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Crystal habit modification of Cu(II) isonicotinate-N-oxide complexes using gel phase crystallisation
Jonathan Steed, Žygimantas Drabavičius, Katja Ferfolja, Dipankar Ghosh, Krishna Kumar Damodaran, 20, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: We report the crystallisation of three forms of copper(II) isonicotinate-N-oxide complex and their phase interconversion via solvent-mediated crystal to crystal transformation. The different forms of copper complex have been isolated and characterised by single crystal X-ray diffraction. Gel phase crystallisation performed in hydrogels, low molecular weight gels and gels of tailored gelator showed crystal habit modification. Crystallisation in aqueous ethanol resulted in concomitant formation of blue (form-I) and green (form-II/IV) crystals while use of low molecular weight gel results in selective crystallization of the blue form-I under identical conditions. Comparison of gel phase and the solution state crystallisation in various solvent compositions reveals that the blue form-I is the thermodynamically stable form under ambient conditions.
Najdeno v: osebi
Ključne besede: copper(II) complex, gel phase crystallisation, crystal habit modification, isonicotinate-N-oxide, X-ray diffraction
Objavljeno: 08.11.2018; Ogledov: 1434; Prenosov: 0
.pdf Polno besedilo (968,24 KB)

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Interfacial reaction, morphology and growth mode of metals on topological insulator surfaces
Sandra Gardonio, Mattia Fanetti, Katja Ferfolja, Matjaž Valant, 2019, objavljeni povzetek znanstvenega prispevka na konferenci

Najdeno v: osebi
Ključne besede: topological insulators, surfaces, metals
Objavljeno: 19.12.2019; Ogledov: 1293; Prenosov: 0
.pdf Polno besedilo (18,68 MB)

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Structural, morphological and chemical properties of metal/topological insulator interfaces
Katja Ferfolja, 2021, doktorska disertacija

Opis: Topological insulators (TIs) represent a new state of matter that possess a different band structure than regular insulators or conductors. They are characterized with a band gap in the bulk and conductive topological states on the surface, which are spin polarized and robust toward contamination or deformation of the surface. Since the intriguing properties of the TIs are localized at the surface, it is important to obtain knowledge of the possible phenomena happening at the interface between TIs and other materials. This is especially true in the case of metals, due to the fact that such interfaces will be present in the majority of foreseen TI applications. The presented study combines microscopy and spectroscopy techniques for characterization of morphology, stability and chemical interaction at the interface between TI and metals deposited by means of physical vapor deposition. Our research is based on the interface of Bi2Se3 topological insulator with Ag, Ti and Pt – metals that can be encountered in devices or applications predicted to utilize the special properties of topological insulators. STM and SEM imaging of Ag/Bi2Se3 interface showed that Ag atoms arrange on the surface in the form of islands, whereas significantly bigger agglomerates are found at the surface steps. The interface was found to be unstable in time and resulted in the absorption of the metal into the crystal at room temperature. Evidences of a chemical reaction at the Ag/Bi2Se3 interface are presented, showing that new phases (Ag2Se, AgBiSe2 and metallic Bi) are formed. Deposition of Ti on Bi2Se3 resulted in different morphologies depending on the film thickness. At a very low coverage (<1 Å) islands are formed. However, the islands growth is hindered before the completion of a full layer due to the occurrence of a chemical reaction. No surface features could be detected by SEM for Ti coverage up to 20 nm. In contrary, when Ti thickness reached 40 nm, compressive stress triggered buckling of the deposited film. XPS analysis revealed that a redox solid-state reaction occurs at the Ti/Bi2Se3 interface at room temperature forming titanium selenides and metallic Bi. The reaction has significant kinetics even at cryogenic temperature of 130 K. Pt forms a homogenous film over the whole substrate surface, which is stable in time at room temperature. Although the interface of Pt with Bi2Se3 was found to be i less reactive compared to Ag and Ti, an interfacial phase formed upon annealing to ∼90 °C was detected by TEM cross section experiment. A model for prediction of interfacial reactions between a metal and Bi2Se3 based on the standard reduction potential of the metals and Gibbs free energy for a model reaction is presented. Based on these two values the reaction can be expected to result in the formation of binary and/or ternary selenides and Bi. Presented work shows on the importance of metal/topological insulator interfaces characterization taking into account the possibility of a chemical reaction with all of its consequences. Results should be considered for future theoretical and applicative studies involving such interfaces as well as for the possible engineering of 2D TI heterostructures.
Najdeno v: osebi
Ključne besede: topological insulators, topological surface states, Bi2Se3, thin films, Ag, Ti, Pt, morphology, interfaces, solid-state reaction, metal selenides, reactivity, stability, electron microscopy, dissertations
Objavljeno: 09.06.2021; Ogledov: 198; Prenosov: 14
URL Polno besedilo (0,00 KB)
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Au and Ag on the Bi2Se3(0001) Surface: Experimental Electronic and Physical Properties
Sandra Gardonio, Mattia Fanetti, Katja Ferfolja, Matjaž Valant, objavljeni povzetek znanstvenega prispevka na konferenci

Opis: Binary bismuth chalcogenides, Bi2Se3 and Bi2Te3, have been extensively studied as reference topological insulators (TIs). These materials are bulk insulators with topological surface states (TSS) crossing the Fermi level. In contrast to conventional surface states of metals, the TSS are extremely robust against local modifications at the surface, such as adsorbed adatoms, localized defects or changes in the surface termination. This aspect makes the TIs attractive for applications in spintronics, plasmonics, quantum computing and catalysis. A theoretical model of charge transport by the TI surface states predicts that the TSS survive, provided that bonding at the metal/TI interface is weak. Ab-initio calculations have been done to understand the electronic properties of Au, Ni, Pt, Pd and graphene layers in a contact with Bi2Se3. These calculations showed that for Au and graphene the spin-momentum locking of TSS is maintained at the interface. In another theoretical study, Ag and Au thin layers on Bi2Se3 have been predicted to show a large Rashba splitting and a high spin polarization of the Ag quantum wells, providing a great potential for development of the spintronic devices. Finally, the calculations have foreseen that the presence of the robust TSS affects the adsorption properties of metals (Au bi-layer and clusters of Au, Ag, Cu, Pt, and Pd) supported on TI, in some cases resulting in the enhancement of the catalytic processes. Despite the fundamental importance of the metal/TI interfaces and a number of theoretical studies predicting exotic interfacial phenomena, the experimental knowledge about the metals on the TI surfaces is surprisingly limited, especially concerning combined study of morphology, growth mode, electronic and chemical properties. In order to exploit the predicted physical properties of such systems, it is especially important to extend the study above the diluted coverage regime and to understand what is the growth morphology of the metal on the TI surface, to what extent the metal overlayer interacts with the TI substrate, how the TSS change with the presence of the metal overlayer and what is the reactivity of the system at the different stages of the overlayer growth. Within this frame, we present a comprehensive surface sensitive study, of Au and Ag on Bi2Se3 by means of ARPES, XPS, SEM, LEED and XRD. The obtained results allow us to discuss the relation between electronic and physical properties at two of the most important model metal/TI interfaces
Najdeno v: osebi
Ključne besede: topological insulator, electronic properties, synchrotron radiation
Objavljeno: 27.06.2019; Ogledov: 1340; Prenosov: 0
.pdf Polno besedilo (5,72 MB)

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Chemical Instability of an Interface between Silver and Bi2Se3 Topological Insulator at Room Temperature
Katja Ferfolja, Matjaž Valant, I. Mikulska, Sandra Gardonio, Mattia Fanetti, 2018, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Understanding an interaction at an interface between a topological insulator and a metal is of critical importance when designing electronic and spintronic devices or when such systems are used in catalysis. In this paper, we report on a chemical instability of the interface between Bi2Se3 and Ag studied by X-ray powder diffraction and electron microscopy. We present strong experimental evidence of a redox solid-state reaction occurring at the interface with kinetics that is significant already at room temperature. The reaction yields Ag2Se, AgBiSe2, and Bi. The unexpected room-temperature chemical instability of the interface should be considered for all future theoretical and applicative studies involving the interface between Bi2Se3 and Ag.
Najdeno v: osebi
Ključne besede: topological insulators, Ag, thin metal films, interfaces, redox reaction
Objavljeno: 17.06.2020; Ogledov: 898; Prenosov: 0
.pdf Polno besedilo (3,93 MB)

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