (TDEs), where a star gets disrupted by strong tidal forces of a supermassive black hole (SMBH), offer a unique opportunity for studies of SMBHs and stellar dynamics in galactic nuclei and provide insights into accretion physics. Currently, there are ≈ 100 observed TDEs, however, this number is expected to increase significantly with the start of new wide-field optical surveys, e.g. with the Vera Rubin Observatory. We focus on hydrodynamic simulations of TDEs with the smoothed particle hydrodynamics code Phantom. To begin with, we simulate TDEs in a general relativistic and Newtonian description of an SMBH’s gravity. Stars, which are placed on parabolic orbits with different parameters β (to be defined here), are constructed with the stellar evolution code MESA and therefore have realistic stellar density profiles. We study the mass fallback rate of the debris Ṁ, a quantity often assumed to determine the TDE light curves, and its dependence on the β, stellar mass and age as well as the black hole’s spin and the choice of the gravity’s description. We find that relativistic disruptions at the same pericenter distance are stronger than disruptions in a Newtonian description of the SMBH’s gravity. We also determine the differences between Ṁ of realistic stars with various ages and masses. In addition, we characterize the effect of SMBH’s rotation on the Ṁ and find that it depends on the orientation of SMBH’s spin vector relative to the stellar orbital angular momentum. Encounters on prograde orbits result in narrower Ṁ curves with higher peak values, while the opposite occurs for retrograde orbits. Stellar disruption results in an elongated stream of gas that partly falls back to the pericenter. Due to apsidal precession, the returning stream may collide with itself, leading to a self-crossing shock that launches an outflow. If the black hole spins, this collision may additionally be affected by Lense-Thirring precession which can cause an offset between the two stream components. We study the impact of this effect on the outflow properties by carrying out local simulations of collisions between offset streams. As the offset increases, we find that the geometry of the outflow becomes less spherical and more collimated along the directions of the incoming streams, with less gas getting unbound by the interaction. However, even the most grazing collisions we consider significantly affect the trajectories of the colliding gas, likely promoting subsequent strong interactions near the black hole and rapid disc formation. We analytically compute the offset to stream width ratio, finding that even slowly spinning black holes can cause both strong and grazing collisions. We propose that the deviation from outflow sphericity may enhance the self-crossing shock luminosity due to a reduction of adiabatic losses, and cause significant variations of the efficiency at which X-ray radiation from the disc is reprocessed to the optical band depending on the viewing angle. These potentially observable features hold the promise of constraining the black hole spin from tidal disruption events.
Keywords: Computer modelling and simulation, hydrodynamics, black holes, infall
Published in RUNG: 29.08.2023; Views: 350; Downloads: 4
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Studying TDEs in the era of LSST
Katja Bricman, A. Gomboc, 2019, published scientific conference contribution abstract

Keywords: The observing strategy with continuous scanning and large sky coverage of the upcoming ground-based Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will make it a perfect tool in search of rare transients, such as Tidal Disruption Events (TDEs). Bright optical flares resulting from tidal disruption of stars by their host supermassive black hole (SMBH) can provide us with important information about the mass of the SMBH involved in the disruption and thus enable the study of quiescent SMBHs, which represent a large majority of SMBHs found in centres of galaxies. These types of transients are extremely rare, with only about few tens of candidates discovered so far. It is expected that the LSST will provide a large sample of new TDE light curves. Here we present simulations of TDE observations using an end-to-end LSST simulation framework. Based on the analysis of simulated light curves we estimate the number of TDEs with good quality light curves the LSST is expected to discover in 10 years of observations. In addition, we investigate whether TDEs observed by the LSST could be used to probe the SMBH mass distribution in the universe. The participation at this conference is supported by the Action CA16104 Gravitational waves, black holes and fundamental physics (GWverse), supported by COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology).
Published in RUNG: 04.01.2021; Views: 2251; Downloads: 0

A study of stellar debris dynamics during a tidal disruption event
Aurora Clerici, 2020, doctoral dissertation

Abstract: The number of observed tidal disruption events is increasing rapidly with the advent of new surveys. Thus, it is becoming increasingly important to improve TDE models using different stellar and orbital parameters. We study the dynamical behaviour of tidal disruption events produced by a massive black hole like Sgr A* by changing different initial orbital parameters, taking into account the observed orbits of S stars. Investigating different types of orbits and penetration factors is important since their variations lead to different timescales of the tidal disruption event debris dynamics, making mechanisms such as self-crossing and pancaking act strongly or weakly, thus affecting the circularisation and accretion disk formation. We have performed smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations. Each simulation consists in modelling the star with $10^5$ particles, and the density profile is described by a polytrope with $\gamma$ = 5/3. The massive black hole is modelled with a generalised post-Newtonian potential, which takes into account relativistic effects of the Schwarzschild space-time. Our analyses find that mass return rate distributions of solar-like stars and S-like stars with same eccentricity have similar durations, but S-like stars have higher mass return rate, as expected due to their larger mass. Regarding debris circularisation, we identify four types of evolution, related to the mechanisms and processes involved during circularisation: in type 1 the debris does not circularise efficiently, hence a disk is not formed or is formed after relatively long time; in type 2 the debris slowly circularises and eventually forms a disk with no debris falling back; in type 3 the debris relatively quickly circularises and forms a disk while there is still debris falling back; finally, in type 4 the debris quickly and efficiently circularises, mainly through self-crossings and shocks, and forms a disk with no debris falling back. Finally, we find that the standard relation of circularisation radius $r_{\rm circ} = 2r_{\rm t}$ holds only for $\beta = 1$ and eccentricities close to parabolic.
Keywords: 07.05.Tp Computer modeling and simulation, 95.30.Lz Hydrodynamics, 98.35.Jk Galactic center, bar, circumnuclear matter, and bulge, 98.62.Js Galactic nuclei (including black holes), circumnuclear matter, and bulges, 98.62.Mw Infall, accretion, and accretion disks
Published in RUNG: 29.09.2020; Views: 3221; Downloads: 77
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CORSIKA Simulation of the Telescope Array Surface Detector
T. Abu-Zayyad, J. P. Lundquist, 2014, original scientific article

Abstract: The Telescope Array is the largest experiment studying ultra-high energy cosmic rays in the northern hemisphere. The detection area of the experiment consists of an array of 507 surface detectors, and a fluorescence detector divided into three sites at the periphery. The viewing directions of the 38 fluorescence telescopes point over the air space above the surface array. In this paper, we describe a technique that we have developed for simulating the response of the array of surface detectors of the Telescope Array experiment. The two primary components of this method are (a) the generation of a detailed CORSIKA Monte Carlo simulation with all known characteristics of the data, and (b) the validation of the simulation by a direct comparison with the Telescope Array surface detector data. This technique allows us to make a very accurate calculation of the acceptance of the array. We also describe a study of systematic uncertainties in this acceptance calculation.
Keywords: cosmic ray, extensive air shower, simulation, surface detector
Published in RUNG: 19.05.2020; Views: 2225; Downloads: 0
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