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Eenergy Anisotropies of Proton-like Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays
Jon Paul Lundquist, doktorska disertacija

Opis: Evidence of a number of interrelated energy dependent intermediate-scale anisotropies have been found in the arrival directions of proton-like ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECR) using 7 years of Telescope Array (TA) data. These are found using analysis techniques that have been developed for this dissertation. Using surface detector (SD) data the reported TA “Hotspot” excess, E≥10^19.75 eV, is found to correspond to a deficit, or “Coldspot,” of events for 10^19.1≤E<10^19.75 eV at 142◦R.A., 40◦ Dec. The global post-trial significance of this Hot/Coldspot event density asymmetry is found to be 5.1σ (p = 1.56 × 10−7). This Hot/Coldspot feature is the combination, at the same location, of an energy spectrum anisotropy with a 3.74σ significance for energies E≥10^19.2 eV and an energy-distance correlation with a 3.34σ significance for energies E≥1019.3 eV. The UHECR Hotspot alone is analyzed using a new kernel density estimation (KDE) anisotropy method and found to have a 3.65σ significance (E≥1019.75 eV). These features suggest energy dependent magnetic deflection of UHECR. The composition of UHECR primary particles is also studied using a new “Quality Factor Analysis” pattern recognition event selection for fluorescence detectors (FD). This minimizes the energy dependence of the resolution of extensive air shower (EAS) Xmax depth. Also, a new statistical method making use of all higher moments than the mean shower depth distribution is developed – as there is large disagreement in between all EAS simulation models. There is also an uncertainty, just as large, for any particular model, given uncertainties in particle interaction parameters extrapolated to much higher energies from Large Hadron Collider (LHC) data. The TA hybrid FD/SD data is found to be statistically compatible with a pure proton composition, though not incompatible with a light mixed composition, for all models of EAS above E≥10^18.4 eV. There is also no statistically significant evidence of the composition getting heavier at the highest energies. The combined information of a proton-like light composition, and anisotropy evidence suggestive of energy dependent magnetic deflection of UHECR, should be useful for informing future source searches and models of intergalactic propagation through magnetic fields.
Najdeno v: osebi
Ključne besede: cosmic rays, UHECR, composition, anisotropy
Objavljeno: 24.04.2020; Ogledov: 843; Prenosov: 0
.pdf Polno besedilo (10,26 MB)

Study of Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Ray composition using Telescope Array’s Middle Drum detector and surface array in hybrid mode
Jon Paul Lundquist, R.U. Abbasi, 2015, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Previous measurements of the composition of Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECRs) made by the High Resolution Fly’s Eye (HiRes) and Pierre Auger Observatory (PAO) are seemingly contradictory, but utilize different detection methods, as HiRes was a stereo detector and PAO is a hybrid detector. The five year Telescope Array (TA) Middle Drum hybrid composition measurement is similar in some, but not all, respects in methodology to PAO, and good agreement is evident between data and a light, largely protonic, composition when comparing the measurements to predictions obtained with the QGSJetII-03 and QGSJet-01c models. These models are also in agreement with previous HiRes stereo measurements, confirming the equivalence of the stereo and hybrid methods. The data is incompatible with a pure iron composition, for all models examined, over the available range of energies. The elongation rate and mean values of are in good agreement with Pierre Auger Observatory data. This analysis is presented using two methods: data cuts using simple geometrical variables and a new pattern recognition technique.
Najdeno v: osebi
Ključne besede: Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays, Cosmic ray composition, Atmospheric fluorescence, Extensive air shower array, Hybrid, Telescope Array
Objavljeno: 24.04.2020; Ogledov: 886; Prenosov: 0
.pdf Polno besedilo (3,45 MB)

Observations of the origin of downward terrestrial gamma-ray flashes
M. A. Stanley, R. U. Abbasi, R. LeVon, W. Rison, D. Rodeheffer, T. Abu-Zayyad, Jon Paul Lundquist, P. R. Krehbiel, J. Remington, J. W. Belz, 2020, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: In this paper we report the first close, high‐resolution observations of downward‐directed terrestrial gamma‐ray flashes (TGFs) detected by the large‐area Telescope Array cosmic ray observatory, obtained in conjunction with broadband VHF interferometer and fast electric field change measurements of the parent discharge. The results show that the TGFs occur during strong initial breakdown pulses (IBPs) in the first few milliseconds of negative cloud‐to‐ground and low‐altitude intracloud flashes and that the IBPs are produced by a newly identified streamer‐based discharge process called fast negative breakdown. The observations indicate the relativistic runaway electron avalanches (RREAs) responsible for producing the TGFs are initiated by embedded spark‐like transient conducting events (TCEs) within the fast streamer system and potentially also by individual fast streamers themselves. The TCEs are inferred to be the cause of impulsive sub‐pulses that are characteristic features of classic IBP sferics. Additional development of the avalanches would be facilitated by the enhanced electric field ahead of the advancing front of the fast negative breakdown. In addition to showing the nature of IBPs and their enigmatic sub‐pulses, the observations also provide a possible explanation for the unsolved question of how the streamer to leader transition occurs during the initial negative breakdown, namely, as a result of strong currents flowing in the final stage of successive IBPs, extending backward through both the IBP itself and the negative streamer breakdown preceding the IBP.
Najdeno v: osebi
Ključne besede: terrestrial gamma-ray flashes, lightning, fast breakdown, initial breakdown pulse, atmospheric electricity, transient conducting events
Objavljeno: 04.02.2021; Ogledov: 361; Prenosov: 2
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Measurement of the proton-air cross section with Telescope Array's Black Rock Mesa and Long Ridge fluorescence detectors, and surface array in hybrid mode
Mitsuhiro Abe, R. U. Abbasi, T. Abu-Zayyad, M. Allen, R. Azuma, E. Barcikowski, J. W. Belz, Jon Paul Lundquist, S. A. Blake, D. R. Bergman, 2020, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Ultra high energy cosmic rays provide the highest known energy source in the universe to measure proton cross sections. Though conditions for collecting such data are less controlled than an accelerator environment, current generation cosmic ray observatories have large enough exposures to collect significant statistics for a reliable measurement for energies above what can be attained in the lab. Cosmic ray measurements of cross section use atmospheric calorimetry to measure depth of air shower maximum (Xmax), which is related to the primary particle’s energy and mass. The tail of the Xmax distribution is assumed to be dominated by showers generated by protons, allowing measurement of the inelastic proton-air cross section. In this work the proton-air inelastic cross section measurement, σ_inel_p−air, using data observed by Telescope Array’s Black Rock Mesa and Long Ridge fluorescence detectors and surface detector array in hybrid mode is presented. σ_inel_p−air is observed to be 520.1 ± 35.8 [Stat.] +25.0 −40 [Sys.] mb at √s = 73 TeV. The total proton-proton cross section is subsequently inferred from Glauber formalism and is found to be σ_tot_pp = 139.4 +23.4−21.3[Stat.] +15.0−24.0[Sys.] mb.
Najdeno v: osebi
Ključne besede: cosmic rays, astroparticles, proton-air cross section
Objavljeno: 04.02.2021; Ogledov: 340; Prenosov: 0
.pdf Polno besedilo (1,99 MB)

Evidence for a supergalactic structure of magnetic deflection multiplets of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays
R. U. Abbasi, T. Abu-Zayyad, Mitsuhiro Abe, M. Allen, R. Azuma, E. Barcikowski, J. W. Belz, D. R. Bergman, S. A. Blake, Jon Paul Lundquist, 2020, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Evidence for a large-scale supergalactic cosmic-ray multiplet (arrival directions correlated with energy) structure is reported for ultra-high-energy cosmic-ray (UHECR) energies above 1019 eV using 7 years of data from the Telescope Array (TA) surface detector and updated to 10 years. Previous energy–position correlation studies have made assumptions regarding magnetic field shapes and strength, and UHECR composition. Here the assumption tested is that, because the supergalactic plane is a fit to the average matter density of the local large-scale structure, UHECR sources and intervening extragalactic magnetic fields are correlated with this plane. This supergalactic deflection hypothesis is tested by the entire field-of-view (FOV) behavior of the strength of intermediate-scale energy–angle correlations. These multiplets are measured in spherical cap section bins (wedges) of the FOV to account for coherent and random magnetic fields. The structure found is consistent with supergalactic deflection, the previously published energy spectrum anisotropy results of the TA (the Hotspot and Coldspot), and toy-model simulations of a supergalactic magnetic sheet. The seven year data posttrial significance of this supergalactic structure of multiplets appearing by chance, on an isotropic sky, is found by Monte Carlo simulation to be 4.2σ. The 10 years of data posttrial significance is 4.1σ. Furthermore, the starburst galaxy M82 is shown to be a possible source of the TA Hotspot, and an estimate of the supergalactic magnetic field using UHECR measurements is presented.
Najdeno v: osebi
Ključne besede: extragalactic magnetic fields, ultra-high-energy cosmic radiation, cosmic rays, high energy astrophysics, astrophysical magnetism, cosmic ray astronomy, cosmic ray sources
Objavljeno: 05.02.2021; Ogledov: 369; Prenosov: 13
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Monte Carlo simulations of the ISS-CREAM instrument
Jon Paul Lundquist, L. Eraud, L. Derome, M. Copley, M. Chung, G. H. Choi, N. Anthony, D. Angelaszek, Y. Amarea, J. Wu, 2019, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: Cosmic Ray Energetics and Mass for the International Space Station (ISS-CREAM) is designed to directly measure the energy spectra of high-energy cosmic rays, encompassing proton to iron nuclei, over the energy range from 1012 to 1015 eV [1]. The capability to measure an extended energy range enables us to probe the origin and acceleration mechanisms of cosmic rays. The ISS-CREAM instrument is configured with the balloon-borne CREAM calorimeter (CAL) for energy measurements and four layers of a finely segmented Silicon Charge Detector (SCD) for charge measurements. In addition, two new compact detectors have been developed for electron/proton separation: Top and Bottom scintillator-based counting detectors (TCD/BCD) and a boronated scintillator detector (BSD). Simulations use the GEANT3 package [2] with the FLUKA hadronic model [3]. An isotropic event generator was developed for the ISS-CREAM geometry with particles incident from the upper hemisphere. We will present simulation results regarding ISS-CREAM performance, including trigger rates, energy resolution, energy response, tracking resolution, charge efficiency, etc.
Najdeno v: osebi
Ključne besede: instrumentations, detectors, Monte Carlo
Objavljeno: 05.02.2021; Ogledov: 374; Prenosov: 0
.pdf Polno besedilo (1,04 MB)

Search for large-scale anisotropy on arrival directions of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays observed with the telescope array experiment
Mitsuhiro Abe, R. U. Abbasi, T. Abu-Zayyad, M. Allen, R. Azuma, E. Barcikowski, J. W. Belz, D. R. Bergman, S. A. Blake, Jon Paul Lundquist, 2020, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Motivated by the detection of a significant dipole structure in the arrival directions of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays above 8 EeV reported by the Pierre Auger Observatory (Auger), we search for a large-scale anisotropy using data collected with the surface detector array of the Telescope Array Experiment (TA). With 11 yr of TA data, a dipole structure in a projection of the R.A. is fitted with an amplitude of 3.3% ± 1.9% and a phase of 131° ± 33°. The corresponding 99% confidence-level upper limit on the amplitude is 7.3%. At the current level of statistics, the fitted result is compatible with both an isotropic distribution and the dipole structure reported by Auger.
Najdeno v: osebi
Ključne besede: cosmic rays, ultra-high-energy cosmic radiation, cosmic ray sources, cosmic ray showers, cosmic ray detectors, cosmic ray astronomy, extragalactic astronomy
Objavljeno: 05.02.2021; Ogledov: 348; Prenosov: 0
.pdf Polno besedilo (548,15 KB)

Scrutinizing FR 0 radio galaxies as ultra-high-energy cosmic ray source candidates
Anita Reimer, Lukas Merten, Margot Boughelilba, Paolo Da Vela, Serguei Vorobiov, Fabrizio Tavecchio, Giacomo Bonnoli, Jon Paul Lundquist, Chiara Righi, 2021, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Fanaroff-Riley (FR) 0 radio galaxies compose a new class of radio galaxies, which are usually weaker but much more numerous than the well-established class of FR 1 and FR 2 galaxies. The latter classes have been proposed as sources of the ultra-high-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) with energies reaching up to eV. Based on this conjecture, the possibility of UHECR acceleration and survival in an FR 0 source environment is examined in this work. In doing so, an average spectral energy distribution (SED) based on data from the FR 0 catalog (FR0CAT) is compiled. The resulting photon fields are used as targets for UHECRs, which suffer from electromagnetic pair production, photo-disintegration, photo-meson production losses, and synchrotron radiation. Multiple mechanisms are discussed to assess the UHECR acceleration probability, including Fermi-I order and gradual shear accelerations, and particle escape from the source region. This work shows that in a hybrid scenario, combining Fermi and shear accelerations, FR 0 galaxies can contribute to the observed UHECR flux, as long as where shear acceleration starts to dominate over escape. Even in less optimistic scenarios, FR 0s can be expected to contribute to the cosmic-ray flux between the knee and the ankle. Our results are relatively robust with respect to the realized magnetic turbulence model and the speed of the accelerating shocks.
Najdeno v: osebi
Ključne besede: acceleration of particles, nonthermal radiation mechanisms, jets, active galaxies, cosmic rays
Objavljeno: 05.02.2021; Ogledov: 430; Prenosov: 0
.pdf Polno besedilo (4,15 MB)
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Search for ultra-high-energy neutrinos with the Telescope Array surface detector
Mitsuhiro Abe, R. U. Abbasi, T. Abu-Zayyad, M. Allen, R. Azuma, E. Barcikowski, J. W. Belz, D. R. Bergman, S. A. Blake, Jon Paul Lundquist, 2020, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: We present an upper limit on the flux of ultra-high-energy down-going neutrinos for E > 10^18 eV derived with the nine years of data collected by the Telescope Array surface detector (05-11-2008– 05-10-2017). The method is based on the multivariate analysis technique, so-called Boosted Decision Trees (BDT). Proton-neutrino classifier is built upon 16 observables related to both the properties of the shower front and the lateral distribution function.
Najdeno v: osebi
Ključne besede: neutrinos, pattern recognition, UHECR, cosmic rays
Objavljeno: 29.04.2020; Ogledov: 736; Prenosov: 30
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