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Nocturnal boundary layer turbulence regimes analysis during the BLLAST campaign
Jesús Yus-Díez, Mireia Udina, Maria Rosa Soler, Marie Lothon, Erik Nilsson, Joan Bech, Jielun Sun, 2019, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: A night-time turbulence regime classification, the so-called “HOckey-Stick Transition ” (HOST) theory, proposed by Sun et al. (2012) from the Cooperative Atmosphere–Surface Exchange Study-1999 (CASES-99) is explored using data from the Boundary-Layer Late Afternoon and Sunset Turbulence (BLLAST) field campaign which took place during summer 2011 in the central French Pyrenean foothills. Results show that the HOST turbulence relationships for the BLLAST field campaign data are strongly dependent on both the meteorological and orographic features. The HOST pattern only appears for nights when a stably stratified boundary layer can be developed, corresponding to fair-weather and clear-sky nights, when the flow is generated by the nearby orography, from the south and the south-east. Those flows strongly influenced by the orography may generate intermittent or enhanced turbulence. When considering the whole nocturnal dataset for these flow directions, several enhanced turbulence points are found to be associated with sudden wind speed and directional shear transitions. In contrast, flows from other directions do not reproduce the HOST relationships and the turbulence relationship is almost linear, independent of vertical temperature gradients, corresponding to flows driven by synoptic scales. In addition we identify examples of gravity waves and top-down turbulent events that lead to transitions between the turbulence regimes.
Ključne besede: air turbulence, BLLAST campaign
Objavljeno v RUNG: 13.05.2024; Ogledov: 135; Prenosov: 3
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Insights into the single-particle composition, size, mixing state, and aspect ratio of freshly emitted mineral dust from field measurements in the Moroccan Sahara using electron microscopy
Agnesh Panta, Konrad Kandler, Andrés Alastuey, Cristina González-Flórez, Adolfo Gonzalez-Romero, Martina Klose, Xavier Querol, Cristina Reche, Jesús Yus-Díez, Carlos Pérez García-Pando, 2023, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Abstract. The chemical and morphological properties of mineral dust aerosols emitted by wind erosion from arid and semi-arid regions influence climate, ocean, and land ecosystems; air quality; and multiple socio-economic sectors. However, there is an incomplete understanding of the emitted dust particle size distribution (PSD) in terms of its constituent minerals that typically result from the fragmentation of soil aggregates during wind erosion. The emitted dust PSD affects the duration of particle transport and thus each mineral's global distribution, along with its specific effect upon climate. This lack of understanding is largely due to the scarcity of relevant in situ measurements in dust sources. To advance our understanding of the physicochemical properties of the emitted dust PSD, we present insights into the elemental composition and morphology of individual dust particles collected during the FRontiers in dust minerAloGical coMposition and its Effects upoN climaTe (FRAGMENT) field campaign in the Moroccan Sahara in September 2019. We analyzed more than 300 000 freshly emitted individual particles by performing offline analysis in the laboratory using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX). Eight major particle-type classes were identified with clay minerals making up the majority of the analyzed particles both by number and mass, followed by quartz, whereas carbonates and feldspar contributed to a lesser extent. We provide an exhaustive analysis of the PSD and potential mixing state of different particle types, focusing largely on iron-rich (Fe oxide-hydroxides) and feldspar particles, which are key to the effects of dust upon radiation and clouds, respectively. Nearly pure or externally mixed Fe oxide-hydroxides are present mostly in diameters smaller than 2 µm, with the highest fraction below 1 µm at about 3.75 % abundance by mass. Fe oxide-hydroxides tend to be increasingly internally mixed with other minerals, especially clays, as particle size increases; i.e., the volume fraction of Fe oxide-hydroxides in aggregates decreases with particle size. Pure (externally mixed) feldspar represented 3.2 % of all the particles by mass, of which we estimated about a 10th to be K-feldspar. The externally mixed total feldspar and K-feldspar abundances are relatively invariant with particle size, in contrast to the increasing abundance of feldspar-like (internally mixed) aggregates with particle size with mass fractions ranging from 5 % to 18 %. We also found that overall the median aspect ratio is rather constant across particle size and mineral groups, although we obtain slightly higher aspect ratios for internally mixed particles. The detailed information on the composition of freshly emitted individual dust particles and quantitative analysis of their mixing state presented here can be used to constrain climate models including mineral species in their representation of the dust cycle.
Ključne besede: mineral dust, Moroccan Sahara, electron microscopy
Objavljeno v RUNG: 13.05.2024; Ogledov: 157; Prenosov: 3
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Changes in black carbon emissions over Europe due to COVID-19 lockdowns
Nikolaos Evangeliou, Stephen M. Platt, Sabine Eckhardt, Cathrine Lund Myhre, Paolo Laj, L. Alados-Arboledas, John Backman, Benjamin T. Brem, Markus Fiebig, Jesús Yus-Díez, 2021, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Abstract. Following the emergence of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) responsible for COVID-19 in December 2019 in Wuhan (China) and its spread to the rest of the world, the World Health Organization declared a global pandemic in March 2020. Without effective treatment in the initial pandemic phase, social distancing and mandatory quarantines were introduced as the only available preventative measure. In contrast to the detrimental societal impacts, air quality improved in all countries in which strict lockdowns were applied, due to lower pollutant emissions. Here we investigate the effects of the COVID-19 lockdowns in Europe on ambient black carbon (BC), which affects climate and damages health, using in situ observations from 17 European stations in a Bayesian inversion framework. BC emissions declined by 23 kt in Europe (20 % in Italy, 40 % in Germany, 34 % in Spain, 22 % in France) during lockdowns compared to the same period in the previous 5 years, which is partially attributed to COVID-19 measures. BC temporal variation in the countries enduring the most drastic restrictions showed the most distinct lockdown impacts. Increased particle light absorption in the beginning of the lockdown, confirmed by assimilated satellite and remote sensing data, suggests residential combustion was the dominant BC source. Accordingly, in central and Eastern Europe, which experienced lower than average temperatures, BC was elevated compared to the previous 5 years. Nevertheless, an average decrease of 11 % was seen for the whole of Europe compared to the start of the lockdown period, with the highest peaks in France (42 %), Germany (21 %), UK (13 %), Spain (11 %) and Italy (8 %). Such a decrease was not seen in the previous years, which also confirms the impact of COVID-19 on the European emissions of BC.
Ključne besede: black carbon, covid-19, emissions, Europe
Objavljeno v RUNG: 13.05.2024; Ogledov: 139; Prenosov: 3
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Absorption enhancement of black carbon particles in a Mediterranean city and countryside : effect of particulate matter chemistry, ageing and trend analysis
Jesús Yus-Díez, Marta Via, Andrés Alastuey, Angeliki Karanasiou, Maria Cruz Minguillon, Noemí Perez, Xavier Querol, Cristina Reche, Matic Ivančič, Martin Rigler, 2022, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Abstract. Black carbon (BC) is recognized as the most important warming agent among atmospheric aerosol particles. The absorption efficiency of pure BC is rather well-known, nevertheless the mixing of BC with other aerosol particles can enhance the BC light absorption efficiency, thus directly affecting Earth's radiative balance. The effects on climate of the BC absorption enhancement due to the mixing with these aerosols are not yet well constrained because these effects depend on the availability of material for mixing with BC, thus creating regional variations. Here we present the mass absorption cross-section (MAC) and absorption enhancement of BC particles (Eabs), at different wavelengths (from 370 to 880 nm for online measurements and at 637 nm for offline measurements) measured at two sites in the western Mediterranean, namely Barcelona (BCN; urban background) and Montseny (MSY; regional background). The Eabs values ranged between 1.24 and 1.51 at the urban station, depending on the season and wavelength used as well as on the pure BC MAC used as a reference. The largest contribution to Eabs was due to the internal mixing of BC particles with other aerosol compounds, on average between a 91 % and a 100 % at 370 and 880 nm, respectively. Additionally, 14.5 % and 4.6 % of the total enhancement at the short ultraviolet (UV) wavelength (370 nm) was due to externally mixed brown carbon (BrC) particles during the cold and the warm period, respectively. On average, at the MSY station, a higher Eabs value was observed (1.83 at 637 nm) compared to BCN (1.37 at 637 nm), which was associated with the higher fraction of organic aerosols (OA) available for BC coating at the regional station, as denoted by the higher organic carbon to elemental carbon (OC:EC) ratio observed at MSY compared to BCN. At both BCN and MSY, Eabs showed an exponential increase with the amount of non-refractory (NR) material available for coating (RNR-PM). The Eabs at 637 nm at the MSY regional station reached values up to 3 during episodes with high RNR-PM, whereas in BCN, Eabs kept values lower than 2 due to the lower relative amount of coating materials measured at BCN compared to MSY. The main sources of OA influencing Eabs throughout the year were hydrocarbon OA (HOA) and cooking-related OA (COA), i.e. primary OA (POA) from traffic and cooking emissions, respectively, at both 370 and 880 nm. At the short UV wavelength (370 nm), a strong contribution to Eabs from biomass burning OA (BBOA) and less oxidized oxygenated OA (LO-OOA) sources was observed in the colder period. Moreover, we found an increase of Eabs with the ageing state of the particles, especially during the colder period. This increase of Eabs with particle ageing was associated with a larger relative amount of secondary OA (SOA) compared to POA. The availability of a long dataset at both stations from offline measurements enabled a decade-long trend analysis of Eabs at 637 nm, that showed statistically significant (s.s.) positive trends of Eabs during the warmer months at the MSY station. This s.s. positive trend in MSY mirrored the observed increase of the OC:EC ratio over time. Moreover, in BCN during the COVID-19 lockdown period in spring 2020 we observed a sharp increase of Eabs due to the observed sharp increase of the OC:EC ratio. Our results show similar values of Eabs to those found in the literature for similar background stations.
Ključne besede: black carbomn, coating, organic aerosol, light absorption
Objavljeno v RUNG: 10.05.2024; Ogledov: 138; Prenosov: 2
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Phenomenology of organic aerosols light absorption in Europe based on in situ surface observations
Jordi Rovira, Jesús Yus-Díez, Griša Močnik, 2024, objavljeni povzetek znanstvenega prispevka na konferenci

Opis: Both chamber and field experiments have shown that a fraction of organic aerosols (OA), called brown carbon (BrC), can efficiently absorb UV-VIS radiation with important effects on radiation balance. However, the optical properties of BrC, and its climate effects, remain poorly understood because a variety of chemical compositions are involved and their fractions vary with source and formation process. We present a phenomenology of OA light absorption in Europe using Aethalometer (AE) data. AE data were used to calculate the black carbon (BC) and BrC contribution to the total measured absorption in the UV-VIS spectral range (babs,BC(l), babsBrC(l)). Fig. 1 shows the BrC absorption at 370 nm and shows that the BrC absorption was on average higher in urban than in rural sites. Figure 1. Map of BrC absorption in rural and urban sites. At 18 out of 41 sites, simultaneous ACSM (Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor) data were available allowing reporting the mass absorption cross-section (MAC), the imaginary refractive index (k), the k Angström Exponent (w) of OA particles and OA sources. We compared the experimental data the with Saleh’s classification, that groups BrC in four optical classes, namely very weakly (VW-BrC), weakly (W-BrC), moderately (M-BrC) and strongly (S-BrC) absorbing BrC. Preliminary results show that both MAC and k of POA sources were higher compared to SOA sources and that BBOA (biomass burning OA) followed by CCOA (coal combustion OA) and HOA (hydrocarbon-like OA) dominated the absorption by BrC.  Data reported indicate a relationship between w and k with higher w associated to less absorbing OA particles. With this work we provide a robust experimental framework that can be used to better constrain the climate effect of OA particles represented in climate models. In our results we found that most of the measured ambient OA particles present from W to M absorption properties. Variations in OA k and w depend on the relative contribution of POA compared to SOA as also reflected by the higher k observed in winter compared to summer. Our results also demonstrate a strong variation of OA optical properties in Europe thus further confirming the complexity of OA absorption properties. This work was supported by the FOCI Project (G.A. 101056783) and ARRS P1-0385. Action Cost COLOSSAL. We thank the COLOSSAL Team for providing OA sources and AE33 data. Chen et al (2022). Env. Int. 166, 107325. Nakao et al (2013). Atm. Env. 68, 273-277. Canagaratna et al (2015). Atmos. Chem. Phys. 15, 253-272. Saleh et al (2020). Curr. Pollution Rep. 6, 90–104.
Ključne besede: black carbon, brown carbon, aerosol absorption coefficient
Objavljeno v RUNG: 18.03.2024; Ogledov: 482; Prenosov: 2
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Aerosol light extinction coefficient closure : comparison of airborne in-situ measurements with LIDAR measurements during JATAC/CAVA-AW 2021/2022 campaigns
Marija Bervida, Jesús Yus-Díez, Luka Drinovec, Uroš Jagodič, Blaž Žibert, Matevž Lenarčič, Griša Močnik, 2024, objavljeni povzetek znanstvenega prispevka na konferenci

Opis: The JATAC campaign in September 2021 and September 2022 on and above Cape Verde Islands resulted in a large in-situ and remote measurement dataset. Its main objective was the calibration and validation of the ESA satellite Aeolus ALADIN Lidar. The campaign also featured secondary scientific objectives related to climate change. Constraining remote sensing measurements with those provided by in-situ instrumentation is crucial for proper characterization and accurate description of the 3-D structure of the atmosphere.We present the results performed with an instrumented light aircraft (Advantic WT-10) set-up for in-situ aerosol measurements. Twenty-seven flights were conducted over the Atlantic Ocean at altitudes around and above 3000 m above sea level during intense dust transport events. Simultaneous measurements with PollyXT, and eVe ground-based lidars took place, determining the vertical profiles of aerosol optical properties, which were also used to plan the flights.The aerosol light extinction coefficient was obtained at three different wavelengths as a combination of the absorption coefficients determined using Continuous Light Absorption Photometers (CLAP) and the scattering coefficients measured with an Ecotech Aurora 4000 nephelometer, which also measured the backscatter fraction. The particle size distributions above 0.3 µm diameter were measured with two Grimm 11-D Optical Particle Size Spectrometers (OPSS). Moreover, CO2 concentration, temperature, aircraft GPS position and altitude, air and ground speed were also measured.We compare the in-situ aircraft measurements of the aerosol extinction coefficients with the AEOLUS lidar derived extinction coefficients, as well as with the ground-based eVe and PollyXT lidar extinction coefficients when measurements overlapped in space and time. The comparison was performed at the closest available wavelengths, with in-situ measurements inter/extrapolated to those of the lidar systems.In general we find an underestimation of the extinction coefficient obtained by lidars compared to the in-situ extinction coefficient. The slopes of regression lines of ground-based lidars, PollyXT and eVe, against the in-situ measurements are characterised by values ranging from 0.61 to 0.7 and R2 between 0.71 and 0.89. Comparison further suggests better agreement between Aeolus ALADIN lidar and the in-situ measurements. Relationship described by fitting the Aeolus to in-situ data is characterised by the slope value 0.76 and R2 of 0.8.The causes of better agreement of the in-situ measurements with the ALADIN lidar than with the surface based ones are being studied, with several reasons being considered: a) lower spatial and temporal resolution which homogenize the area of study in comparison with the very fine vertical variations of the aerosols, which can be detected with the surface-based measurements, impairing the comparison with highly vertically resolved ground-lidar measurements while not affecting averaged space-borne lidar; b) the effect of lower clouds/ Saharan air layers on the attenuation of the lidar signal.The presented results show the importance of the comparison of the remote with in-situ measurements for the support of the research on evolution, dynamics, and predictability of tropical weather systems and provide input into and verification of the climate models.
Ključne besede: LIDAR, Aeolus, ALADIN, in-situ measurements, aerosol absorption, aerosol extinction, airborne measurements
Objavljeno v RUNG: 18.03.2024; Ogledov: 426; Prenosov: 6
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Aerosol dust absorption : measurements with a reference instrument (PTAAM-2[lambda]) and impact on the climate as measured in airborne JATAC/CAVA-AW 2021/2022 campaigns
Jesús Yus-Díez, Luka Drinovec, Marija Bervida, Uroš Jagodič, Blaž Žibert, Griša Močnik, 2024, objavljeni povzetek znanstvenega prispevka na konferenci

Opis: Aerosol absorption coefficient measurements classically feature a very large uncertainty, especially given the absence of a reference method. The most used approach using filter-photometers is by measuring the attenuation of light through a filter where aerosols are being deposited. This presents several artifacts, with cross-sensitivity to scattering being most important at high single scattering albedo with the error exceeding 100%. We present lab campaign results where we have resuspended dust samples from different mid-latitude desert regions and measured the dust absorption and scattering coefficients, their mass concentration and the particle size distribution. The absorption coefficients were measured with two types of filter photometers: a Continuous Light Absorption Photometers (CLAP) and a multi-wavelength Aethalometer (AE33). The  dual-wavelength photo-thermal interferometer (PTAAM-2λ) was employed as the reference. Scattering coefficients were measured with an Ecotech Aurora 4000 nephelometer. The mass concentration was obtained after the weighting of filters before and after the sampling, and the particle size distribution (PSD) was measured by means of optical particle counters (Grimm 11-D).Measurements of the scattering with the nephelometer and absorption with the PTAAM-2λ we obtained the filter photometer multiple scattering parameter and cross-sensitivity to scattering as a function of the different sample properties. Moreover, by determining the mass concentration and the absorption coefficients of the samples, we derived the mass absorption cross-sections of the different dust samples, which can be linked to their size distribution as well as to their mineralogical composition.The focus of the JATAC campaign in September 2021 and September 2022 on and above Cape Verde Islands was on the calibration/validation of the ESA Aeolus satellite ALADIN lidar, however, the campaign also featured secondary scientific climate-change objectives. As part of this campaign, a light aircraft was set-up for in-situ aerosol measurements. Several flights were conducted over the Atlantic Ocean up to and above 3000 m above sea level during intense dust transport events. The aircraft was instrumented to determine the absorption coefficients using a pair of Continuous Light Absorption Photometers (CLAPs) measuring in the fine and coarse fractions separately, with parallel measurements of size distributions in these size fractions using two Grimm 11-D Optical Particle Size Spectrometers (OPSS). In addition, we performed measurements of the total and diffuse solar irradiance with a DeltaT SPN1 pyranometer.The combination of the absorption and PSD with source identification techniques enabled the separation of the contributions to  absorption by dust and black carbon. The atmospheric heating rate of these two contributions was determined by adding the irradiance measurements. Therefore, the integration of the results from the Using laboratory resuspension experiments  to interpret the airborne measurements is of great relevance for the determination  of the radiative effect of the Saharan Aerosol Layer as measured over the tropical Atlantic ocean.
Ključne besede: black carbon, mineral dust, Saharan dust, atmospheric heating rate, climate change, airborne measurements
Objavljeno v RUNG: 18.03.2024; Ogledov: 457; Prenosov: 2
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Status and performance of the underground muon detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory
Joaquín De Jesús, Andrej Filipčič, Jon Paul Lundquist, Shima Ujjani Shivashankara, Samo Stanič, Serguei Vorobiov, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, 2023, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: The Pierre Auger Observatory, located in Malargüe, Argentina, is the largest facility for the detection of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays and has been operating successfully for nearly 20 years. For its second phase of operation, the Observatory is undergoing a major upgrade, called AugerPrime, to increase its sensitivity to the primary mass. As part of the upgrade, the Underground Muon Detector is being deployed in the low-energy extension of the Surface Detector. It consists of an array of 30 m^2 plastic scintillator muon counters buried 2.3m underground in the vicinity of the water-Cherenkov detectors. This will allow a direct measurement of the muonic component of air showers in the energy range 1016.5 eV to 1019 eV, contributing significantly to the discrimination of the primary mass and to the testing of hadronic interaction models. In this contribution, the deployment status and performance of the Underground Muon Detector are presented.
Ključne besede: surface detector, Pierre Auger Observatory, AugerPrime, underground muon detector
Objavljeno v RUNG: 22.01.2024; Ogledov: 528; Prenosov: 5
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