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21.
The new instrument using a TC–BC (total carbon–black carbon) method for the online measurement of carbonaceous aerosols
Martin Rigler, Luka Drinovec, Gašper Lavrič, Anastasia Vlachou, Andre S. H. Prevot, Jean-Luc Jaffrezo, Iasonas Stavroulas, Jean Sciare, Judita Burger, Irena Krajnc, Janja Turšič, Anthony D. A. Hansen, Griša Močnik, 2020, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: We present a newly developed total carbon analyzer (TCA08) and a method for online speciation of carbonaceous aerosol with a high time resolution. The total carbon content is determined by flash heating of a sample collected on a quartz-fiber filter with a time base between 20 min and 24 h. The limit of detection is approximately 0.3 µg C, which corresponds to a concentration of 0.3 µg C m−3 at a sample flow rate of 16.7 L min−1 and a 1 h sampling time base. The concentration of particulate equivalent organic carbon (OC) is determined by subtracting black carbon concentration, concurrently measured optically by an Aethalometer®, from the total carbon concentration measured by the TCA08. The combination of the TCA08 and Aethalometer (AE33) is an easy-to-deploy and low-maintenance continuous measurement technique for the high-time-resolution determination of equivalent organic and elemental carbon (EC) in different particulate matter size fractions, which avoids pyrolytic correction and the need for high-purity compressed gases. The performance of this online method relative to the standardized off-line thermo-optical OC–EC method and respective instruments was evaluated during a winter field campaign at an urban background location in Ljubljana, Slovenia. The organic-matter-to-organic-carbon ratio obtained from the comparison with an aerosol chemical speciation monitor (ACSM) was OM/OC=1.8, in the expected range.
Najdeno v: osebi
Ključne besede: total carbon, aeroosl, black carbon, carbonaceous matter
Objavljeno: 17.08.2020; Ogledov: 576; Prenosov: 21
.pdf Polno besedilo (226,45 KB)

22.
Air quality and climate change - how smart can the cities be?
Griša Močnik, Matevž Lenarčič, 2020, vabljeno predavanje na konferenci brez natisa

Opis: What starts as an air quality problem in urban areas, ends up as a climate change problem globally. Emissions from cities and the power generating facilities powering the cities have local, regional and global effects. We show examples spanning these scales with very practical advice on how to start abatement locally.
Najdeno v: osebi
Ključne besede: air quality, climate change, black carbon, aerosol, co2, smart city
Objavljeno: 11.09.2020; Ogledov: 568; Prenosov: 0
.pdf Polno besedilo (7,10 MB)

23.
Photo-thermal interferometer
Griša Močnik, Luka Drinovec, 2020, patent

Opis: A photo-thermal interferometer for measuring the light absorption of an aerosol or gas comprises a first laser source emitting a laser beam and a beam splitter adapted to divide the laser beam into a probe beam and a reference beam. The interferometer further comprises first optical elements which are adapted to direct the probe beam such that it passes through the aerosol and interferes with the reference beam thereafter thereby causing interference patterns. A detector detects the interference patterns. The interferometer further comprises a second laser source configured to emit a pump beam for transferring energy to the aerosol. Second optical elements are adapted to direct the pump beam such that it overlaps with the probe beam at least partially in the aerosol or gas. At least one of the second optical elements modifying the pump beam is an axicon.
Najdeno v: osebi
Ključne besede: aerosol, absorption, black carbon
Objavljeno: 15.09.2020; Ogledov: 491; Prenosov: 0
.pdf Polno besedilo (482,26 KB)

24.
Performance of microAethalometers: Real-world Field Intercomparisons from Multiple Mobile Measurement Campaigns in Different Atmospheric Environments
Honey Alas, Thomas Mueller, Kay Weinhold, Sascha Pfeifer, Kristina Glojek, Asta Gregorič, Griša Močnik, Luka Drinovec, Francesca Costabile, Martina Ristorini, A. Wiedensohler, 2020, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Small aethalometers are frequently used to measure equivalent black carbon (eBC) mass concentrations in the context of personal exposure and air pollution mapping through mobile measurements (MM). The most widely used is the microAethalometer (AE51). Its performance in the laboratory and field is well documented, however, there is not sufficient data in the context of its performance in different environments. In this investigation, we present the characterization of the performance of the AE51 through field unit-to-unit intercomparisons (IC), and against a reference absorption photometer from three MM campaigns conducted in drastically different environments. Five IC parameters were considered: i) study area, ii) location of IC, iii) time of day, iv) duration of IC, and v) correction for the filter-loading effect. We can conclude that it is crucial where and how long the IC have been performed in terms of the correlation between the mobile and reference instruments. Better correlations (R2 > 0.8, slope = 0.8) are achieved for IC performed in rural, and background areas for more than 10 minutes. In locations with more homogenous atmosphere, the correction of the loading effect improved the correlation between the mobile and reference instruments. In addition, a newer microAethalometer model (MA200) was characterized in the field under extreme cold conditions and correlated against another MA200 (R2 > 0.8, slope ≈ 1.0), AE51(R2 > 0.9, slope ≈ 0.9), and a stationary Aethalometer (AE33) across all wavelengths (R2 > 0.8, slope ≈ 0.7). For MA200, the loading effect was more pronounced, especially at the lower wavelengths, hence the correction of the loading effect is essential to improve the correlation against the AE33. The MA200 and AE51 proved to be robust and dependable portable instruments for MM applications. Real-world quality assurance of these instruments should be performed through field IC against reference instruments with longer durations in areas of slowly changing eBC concentration.
Najdeno v: osebi
Ključne besede: Portable instruments, Mobile monitoring, Black carbon, Instrument intercomparisons
Objavljeno: 15.09.2020; Ogledov: 451; Prenosov: 20
.pdf Polno besedilo (3,54 MB)

25.
A single-beam photothermal interferometer for in situ measurements of aerosol light absorption
Bradley Visser, Jannis Röhrbein, Peter Steigmeier, Luka Drinovec, Griša Močnik, Ernest Weingartner, 2020, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: We have developed a novel single-beam photothermal interferometer and present here its application for the measurement of aerosol light absorption. The use of only a single laser beam allows for a compact optical set-up and significantly easier alignment compared to standard dual-beam photothermal interferometers, making it ideal for field measurements. Due to a unique configuration of the reference interferometer arm, light absorption by aerosols can be determined directly – even in the presence of light-absorbing gases. The instrument can be calibrated directly with light-absorbing gases, such as NO2, and can be used to calibrate other light absorption instruments. The detection limits (1σ) for absorption for 10 and 60 s averaging times were determined to be 14.6 and 7.4 Mm−1, respectively, which for a mass absorption cross section of 10 m2 g−1 leads to equivalent black carbon concentration detection limits of 1460 and 740 ng m−3, respectively. The detection limit could be reduced further by improvements to the isolation of the instrument and the signal detection and processing schemes employed.
Najdeno v: osebi
Ključne besede: aerosol, aerosol absorption, black carbon, photo-thermal interferometer, climate change
Objavljeno: 29.12.2020; Ogledov: 372; Prenosov: 11
.pdf Polno besedilo (2,44 MB)

26.
Hidden black carbon air pollution in hilly rural areas - a case study of Dinaric depression
Kristina Glojek, Asta Gregorič, Griša Močnik, Andrea Cuesta-Mosquera, A. Wiedensohler, Luka Drinovec, Matej Ogrin, 2020, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Air pollution is not an exclusively urban problem as wood burning is a widespread practice in rural areas. As we lack information on the air quality situation in rural mountainous regions, our aim is to examine equivalent black carbon (eBC) pollution in a typical rural karst area in the settlement of Loški Potok (Slovenia). eBC mass concentrations were measured by Aethalometer (AE-33) at two sites in Retje karst depression. The rural village station was located at the bottom of the karst depression whereas the rural background station was positioned at the top of the hill. We showthe diurnal variation of equivalent black carbon mass concentrations for different seasons. In the populated karst depression, the major source of eBC pollution are households using wood as a heating fuel reaching the highest mass concentrations in winter. Diurnal pattern of eBC from biomass burning and traffic differ due to different source activity and it is influenced by typical formation of a cold air pool from late afternoon until late morning, restricting the dispersion of local emissions. The large difference in mass concentrations between the lowest part of the village (rural station) and the top of the hill (rural background station) indicates that in a vertically stratified and stable atmosphere local sources of black carbon have a major impact onair quality conditions in the area studied. Since in Alpine and Dinaric regions there are many similar inhabited areas, we can expect similar air quality conditions also in other rural hilly areas with limited self-cleaning air capacity.
Najdeno v: osebi
Ključne besede: air pollution, black carbon, hidden geographies, diurnal variation, biomass burning, relief depressions, Loški Potok, Slovenia
Objavljeno: 04.01.2021; Ogledov: 257; Prenosov: 0
.pdf Polno besedilo (1,15 MB)

27.
Aircraft vertical profiles during summertime regional and Saharan dust scenarios over the north-western Mediterranean basin: aerosol optical and physical properties
Jesus Yus-Diez, Marina Ealo, Marco Pandolfi, Noemi Perez, Gloria Titos, Griša Močnik, Xavier Querol, A. Alastuey, 2021, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Accurate measurements of the horizontal and vertical distribution of atmospheric aerosol particle optical properties are key for a better understanding of their impact on the climate. Here we present the results of a measurement campaign based on instrumented flights over north-eastern Spain. We measured vertical profiles of size-segregated atmospheric particulate matter (PM) mass concentrations and multi-wavelength scattering and absorption coefficients in the western Mediterranean basin (WMB). The campaign took place during typical summer conditions, characterized by the development of a vertical multi-layer structure, under both summer regional pollution episodes (REGs) and Saharan dust events (SDEs). REG patterns in the region form under high insolation and scarce precipitation in summer, favouring layering of highly aged fine-PM strata in the lower few kma.s.l. The REG scenario prevailed during the entire measurement campaign. Additionally, African dust outbreaks and plumes from northern African wildfires influenced the study area. The vertical profiles of climate-relevant intensive optical parameters such as single-scattering albedo (SSA); the asymmetry parameter (g); scattering, absorption and SSA Ångström exponents (SAE, AAE and SSAAE); and PM mass scattering and absorption cross sections (MSC and MAC) were derived from the measurements. Moreover, we compared the aircraft measurements with those performed at two GAW–ACTRIS (Global Atmosphere Watch–Aerosol, Clouds and Trace Gases) surface measurement stations located in north-eastern Spain, namely Montseny (MSY; regional background) and Montsec d'Ares (MSA; remote site). Airborne in situ measurements and ceilometer ground-based remote measurements identified aerosol air masses at altitudes up to more than 3.5 kma.s.l. The vertical profiles of the optical properties markedly changed according to the prevailing atmospheric scenarios. During SDE the SAE was low along the profiles, reaching values < 1.0 in the dust layers. Correspondingly, SSAAE was negative, and AAE reached values up to 2.0–2.5, as a consequence of the UV absorption increased by the presence of the coarse dust particles. During REG, the SAE increased to > 2.0, and the asymmetry parameter g was rather low (0.5–0.6) due to the prevalence of fine PM, which was characterized by an AAE close to 1.0, suggesting a fossil fuel combustion origin. During REG, some of the layers featured larger AAE (> 1.5), relatively low SSA at 525 nm (< 0.85) and high MSC (> 9 m2 g−1) and were associated with the influence of PM from wildfires. Overall, the SSA and MSC near the ground ranged around 0.85 and 3 m2 g−1, respectively, and increased at higher altitudes, reaching values above 0.95 and up to 9 m2 g−1. The PM, MSC and MAC were on average larger during REG compared to SDE due to the larger scattering and absorption efficiency of fine PM compared with dust. The SSA and MSC had quite similar vertical profiles and often both increased with height indicating the progressive shift toward PM with a larger scattering efficiency with altitude. This study contributes to our understanding of regional-aerosol vertical distribution and optical properties in the WMB, and the results will be useful for improving future climate projections and remote sensing or satellite retrieval algorithms.
Najdeno v: osebi
Ključne besede: aerosol, climate change, Saharan dust, black carbon, aerosol absorption, aerosol scattering
Objavljeno: 14.01.2021; Ogledov: 254; Prenosov: 0
.pdf Polno besedilo (10,82 MB)

28.
Real-time characterization and source apportionment of fine particulate matter in the Delhi megacity area during late winter
Vipul Lalchandan, Varun Kumar, Anna Tobler, M.T. Navaneeth, Suneeti Mishra, J. G. Slowik, Deepika Bhattu, Pragati Rai, Rangu Satish, Dilip Ganguly, Tiwari Tiwari, Neeraj Rastogi, Tiwari Sashi, Griša Močnik, Andre S. H. Prevot, Sachchida Tripathi, 2021, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: National Capital Region (NCR) encompassing New Delhi is one of the most polluted urban metropolitan areas in the world. Real-time chemical characterization of fine particulate matter (PM1 and PM2.5) was carried out using three aerosol mass spectrometers, two aethalometers, and one single particle soot photometer (SP2) at two sites in Delhi (urban) and one site located ~40 km downwind of Delhi, during January-March, 2018. The campaign mean PM2.5 (NR-PM2.5 + BC) concentrations at the two urban sites were 153.8±109.4 μg.m-3 and 127.8±83.2 μg.m-3, respectively, whereas PM1 (NR-PM1 + BC) was 72.3 ± 44.0 μg.m-3 at the downwind site. PM2.5 particles were composed mostly of organics (43-44)% followed by chloride (14-17)%, ammonium (9-11)%, nitrate (9%), sulfate (8-10)%, and black carbon (11-16)%, whereas PM1 particles were composed of 47% organics, 13% sulfate as well as ammonium, 11% nitrate as well as chloride, and 5% black carbon. Organic aerosol (OA) source apportionment was done using positive matrix factorization (PMF), solved using an advanced multi-linear engine (ME-2) model. Highly mass-resolved OA mass spectra at one urban and downwind site were factorized into three primary organic aerosol (POA) factors including one traffic-related and two solid-fuel combustion (SFC), and three oxidized OA (OOA) factors. Whereas unit mass resolution OA at the other urban site was factorized into two POA factors related to traffic and SFC, and one OOA factor. OOA constituted a majority of the total OA mass (45-55)% with maximum contribution during afternoon hours ~(70-80)%. Significant differences in the absolute OOA concentration between the two urban sites indicated the influence of local emissions on the oxidized OA formation. Similar PM chemical composition, diurnal and temporal variations at the three sites suggest similar type of sources affecting the particulate pollution in Delhi and adjoining cities, but variability in mass concentration suggest more local influence than regional.
Najdeno v: osebi
Ključne besede: source apportionment, air pollution, particulate matter, Delhi
Objavljeno: 25.01.2021; Ogledov: 278; Prenosov: 0
.pdf Polno besedilo (2,92 MB)

29.
Elucidating local pollution and site representativeness at the Jungfraujoch, Switzerland through parallel aerosol measurements at an adjacent mountain ridge
Martin Gysel, Maxime Hervo, Urs Baltensperger, Markus Christian Leuenberger, Martine Collaud Coen, Stéphane Affolter, Günther Wehrle, Griša Močnik, Benjamin Brem, Nicolas Bukowiecki, 2021, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Many long-term air pollution and climate monitoring stations face the issue of increasing anthropogenic activities in their vicinity. Furthermore, the spatial representativeness of the sites is often not entirely understood especially in mountainous terrain with complex topographic features. This study presents a 5-year comparison of parallel aerosol measurements (total particle number concentration and equivalent black carbon mass concentration) at the Jungfraujoch in the Swiss Alps (JFJ, 3580 m a.s.l.), and an adjacent mountain ridge, the Jungfrau East Ridge (JER, 3705 m a.s.l.), in 1000 m air-line distance to the main site. The parallel aerosol measurements reveal characteristic differences in the diurnal variations between the two sites under certain specific meteorological conditions. Our analysis estimates that on 20-40% of the days local activities at the Jungfraujoch have a clear influence on the measured time series of the total aerosol number concentration and the equivalent black carbon mass concentration. This influence is mainly seen in form of strong isolated spikes rather than by an increase in the on-site background concentration. They can thus be flagged during the data quality assurance process and filtered from those measurement parameters available at high time resolution. Removing the spikes from the original time series results in daily mean values for the total aerosol number concentration and equivalent black carbon mass concentration that are 5-10 % lower compared to the original signals. During nighttime with hardly any local pollution sources that cause spikes this percentage decreases towards 0%. The signal baselines at the Jungfraujoch and Jungfrau East Ridge correlate well during more than 50% of the days.
Najdeno v: osebi
Ključne besede: aerosol long-term monitoring, equivalent black carbon, aerosol number concentration, spatial variation
Objavljeno: 15.03.2021; Ogledov: 159; Prenosov: 4
URL Polno besedilo (0,00 KB)
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30.
The impact of cloudiness and cloud type on the atmospheric heating rate of black and brown carbon in the Po Valley
Niccolò Losi, Ezio Bolzacchini, Gian Paolo Gobbi, Luca Di Liberto, Luca Ferrero, Asta Gregorič, Griša Močnik, Francesca Barnaba, Sergio Cogliati, Martin Rigler, 2021, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: We experimentally quantified the impact of cloud fraction and cloud type on the heating rate (HR) of black and brown carbon (HRBC and HRBrC). In particular, we examined in more detail the cloud effect on the HR detected in a previous study (Ferrero et al., 2018). High-time-resolution measurements of the aerosol absorption coefficient at multiple wavelengths were coupled with spectral measurements of the direct, diffuse and surface reflected irradiance and with lidar–ceilometer data during a field campaign in Milan, Po Valley (Italy). The experimental set-up allowed for a direct determination of the total HR (and its speciation: HRBC and HRBrC) in all-sky conditions (from clear-sky conditions to cloudy). The highest total HR values were found in the middle of winter (1.43 ± 0.05 K d−1), and the lowest were in spring (0.54 ± 0.02 K d−1). Overall, the HRBrC accounted for 13.7 ± 0.2 % of the total HR, with the BrC being characterized by an absorption Ångström exponent (AAE) of 3.49 ± 0.01. To investigate the role of clouds, sky conditions were classified in terms of cloudiness (fraction of the sky covered by clouds: oktas) and cloud type (stratus, St; cumulus, Cu; stratocumulus, Sc; altostratus, As; altocumulus, Ac; cirrus, Ci; and cirrocumulus–cirrostratus, Cc–Cs). During the campaign, clear-sky conditions were present 23 % of the time, with the remaining time (77 %) being characterized by cloudy conditions. The average cloudiness was 3.58 ± 0.04 oktas (highest in February at 4.56 ± 0.07 oktas and lowest in November at 2.91 ± 0.06 oktas). St clouds were mostly responsible for overcast conditions (7–8 oktas, frequency of 87 % and 96 %); Sc clouds dominated the intermediate cloudiness conditions (5–6 oktas, frequency of 47 % and 66 %); and the transition from Cc–Cs to Sc determined moderate cloudiness (3–4 oktas); finally, low cloudiness (1–2 oktas) was mostly dominated by Ci and Cu (frequency of 59 % and 40 %, respectively). HR measurements showed a constant decrease with increasing cloudiness of the atmosphere, enabling us to quantify for the first time the bias (in %) of the aerosol HR introduced by the simplified assumption of clear-sky conditions in radiative-transfer model calculations. Our results showed that the HR of light-absorbing aerosol was ∼ 20 %–30 % lower in low cloudiness (1–2 oktas) and up to 80 % lower in completely overcast conditions (i.e. 7–8 oktas) compared to clear-sky ones. This means that, in the simplified assumption of clear-sky conditions, the HR of light-absorbing aerosol can be largely overestimated (by 50 % in low cloudiness, 1–2 oktas, and up to 500 % in completely overcast conditions, 7–8 oktas). The impact of different cloud types on the HR was also investigated. Cirrus clouds were found to have a modest impact, decreasing the HRBC and HRBrC by −5 % at most. Cumulus clouds decreased the HRBC and HRBrC by −31 ± 12 % and −26 ± 7 %, respectively; cirrocumulus–cirrostratus clouds decreased the HRBC and HRBrC by −60 ± 8 % and −54 ± 4 %, which was comparable to the impact of altocumulus (−60 ± 6 % and −46 ± 4 %). A higher impact on the HRBC and HRBrC suppression was found for stratocumulus (−63 ± 6 % and −58 ± 4 %, respectively) and altostratus (−78 ± 5 % and −73 ± 4 %, respectively). The highest impact was associated with stratus, suppressing the HRBC and HRBrC by −85 ± 5 % and −83 ± 3 %, respectively. The presence of clouds caused a decrease of both the HRBC and HRBrC (normalized to the absorption coefficient of the respective species) of −11.8 ± 1.2 % and −12.6 ± 1.4 % per okta. This study highlights the need to take into account the role of both cloudiness and different cloud types when estimating the HR caused by both BC and BrC and in turn decrease the uncertainties associated with the quantification of their impact on the climate.
Najdeno v: osebi
Ključne besede: black carbon, brown carbon, cloud, atmospheric heating rate, climate change
Objavljeno: 29.03.2021; Ogledov: 92; Prenosov: 0
.pdf Polno besedilo (8,61 MB)

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