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17-ß-Estradiol and Testosterone concentrations in claws of puppies up to 60 days of age.
Jasmine Fusi, Tanja Peric, Cristina Bergamin, Maria Cristina Veronesi, 2018, objavljeni povzetek znanstvenega prispevka na konferenci

Opis: The current 30% of canine perinatal mortality (Tonnessen et al., 2012) claims the need to deepen the knowledge about this phase, characterized by long-term hormonal and metabolic changes, that could benefit of long time-frame methods of investigation, reducing the quantity of samplings and thus respecting animal welfare (Veronesi et al., 2015). Indeed, apart from the well-known invasiveness of blood samplings, the necessary repeated collection of feces, urine and saliva, providing punctual information, could be stressful for the newborns and their mothers with negative effects on health status and maternal behavior. Given that sexual steroid hormones were reported to have an influence on health outcomes and development already from the perinatal period (Frey et al., 2017), in this work 17-β-Estradiol (E2) and Testosterone (T) concentrations were assessed from the claws of dogs up to 60 days of age, to identify possible endogenous biomarkers. Ten male and 10 female puppies, viable and healthy, born by elective cesarean section, were enrolled. Samplings were performed by trimming claws at birth, and the regrowth at 30 and 60 days of age after the breeder or the owner signed an informed consent. Then, E2 and T concentrations were analyzed by RIA (Veronesi et al., 2015) and a possible effect of gender evaluated by ANOVA. All the hormonal claws concentrations showed a significant (p<0.001) drop from birth to 30 and 60 days of age, while no significant changes were observed between 30 and at 60 days of age (Table 1). No influence of the newborns’ gender was found. Because of the higher levels of E2 and T observed at birth and at 30 days of age, it could be supposed that a source of production could be the placental and maternal compartments. However, the direct involvement of the fetus itself could not be excluded, given the reported accumulation from the nail capillary bed of those hormones (de Berker et al., 2007) and the production of sexual steroid hormones by feline fetal gonads (Braun and Jewgenow, 2017).
Ključne besede: Dog, Puppy, Claws, 17-ß-Estradiol, Testosterone.
Objavljeno v RUNG: 09.04.2019; Ogledov: 3484; Prenosov: 0
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Maternal and fetal hair cortisol concentrations in beef cattle at delivery
Tanja Peric, Monica Probo, Antonella Comin, Maria Cristina Veronesi, Marta Montillo, Alberto Prandi, 2018, objavljeni povzetek znanstvenega prispevka na konferenci

Opis: Hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis of both mother and fetus, is one of key mechanisms involved in fetal programming. Cortisol, the end-product of this axis, plays a critical role in regulating fetal and new-born metabolism and development. The aim of the study was to evaluate maternal and fetal cortisol concentrations shortly after delivery on hair samples non-invasively collected. The study was carried out on 11 pairs of beef cows and their calves (calves were 12 because of one case of twins) from the same farm and subjected to the same managerial conditions. Hair from new-born calves and from their mothers was collected on the day of birth shaving their withers to the level of the skin. The hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) were determined by RIA as previously described (Peric et al. 2013: J Dairy Sci 96:3023–3027). The results showed that fetal and maternal HCC ranged from 16.11 to 40.43 pg/mg and from 1.88 to 15.73 pg/mg respectively, with fetal and maternal mean ± SE HCC of 23.72 ± 2.21 and 6.40 ± 1.32 pg/mg respectively (p < 0.001). Fetal HCC were on average 3.5 higher than those of mothers but this ratio differed among the pairs. These differences were also found among the twin calves. These results indicate that in beef cows-and-calves pairs, although HCC at delivery were always higher in calves than in cows, the ratio between fetal and maternal HCC differs among pairs, suggesting an individuality in the fetal programming processes that may also rely on genetic and epigenetic factors.
Ključne besede: hair, cortisol, cattle, delivery
Objavljeno v RUNG: 09.04.2019; Ogledov: 3759; Prenosov: 0
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Cortisol claws concentrations in dogs from birth to 60 days of age
Jasmine Fusi, Tanja Peric, Barbara Bolis, Alessandro Rota, Antonella Comin, Maria Cristina Veronesi, 2017, objavljeni povzetek znanstvenega prispevka na konferenci

Opis: During the last fetal stage of development and in the neonatal period, the hypothalamic- pituitary- adrenal (HPA) axis secretes cortisol (C), responsible for several physiologic processes. The claws were recently proved to be a useful, non- invasive matrix for long time- frame retrospective C levels analysis also in puppies (Veronesi et al. 2015, Theriogenology 84:791–796). Because of the scarce knowledge on canine perinatology, this study was aimed to assess the C concentrations in claws of newborn puppies collected at birth, 30 and 60 days of age, and to evaluate the possible influence of age, gender and type of birth on C claws accumulation. The study was performed on 58 large purebred, normal, healthy puppies, born by spontaneous or cesarean parturition. The mean C claws concentrations significantly decrease from birth (26 ± 16.39 pg/mg) to 30 (10 ± 4.53 pg/mg) and 60 (6 ± 3.12 pg/mg) days of age (p < 0.0001); a decrease was also seen from 30 to 60 days of age (p < 0.05). No influence of newborn gender and type of birth was found. This trend of decrease is in agreement with data reported by (Veronesi et al. 2015, Theriogenology 84:791–796) in dead puppies, and suggests the important role of C around the time of birth. However the exact source of the C accumulated in claws of puppies at birth must be clarified, while the source of C accumulated at 30, and even more at 60 days, can be supposed to be addressed to the newborn itself.
Ključne besede: Cortisol, claws, dog
Objavljeno v RUNG: 01.09.2017; Ogledov: 4920; Prenosov: 0
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Jasmine Fusi, Marta Montillo, Barbara Bolis, Alessandro Rota, Tanja Peric, Maria Cristina Veronesi, 2017, objavljeni povzetek znanstvenega prispevka na konferenci

Opis: Similarly to all other species, also in the dog improvements in the knowledge on perinatology are mandatory for a better management of newborns, mainly aimed to reduce the impact of perinatal mortality. However, until recently, the study of canine perinatology was limited mainly because of the invasiveness of many investigation procedures, such as repeated blood sampling. In recent times, the claws/nails were proved to be a useful, non invasive, matrix for long time-frame retrospective hormone concentrations analysis also in babies and puppies [1,2], providing a suitable matrix for perinatal long-term hormonal changes studies. The last intrauterine foetal stage of development and the neonatal period represent the most challenging phases for the mammals offspring. It was demonstrated that the activation of the fetal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis leads to dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and DHEA sulfate (DHEA-S) secretion, the major fetal steroids. Thus, DHEA-S measured at birth in newborns could be considered as a marker of offspring HPA axis activity, under the maternal influence. This study was aimed to assess the DHEA-S concentrations in newborn puppies claws, collected at birth and at 30 days of age, and to evaluate the possible influence of age, gender and type of birth on DHEA-S claws accumulation. The study was performed on 58 large purebred, normal, healthy, viable (Apgar≥7) puppies, 31 males and 27 females, born by vaginal spontaneous (N=22) or caesarean (N=36) parturition. DHEA-S was analysed by RIA. The mean ± SD DHEA-S claws concentration significantly (p<0.01) decreased from birth (210±152.00 pg/mg) to 30 days (91±72.63 pg/mg), evidencing the higher fetal DHEA-S secretion in the last fetal stage of pregnancy in comparison to the first postnatal month of age. According to the type of parturition, higher (p<0.001) DHEA-S claws concentrations were found at birth in puppies born by spontaneous than caesarean parturition (300±167.05 vs 154±112.23 pg/mg, respectively); this finding deserves further investigations. No influence of newborn gender was found. Claws DHEA-S values at birth were a bit higher, but with a lower SD, in comparison to data reported for babies 1-3 weeks old [1]. The trend of decrease is in agreement with data reported for cortisol [2] in dead puppies, and suggests, beside the role of cortisol, the important effects of DHEA-S around the time of birth, also in puppies, as reported for babies [1]. [1] Tegethoff et al. Dehydroepindrosterone in nails of infants: a potential biomarker of intrauterine responses to maternal stress. Biological psychology, 87: 414-420, 2011. [2] Veronesi et al. Coat and claws as new matrices for noninvasive long-term cortisol assessment in dogs from birth up to 30 days of age. Theriogenology, 84: 791-796, 2015.
Ključne besede: DHEA-S, claw, dog
Objavljeno v RUNG: 22.08.2017; Ogledov: 4437; Prenosov: 0
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Cortisol fetal fluids and newborn outcome in term pregnancy small-sized purebred dogs.
Barbara Bolis, Tanja Peric, Alessandro Rota, Massimo Faustini, Maria Cristina Veronesi, 2016, objavljeni povzetek znanstvenega prispevka na konferenci

Opis: In order to provide further information about canine perinatology, and because of the scarce knowledge about fetal fluids composition in dogs, the present study was aimed to assess the cortisol concentrations in fetal fluids collected from small-sized purebred newborn puppies born by elective cesarean section, at term of pregnancy (Meloni et al, 2014). Furthermore we assessed possible correlations of amniotic and allantoic cortisol concentrations and newborn outcome at 24 hours of age and with the newborn gender. Fetal fluids cortisol concentrations were also evaluated for correlation with maternal parity, litter-size, neonatal gender, birth weight and Apgar score (Veronesi et al, 2009). The study, performed on 50 born alive, normal weighed puppies, without gross physical malformation, showed that cortisol concentration was higher in allantoic than in amniotic fluid (p<0.01), even if a strong positive correlation between the two fluids cortisol concentration was found (p<0.0001; R=0.83). Interestingly, higher amniotic (p<0.05) cortisol concentrations were associated to puppies not surviving at 24 hours after birth. Therefore it could be suggested that this parameter may be useful for the recognition, at birth, of puppies needing special surveillance in the first day of age. In relation to the other evaluated parameters, no correlations with amniotic or allantoic cortisol concentrations were found. In conclusion, the present results showed that in small-sized purebred puppies, born at term by elective caesarean section, the evaluation of amniotic cortisol concentration seems useful for the detection of puppies that need special surveillance during the first 24 hours of age, and should be coupled to the newborn evaluation by Apgar score.
Ključne besede: cortisol, fetal fluids, pregnancy, dog
Objavljeno v RUNG: 12.05.2017; Ogledov: 4560; Prenosov: 248
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Luteal activity and effect of dietary energy restriction on follicular development in lactating cows
Antonella Comin, Tanja Peric, M. Montillo, Alberto Cappa, Vittorio Marchi, Maria Cristina Veronesi, Alberto Prandi, 2017, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: The aim of this research has been to evaluate the presence of anomalies in the ovarian cycle activity during postpartum and to verify whether 72-hr dietary fasting during the dominance phase, the phase before ovulation, might modify the ovarian follicle population. The presence of anomalies in ovarian cycle activity has been evaluated in 30 Italian Friesian cows starting from 20 days postpartum until 211 days of lactation. Long oestrus and brief dioestrus or scarce luteal activity have been the main anomalies found through measuring progesterone concentrations in the whey. Until 100 days of lactation, the BCS values of the problematic animals have been significantly lower than those in animals with normal ovarian activity. After 100 days of lactation, the ovarian anomalies continued to appear despite the fact that all the animals have reached comparable BCS values. Starting from the results of this trial, the effect of 72-hr dietary fasting on dominant follicles has been studied in six cows. Ultrasonography revealed that the diameter of the follicles at 71 days postpartum has been significantly lower than at 181 days. A 72-hr dietary restriction at 101 and 211 days postpartum did not affect the size of the dominant follicle. However, at 101 days postpartum, half of the animals presented follicular cysts. The effect of fasting differed if the animal has been in early postpartum or 211 days of lactation. Further researches are necessary to understand how different metabolic conditions can modify the follicular population but on the other hand the study shows the utility for farmers and field veterinarians of monitoring the resumption of the ovarian cycle postpartum through the whey progesterone concentrations.
Ključne besede: dairy cow, cyclic activity, follicles, fasting
Objavljeno v RUNG: 06.04.2017; Ogledov: 4630; Prenosov: 0
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Hair cortisol and testosterone concentrations and semen production of Bos taurus bulls
Giuseppe Stradaioli, Tanja Peric, Marta Montillo, Antonella Comin, Mirco Corazzin, Maria Cristina Veronesi, Alberto Prandi, 2017, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: The experiment was aimed to evaluate the usefulness of hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) in revealing the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis due to the passage of young bulls from genetic rearing stations to artificial insemination (AI) centre and the influence of this passage on hair testosterone concentrations (HTC). Hair samples on 33 yearling bulls were collected at the time of arrival (ST1) to the AI centre and 3 more hair samples (ST2, ST3, ST4) were collected at monthly intervals. After the end of quarantine each animal was submitted to the standard procedures for collection and production of semen. Overall HCC were significantly affected by period of collection (p<.01). In particular, HCC was higher in samples obtained after finishing the quarantine period (ST2) compared with those obtained on ST1. After ST2, the HCC decreased reaching at ST4 a value similar to that recorded at ST1. An effect of sampling time on HTC was not found (p>.05). The effect of breed was observed only for HTC that was higher in PRI than BS (p<.01). The HCC group have not influenced the semen variables (p>.05). On the contrary, the effect of breed was evident. The results of this study replicated the effects of a major environmental stressor on mean cortisol concentrations assessed in hair, and add to the growing body of evidence that HCC is an effective and simply collected marker for long-term activity of the HPA system in response to persistent environmental challenge.
Ključne besede: Hair, bulls, cortisol, testosterone, semen
Objavljeno v RUNG: 20.03.2017; Ogledov: 5868; Prenosov: 0
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Plasma cortisol concentrations in Holstein Friesian and Belgian Blue newborn calves born by different types of delivery
M. Probo, Tanja Peric, M. Montillo, Geert Opsomer, L. O. Fiems, M. C. Veronesi, 2016, objavljeni povzetek znanstvenega prispevka na konferenci

Opis: Cortisol (C) is a major stimulus for fetal and neonatal lung maturation and for surfactant production. Neonatal calves born by caesarean section (CS), particularly the double-muscled Belgian Blue (BB), are more proned to develop the respiratory distress syndrome (Cambier et al. 2002 Vet Res 33, 283–290; Danlois et al. 2003 Vet J 165, 65–72). The aim of this study was to investigate C plasma levels in 15 Holstein Friesian (HF) newborn calves born by spontaneous vaginal delivery (VD) and in 25 BB newborn calves born by elective CS. Blood samples were taken at 10, 20, 30 min and at 6, 24 h after birth and at 7 and 14 days of age. Plasma C concentrations were analyzed by RIA. Statistical analysis evidenced an influence of both time (p < 0.05) and group (p < 0.0001) on C concentrations. In agreement with previous studies, high C levels at birth were followed by a reduction at 6 h and by a further decrease on day 7 after birth in both groups. Cortisol concentrations were different between BB and HF calves, with significantly higher levels in HF calves. These findings are in agreement with studies in newborn babies, while previous studies on calves mentioned no differences in C levels between calves born without assistance vs. calves born by CS. The present results suggest that both breed and type of delivery are associated with plasma C levels in the newborn calf.
Ključne besede: Plasma cortisol, Holstein Friesian, Belgian Blue, calf, delivery
Objavljeno v RUNG: 15.11.2016; Ogledov: 4809; Prenosov: 0
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