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41.
A novel tool for the absolute end-to-end calibration of fluorescence telescopes : the XY-scanner
Christoph Schäfer, Andrej Filipčič, Jon Paul Lundquist, Shima Ujjani Shivashankara, Samo Stanič, Serguei Vorobiov, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, 2023, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: The Pierre Auger Observatory uses 27 large-aperture wide-angle Schmidt telescopes to measure the longitudinal profile of air showers using the air-fluorescence technique. Up to the year 2013, the absolute calibration of the telescopes was performed by mounting a uniform large-diameter light source on each of the telescopes and illuminating the entire aperture with a known photon flux. Due to the high amount of work and person-power required, this procedure was only carried out roughly once every three years, and a relative calibration was performed every night to track short-term changes. Since 2013, only the relative calibration has been performed. In this paper, we present a novel tool for the absolute end-to-end calibration of the fluorescence detectors, the XY-Scanner. The XY-Scanner uses a portable integrating sphere as a light source, which has been absolutely calibrated. This light source is installed onto a motorized rail system and moved across the aperture of each telescope. We mimic the illumination of the entire aperture by flashing the light source at ∼1700 positions evenly distributed across the telescope aperture. For the absolute calibration of the light source, we built a dedicated setup that uses a NIST-calibrated photodiode to measure the average photon flux and a PMT to track the pulse-to-pulse stability. We present the laboratory setups used to study the characteristics of the employed light sources and discuss the inter-calibration between selected telescopes.
Ključne besede: ultra-high energy cosmic rays, Pierre Auger Observatory, fluorescence detectors, longitudinal profile
Objavljeno v RUNG: 23.01.2024; Ogledov: 820; Prenosov: 6
.pdf Celotno besedilo (5,33 MB)
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42.
A new cross-check and review of aerosol attenuation measurements at the Pierre Auger Observatory
Violet M. Harvey, Andrej Filipčič, Jon Paul Lundquist, Shima Ujjani Shivashankara, Samo Stanič, Serguei Vorobiov, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, 2023, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: The distribution of aerosols in the atmosphere above cosmic ray fluorescence detectors must be well characterised in order to precisely recover extensive air shower properties such as the calorimetric energy, �, and depth of shower maximum, �max. The Pierre Auger Observatory uses two centrally located laser facilities to measure the vertical aerosol optical depth profile (VAOD) every hour. It is assumed that the night with the clearest atmosphere each year is effectively aerosol free and that it is an appropriate reference to set the absolute scale of VAOD throughout that year. We review the successes of this method and its associated sources of systematic uncertainty, then present a new cross-check of measured VAOD using air shower events observed in stereo mode. Special attention is paid to quantifying the uncertainties on this result. As the technique is only sensitive to VAOD bias at a fixed altitude, we combine it with a study of aerosol profiles independently measured using a less-sensitive Raman lidar system. This allows us to derive a complete model of the upper limit on the possible bias in the average measured VAOD, which we attribute primarily to an uncertainty on whether the annual reference nights are completely aerosol free. We formulate a correction for this bias and apply it retroactively to all VAOD measurements, then repeat the analysis of the complete air shower dataset and discuss the small but significant effect of this new correction on � and �max. This correction is now fully integrated into the Auger analysis chain.
Ključne besede: ultra-high energy cosmic rays, Pierre Auger Observatory, fluoresecnce detectors, Xmax
Objavljeno v RUNG: 22.01.2024; Ogledov: 725; Prenosov: 5
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,45 MB)
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43.
Combined fit to the spectrum and composition data measured by the Pierre Auger Observatory including magnetic horizon effects
Juan Manuel González, Andrej Filipčič, Jon Paul Lundquist, Shima Ujjani Shivashankara, Samo Stanič, Serguei Vorobiov, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, 2023, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: The measurements by the Pierre Auger Observatory of the energy spectrum and mass composition of cosmic rays can be interpreted assuming the presence of two extragalactic source populations, one dominating the flux at energies above a few EeV and the other below. To fit the data ignoring magnetic field effects, the high-energy population needs to accelerate a mixture of nuclei with very hard spectra, at odds with the approximate �−2 shape expected from diffusive shock acceleration. The presence of turbulent extragalactic magnetic fields in the region between the closest sources and the Earth can significantly modify the observed CR spectrum with respect to that emitted by the sources, reducing the flux of low-rigidity particles that reach the Earth. We here take into account this magnetic horizon effect in the combined fit of the spectrum and shower depth distributions, exploring the possibility that a spectrum for the high-energy population sources with a shape closer to �^(−2) be able to explain the observations. We find that a large inter-source separation �s and a large magnetic field RMS amplitude within the Local Supercluster region, such that �rms ≃ 100 nG (40 Mpc/�s) √︁25 kpc/�coh, are needed to interpret the data within this scenario, where �coh is the magnetic field coherence length.
Ključne besede: ultra-high energy cosmic rays, Pierre Auger Observatory, mass composition, extragalactic magnetic fiels
Objavljeno v RUNG: 22.01.2024; Ogledov: 698; Prenosov: 6
.pdf Celotno besedilo (623,35 KB)
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44.
Long-term calibration and stability of the Auger Engineering Radio Array using the diffuse Galactic radio emission
R. M. de Almeida, Andrej Filipčič, Jonathan Paul Lundquist, Shima Ujjani Shivashankara, Samo Stanič, Serguei Vorobiov, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, 2023, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: The Auger Engineering Radio Array (AERA), part of the Pierre Auger Observatory, is currently the largest facility to measure radio emissions from ultra-high energy extensive air showers. It comprises 153 autonomous radio-detector stations, covering an area of 17 km^2, and measures radio waves in the frequency range from 30 to 80 MHz. An accurate description of the detector response is necessary to interpret the data collected by the stations correctly. Previously, this was achieved by measuring the analog chain in the laboratory and simulating and measuring the directional response of the antenna. In this work, we perform an absolute calibration using the continuously monitored sidereal modulation of the diffuse Galactic radio emission. The calibration is performed by comparing the average spectra recorded by the stations with a model of the full radio sky propagated through the system response, including the antenna, filters, and amplifiers. We describe the method to determine the calibration constants for each antenna and present the corresponding results. Furthermore, the behavior of the calibration constants is studied as a function of time. There is no relevant aging effect over a timescale of a decade, which shows that radio detectors could help monitor possible aging effects of other detector systems during long-term operations, stressing their importance in determining an absolute energy scale.
Ključne besede: pierre auger observatory, auger engineering radio array, ultra-high energy cosmic rays, radio detectors
Objavljeno v RUNG: 22.01.2024; Ogledov: 800; Prenosov: 34
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,03 MB)
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45.
Mass composition from 3 EeV to 100 EeV using the depth of the maximum of air-shower profiles estimated with deep learning using surface detector data of the Pierre Auger Observatory
Jonas Glombitza, Andrej Filipčič, Jon Paul Lundquist, Shima Ujjani Shivashankara, Samo Stanič, Serguei Vorobiov, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, 2023, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: We present a new analysis for estimating the depth of the maximum of air-shower profiles, �max, to investigate the evolution of the ultra-high-energy cosmic ray mass composition from 3 to 100 EeV. We use a recently developed deep-learning-based technique for the reconstruction of �max from the data of the surface detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory. To avoid systematic uncertainties arising from hadronic interaction models in the simulation of surface detector data, we calibrate the new reconstruction technique with observations of the fluorescence detector. Using the novel analysis, we have a 10-fold increase of statistics at � > 5 EeV with respect to fluorescence detector data. We are able, for the first time, to study the evolution of the mean and standard deviation of the �max distributions up to 100 EeV. We find an excellent agreement with fluorescence observations and confirm the increase of the mean logarithmic mass ⟨ln(�)⟩ and a decrease of the �max fluctuations with energy. The �max measurement at the highest — so far inaccessible — energies is consistent with a pure mass composition and a mean logarithmic mass of around ∼ 3 (estimated using the Sibyll 2.3d and the EPOS-LHC hadronic interaction models). Furthermore, with the increase in statistics, we find indications for a structure beyond a constant elongation rate in the evolution of �max.
Ključne besede: ultra-high energy cosmic rays, Pierre Auger Observatory, surface detector, flourescence detector
Objavljeno v RUNG: 22.01.2024; Ogledov: 715; Prenosov: 6
.pdf Celotno besedilo (992,98 KB)
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46.
Monitoring the inter-calibration of the HEAT and Coihueco fluorescence telescopes of the Pierre Auger Observatory with measurements of the brightness of the night sky
Alberto Segreto, Andrej Filipčič, Jon Paul Lundquist, Shima Ujjani Shivashankara, Samo Stanič, Serguei Vorobiov, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, 2023, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: The High Elevation Auger Telescopes (HEAT) has increased the Field of View (FoV) of the Fluorescence Detector (FD) at the Coihueco site of the Pierre Auger Observatory and allowed the extension of the energy threshold for the measurements of energies and �max of Extensive Air Showers (EAS) down to ≈ 1017.2 eV. By temporarily orienting HEAT in the downward position, it acquires data in the same FoV as the other Coihueco telescopes, thus providing the opportunity to intercalibrate the detectors by multiple observations of the same EAS. To further control systematic uncertainties in �max and energy measurements, in this contribution we present an innovative method that takes advantage of the Night Sky Brightness (NSB) continuously measured with the FD data acquisition system for monitoring a possible evolution in time of the initial HEAT and Coihueco inter-calibration. While the brightness of the night sky evolves unpredictably and is highly dependent on local weather conditions, we expect to obtain consistent measurements from telescopes located at the same site and observing the same direction of the sky. In this work, we describe the method used to compare the NSB measured by the neighboring HEAT and Coihueco telescopes to monitor the stability of their relative calibration over time. This method allows us to study further the systematics in the inter-calibration of the FD telescopes.
Ključne besede: ultra-high energy cosmic rays, Pierre Auger Observatory, night sky brightness, high elevation Auger telescopes
Objavljeno v RUNG: 22.01.2024; Ogledov: 759; Prenosov: 5
.pdf Celotno besedilo (928,86 KB)
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47.
Investigations of a novel energy estimator using deep learning for the surface detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory
Fiona Ellwanger, Andrej Filipčič, Jon Paul Lundquist, Shima Ujjani Shivashankara, Samo Stanič, Serguei Vorobiov, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, 2023, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: Exploring physics at energies beyond the reach of human-built accelerators by studying cosmic rays requires an accurate reconstruction of their energy. At the highest energies, cosmic rays are indirectly measured by observing a shower of secondary particles produced by their interaction in the atmosphere. At the Pierre Auger Observatory, the energy of the primary particle is either reconstructed from measurements of the emitted fluorescence light, produced when secondary particles travel through the atmosphere, or shower particles detected with the surface detector at the ground. The surface detector comprises a triangular grid of water-Cherenkov detectors that measure the shower footprint at the ground level. With deep learning, large simulation data sets can be used to train neural networks for reconstruction purposes. In this work, we present an application of a neural network to estimate the energy of the primary particle from the surface detector data by exploiting the time structure of the particle footprint. When evaluating the precision of the method on air shower simulations, we find the potential to significantly reduce the composition bias compared to methods based on fitting the lateral signal distribution. Furthermore, we investigate possible biases arising from systematic differences between simulations and data.
Ključne besede: ultra-high energy cosmic rays, Pierre Auger Observatory, surface detector, neural network
Objavljeno v RUNG: 22.01.2024; Ogledov: 681; Prenosov: 4
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,78 MB)
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48.
Status and performance of the underground muon detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory
Joaquín De Jesús, Andrej Filipčič, Jon Paul Lundquist, Shima Ujjani Shivashankara, Samo Stanič, Serguei Vorobiov, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, 2023, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: The Pierre Auger Observatory, located in Malargüe, Argentina, is the largest facility for the detection of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays and has been operating successfully for nearly 20 years. For its second phase of operation, the Observatory is undergoing a major upgrade, called AugerPrime, to increase its sensitivity to the primary mass. As part of the upgrade, the Underground Muon Detector is being deployed in the low-energy extension of the Surface Detector. It consists of an array of 30 m^2 plastic scintillator muon counters buried 2.3m underground in the vicinity of the water-Cherenkov detectors. This will allow a direct measurement of the muonic component of air showers in the energy range 1016.5 eV to 1019 eV, contributing significantly to the discrimination of the primary mass and to the testing of hadronic interaction models. In this contribution, the deployment status and performance of the Underground Muon Detector are presented.
Ključne besede: surface detector, Pierre Auger Observatory, AugerPrime, underground muon detector
Objavljeno v RUNG: 22.01.2024; Ogledov: 738; Prenosov: 5
.pdf Celotno besedilo (15,44 MB)
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49.
The time evolution of the surface detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory
Orazio Zapparrata, Andrej Filipčič, Jon Paul Lundquist, Shima Ujjani Shivashankara, Samo Stanič, Serguei Vorobiov, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, 2023, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: The surface detector array of the Pierre Auger Observatory, consisting of 1660 water Cherenkov tanks, has been in operation for nearly 20 years. During this long period of data acquisition, ageing effects in the detector response have been observed. The temporal evolution of the signals recorded by the surface detector is mostly compensated by continuous calibration with atmospheric muons; however, effects persist in the signal rise time and in high-level data analysis using neural networks. We have implemented a detailed description of the time evolution of the detector response and of the uptimes of individual stations in GEANT4-based detector simulations. These new simulations reproduce the observed time dependencies in the data. Using air-shower simulations that take into account the evolution of individual stations, we show that the reconstructed energy is stable at the sub-percent level, and its resolution is affected by less than 5% in 15 years. For a few specific stations, the collected light produced by muons has decreased to the point where it is difficult to distinguish it from the electromagnetic background in the calibration histograms. The upgrade of the Observatory with scintillator detectors mitigates this problem: by requiring a coincidence between the water-Cherenkov and scintillator detectors, we can enhance the muon relative contribution to the calibration histogram. We present the impact and performance of this coincidence calibration method.
Ključne besede: surface detector, Pierre Auger Observatory, neural networks, air-shower simulations
Objavljeno v RUNG: 22.01.2024; Ogledov: 771; Prenosov: 4
.pdf Celotno besedilo (743,29 KB)
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50.
Constraining models for the origin of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays with spectrum, composition, and arrival direction data measured at the Pierre Auger Observatory
Teresa Bister, Andrej Filipčič, Jon Paul Lundquist, Shima Ujjani Shivashankara, Samo Stanič, Serguei Vorobiov, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, 2023, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: The distribution of cosmic-ray arrival directions shows a better agreement with models in which a fraction of the flux is associated with catalogs of nearby source candidates, such as starburst galaxies, than with isotropy. To investigate this further, we use a novel approach, fitting simultaneously the energy spectrum, distributions of shower maxima, and arrival directions at the highest energies measured with the Pierre Auger Observatory. The astrophysical model consists of homogeneously distributed background sources as well as an adaptable contribution from nearby source candidates. Propagation effects and a rigidity-dependent magnetic field blurring are taken into account, producing a rising level of anisotropy with the energy. We demonstrate that a model containing a flux fraction of around 20% from the starburst galaxy catalog at 40 EeV, with a hard, nitrogen-dominated injection spectrum, provides a good description of the data. By investigating a scenario with Cen A as a single source in combination with the homogeneous background, we show that this region of the sky provides the dominant part to the observed anisotropy signal. Models based on jetted active galactic nuclei whose cosmic-ray flux scales with the gamma-ray emission are disfavored. The modeled energy evolution of the arrival directions, the spectra of individual sources, as well as the statistical significance of the results, including the influence of experimental systematic effects, will be discussed in this contribution.
Ključne besede: anisotropies, Pierre Auger Observatory, ultra-high energy cosmic-rays, arrival directions
Objavljeno v RUNG: 22.01.2024; Ogledov: 773; Prenosov: 4
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,47 MB)
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