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Particulate air pollution in the heart of the European Union : lessons learned from SAFICA 2017-2018 and SAAERO 2022-2023 projects in Central and Southeast Europe
Katja Džepina, Kristina Glojek, Martin Rigler, Asta Gregorič, Matic Ivančič, Irena Ježek, Griša Močnik, 2024, objavljeni povzetek znanstvenega prispevka na konferenci

Opis: Particularly during the cold weather season, countries of the Southeast Europe are experiencing some of the poorest air quality in the world due to the extensive use of solid fuels and old vehicle fleets. The city of Sarajevo is the capital of Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH) situated within a basin surrounded by mountains. In the winter months (domestic heating season), topography and meteorology cause the pollutants to be trapped within the city basin. Countries of the Southeast Europe lack state-of-the-art atmospheric sciences research and access to sophisticated instrumentation and methodology, despite high levels of ambient pollution and position within the European Union (EU) borders, making it imperative to understand the emission sources, processing and the adverse health effects of atmospheric aerosol pollution.                This presentation will highlight the field measurements in Central and Southeast Europe during the Sarajevo Canton Winter Field Campaign 2017-2018 (SAFICA) and Sarajevo Aerosol Experiment 2022-2023 (SAAERO) projects, centered at the Sarajevo Bjelave supersite. Both projects were envisioned to produce crucial, not previously available information about aerosol emission sources and atmospheric transformations through a combination of online field and offline laboratory measurements. Online measurements during a) SAFICA and b) SAAERO included, a) black carbon, particle number and size distribution, and b) carbonaceous species, elemental composition and bulk chemical composition. SAAERO online measurements also included stationary and mobile measurements of gas- and particle-phase species on board the mobile laboratory in Sarajevo and Zenica, BiH, as well as in Ljubljana, Slovenia and Zagreb, Croatia. Finally, extended SAAERO project included measurements of black carbon at three additional urban centers: Ljubljana, Zagreb, and Belgrade, Serbia, enabling the first comparison of urban air quality in Central and Southeast Europe between two EU and two non-EU capitals. During both projects, laboratory aerosol analyses determined aerosol bulk chemical composition, selected elements (Huremović et al., 2020; Žero et al., 2022) and molecular species (Pehnec et al., 2020). Aerosol chemical composition determined by aerosol mass spectrometry was further analyzed by Positive Matrix Factorization to separate organic aerosol into subtypes characteristic of specific sources and atmospheric processes. Aerosol oxidative potential was also determined to evaluate aerosol ability to generate reactive oxygen species. Sarajevo and Belgrade have high ambient loadings of aerosol and black carbon, indicative of strong and diverse combustion sources and a major public health hazard. Finally, aerosol surface concentrations will be discussed in the context of European air quality. We thank Jasminka Džepina, Magee Scientific/Aerosol, TSI and Aerodyne for support. We acknowledge the contribution of the COST Action CA16109 COLOSSAL and SEE Change Net. KDž and ASHP acknowledge the grant by the Swiss NSF (Scientific Exchanges IZSEZ0_189495), KDž, GM and ASHP European Commission SAAERO grant (EU H2020 MSCA-IF 2020 #101028909), GM Slovenian ARIS grant (P1-0385), SF Croatian HRZZ grant (BiREADI IP-2018-01-3105), and AG, MR, MI, BA and IBJ Slovenian ARIS grant (L1-4386). Pehnec, G., et al., Sci. Tot. Environ., 734, 139414, 2020. Huremović, J., et al., Air Qual. Atmos. Health, 13, 965–976, 2020. Žero, S., Žužul, S., et al., Environ. Sci. Technol., 56, 7052−7062, 2022.
Ključne besede: air pollution, sources of pollution, PMF
Objavljeno v RUNG: 18.03.2024; Ogledov: 434; Prenosov: 2
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Adamičeva Amerika, "dežela v primežu lastne temeljne neskladnosti" : Ars humana
2024, radijska ali televizijska oddaja, podkast, intervju, novinarska konferenca

Ključne besede: Moja Amerika, notranja politika, ameriška družba, ekonomska kriza
Objavljeno v RUNG: 16.01.2024; Ogledov: 584; Prenosov: 2
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Optical properties and simple forcing efficiency of the organic aerosols and black carbon emitted by residential wood burning in rural Central Europe
Andrea Cuesta-Mosquera, Kristina Glojek, Griša Močnik, Luka Drinovec, Asta Gregorič, Martin Rigler, Matej Ogrin, Baseerat Romshoo, Kay Weinhold, Maik Merkel, 2024, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Abstract. Recent years have seen an increase in the use of wood for energy production of over 30 %, and this trend is expected to continue due to the current energy crisis and geopolitical instability. At present, residential wood burning (RWB) is one of the most important sources of organic aerosols (OA) and black carbon (BC). While BC is recognized for its large light absorption cross-section, the role of OA in light absorption is still under evaluation due to their heterogeneous composition and source-dependent optical properties. Studies that characterize wood-burning aerosol emissions in Europe typically focus on urban and background sites and only cover BC properties. However, RWB is more prevalent in rural areas, and the present scenario indicates that an improved understanding of the RWB aerosol optical properties and their subsequent connection to climate impacts is necessary for rural areas. We have characterized atmospheric aerosol particles from a central European rural site during wintertime in the village of Retje in Loški Potok, Slovenia, from 01.12.2017 to 07.03.2018. The village experienced extremely high aerosol concentrations produced by RWB and near-ground temperature inversion. The isolated location of the site and the substantial local emissions made it an ideal laboratory-like place for characterizing RWB aerosols with low influence from non-RWB sources under ambient conditions. The mean mass concentrations of OA and BC were 34.8 µg m-3 (max = 271.8 µg m-3) and 3.1 µg m-3 (max = 24.3 µg m-3), respectively. The mean total particle number concentration (10–600 nm) was 9.9 x 103 particles cm-3 (max = 53.5 x 103 particles cm-3). The mean total light absorption coefficient at 370 nm and 880 nm measured by an Aethalometer AE33 were 122.8 Mm-1 and 15.3 Mm-1 and had maximum values of 1103.9 Mm-1 and 179.1 Mm-1, respectively. The aerosol concentrations and absorption coefficients measured during the campaign in Loški Potok were significantly larger than those reported values for several urban areas in the region with larger populations and extent of aerosol sources. Here, considerable contributions from brown carbon (BrC) to the total light absorption were identified, reaching up to 60 % and 48 % in the near UV (370 nm) and blue (470 nm) wavelengths. These contributions are up to three times higher than values reported for other sites impacted by wood-burning emissions. The calculated mass absorption cross-section and the absorption Ångström exponent for RWB OA were MACOA, 370 nm= 2.4 m2 g-1, and AAEBrC, 370–590 nm= 3.9, respectively. Simple forcing efficiency (SFE) calculations were performed as a sensitivity analysis to evaluate the climate impact of the RWB aerosols produced at the study site by integrating the optical properties measured during the campaign. The SFE results show a considerable forcing capacity from the local RWB aerosols, with a high sensitivity to OA absorption properties and a more substantial impact over bright surfaces like snow, typical during the coldest season with higher OA emissions from RWB. Our study's results are highly significant regarding air pollution, optical properties, and climate impact. The findings suggest that there may be an underestimation of RWB emissions in rural Europe and that further investigation is necessary.
Ključne besede: wood-burning aerosols, optical characterization, black carbon, rural areas
Objavljeno v RUNG: 10.01.2024; Ogledov: 663; Prenosov: 6
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,99 MB)
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Identification and detailed characterization of ▫$PM_10$▫ sources in an Alpine valley influenced by a cement plant
Kristina Glojek, Katja Džepina, Griša Močnik, 2023, objavljeni povzetek znanstvenega prispevka na konferenci

Opis: The contribution of traffic and wood burning to particulate matter (PM) across the Alps is widely recognized and studied (Herich et al., 2014 and references therein; Glojek et al., 2020). However, studies on valleys with cement production are scarce (Kim et al., 2003; Rovira et al., 2018) despite its large PM emissions and potential toxic properties (Erik et al., 2022; Weinbruch et al., 2023). We aim to identify and characterize sources’ contribution to the complex mixture of carbonaceous and mineral PM10 in a representative Alpine valley. Quartz filter samples of PM10 were collected daily from December 2020 to December 2021 and analyzed using different chemical techniques. In the same period equivalent black carbon (eBC) measurements were taken with the Aethalometer AE43. The measured species were analyzed using Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) model (EPA PMF 5.0) with newly added tracers, i. e. source-specific eBC (Sandradewi et al., 2008) and organic species (2-MT, 3-MBTCA, phtalic acid, MSA and oxalate). The final PMF results were compared to online PMF-factors (SoFi Pro) derived from PM10 and PM2.5 elemental measurements (Cooper Xact 625i). Ten factors were identified at the site, including commonly detected biomass burning, traffic, nitrate- and sulfate-rich, aged sea salt and mineral dust. With the added additional organic traces, primary biogenic and secondary oxidation were recognized as well. In addition, two unusual factors were disclosed, contributing 10% to annual PM10. Namely, Cl-rich and a mineral dust-rich factor, which we name the cement kiln factor. We associate these two factors to different processes in the cement plant. The outputs of the study provide vital information about the influence of cement production on PM10 concentrations in complex environments and are useful for PM control strategies and actions.
Ključne besede: PM pollution, carbonaceous aerosols, source apportionment, industry
Objavljeno v RUNG: 10.01.2024; Ogledov: 744; Prenosov: 0
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Kako danes razumeti slovensko e-pesništvo : od tehnološke igrivosti do družbene kritike
Kristina Pranjić, Peter Purg, 2023, samostojni znanstveni sestavek ali poglavje v monografski publikaciji

Ključne besede: elektronska literatura, spletna umetnost, novomedijski objekt
Objavljeno v RUNG: 21.11.2023; Ogledov: 766; Prenosov: 4
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Spreminjanje imaginarija napredka in rasti v avantgardnih in intermedijskih umetniških praksah
Kristina Pranjić, Peter Purg, 2023, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Članek povezuje umetnostno avantgardo z začetka dvajsetega stoletja ter današnjo intermedijsko in družbeno angažirano umetniško prakso. Osrednja teza je, da lahko v predstavljenih primerih umetniških del najdemo koncepte ter modele za razmišljanje in življenje onkraj imperativa rasti in nenehnega napredka. Tovrstne umetniške strategije so predstavljene v petih sklopih, ki obravnavajo teme, kot so lenoba in izginotje, kozmopolitizem in univerzalni jezik, alternativne predstave prostora/časa, transhumanizem, posthumanizem in sistemski pogled na svet. Tako kot so nekoč avantgarde opravljale kritiko industrijske oz. moderne družbe, tako danes intermedijska umetnost prispeva k prestrukturiranju imaginarija rasti ter kapitalistične proizvodnje in potrošnje. Članek doprinaša k premišljevanju konceptov postrasti in odrasti na področju umetnosti in humanistike ter prikaže, kako je prav umetnost tista, preko katere je možno pozitivno razumevanje nemoči in opuščanja oz. nasprotja rasti, kar navadno razumemo kot izključno negativno — kot pomanjkanje in izgubo.
Ključne besede: umetnost, družba, avantgarda, intermedijska umetnost, ekokritika, ideologija rasti, postkapitalizem
Objavljeno v RUNG: 21.11.2023; Ogledov: 769; Prenosov: 5
.pdf Celotno besedilo (2,86 MB)
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An art+sci approach toward a curriculum of bordering
Peter Purg, Kristina Pranjić, 2023, objavljeni povzetek znanstvenega prispevka na konferenci

Ključne besede: social imagination, media materiality, research methodology, curriculum, border
Objavljeno v RUNG: 28.09.2023; Ogledov: 787; Prenosov: 3
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