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1.
Untargeted molecular analysis of exhaled breath as a diagnostic test for ventilator-associated lower respiratory tract infections (BreathDx)
Pouline M. van Oort, Tamara M. E. Nijsen, Iain R. White, Hugo Knobel, Timothy Felton, Nicholas J. W. Rattray, Oluwasola Lawal, Murtaza Bulut, Waqar Ahmed, Antonio Artigas, 2021, kratki znanstveni prispevek

Opis: Patients suspected of ventilator-associated lower respiratory tract infections (VA-LRTIs) commonly receive broad-spectrum antimicrobial therapy unnecessarily. We tested whether exhaled breath analysis can discriminate between patients suspected of VA-LRTI with confirmed infection, from patients with negative cultures. Breath from 108 patients suspected of VA-LRTI was analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The breath test had a sensitivity of 98% at a specificity of 49%, confirmed with a second analytical method. The breath test had a negative predictive value of 96% and excluded pneumonia in half of the patients with negative cultures. Trial registration number: UKCRN ID number 19086, registered May 2015.
Ključne besede: ventilator-associated pneumonia, breath analysis, volatile organic compounds, metabolomics, intensive care, hospital acquired infections
Objavljeno v RUNG: 07.09.2021; Ogledov: 4144; Prenosov: 0
Gradivo ima več datotek! Več...

2.
Development of an adaptable headspace sampling method for metabolic profiling of the fungal volatome
Waqar M Ahmed, Pavlos Geranios, Iain R. White, Oluwasola Lawal, Tamara M Nijsen, Michael J Bromley, Royston Goodacre, Nicholas D Read, Stephen J Fowler, 2018, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Pulmonary aspergillosis can cause serious complications in people with a suppressed immune system. Volatile metabolites emitted by Aspergillus spp. have shown promise for early detection of pathogenicity. However, volatile profiles require further research, as effective headspace analysis methods are required for extended chemical coverage of the volatome; in terms of both very volatile and semi-volatile compounds. In this study, we describe a novel adaptable sampling method in which fungal headspace samples can be sampled continuously throughout a defined time period using both active (pumped) and passive (diffusive) methods, with the capability for samples to be stored for later off-line analysis. For this method we utilise thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to generate volatile metabolic profiles using Aspergillus fumigatus as the model organism. Several known fungal-specific volatiles associated with secondary metabolite biosynthesis (including α-pinene, camphene, limonene, and several sesquiterpenes) were identified. A comparison between the wild-type A. fumigatus with a phosphopantetheinyl transferase null mutant strain (ΔpptA) that is compromised in secondary metabolite synthesis, revealed reduced production of sesquiterpenes. We also showed the lack of terpene compounds production during the early growth phase, whilst pyrazines were identified in both early and late growth phases. We have demonstrated that the fungal volatome is dynamic and it is therefore critically necessary to sample the headspace across several time periods using a combination of active and passive sampling techniques to analyse and understand this dynamism.
Ključne besede: Volatile Organic Compounds, Fungi, Mycelial growth
Objavljeno v RUNG: 18.07.2019; Ogledov: 2910; Prenosov: 0
Gradivo ima več datotek! Več...

3.
TD/GC–MS analysis of volatile markers emitted from mono- and co-cultures of Enterobacter cloacae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in artificial sputum
Iain R. White, Oluwasola Lawal, Hugo Knobel, Weda Hans, Tamara M E Nijsen, Royston Goodacre, Stephen J Fowler, Waqar M Ahmed, Antonio Artigas, Jonathan Barnard-Smith, Lieuwe D Bos, Marta Camprubi, Luis Coelho, Paul Dark, Alan Davie, Emili Diaz, Gemma Goma, Timothy Felton, Jan H Leopold, Pouline M P van Oort, Pedro Póvoa, Craig Portsmouth, 2018, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Introduction: Infections such as ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) can be caused by one or more pathogens. Current methods for identifying these pathogenic microbes often require invasive sampling, and can be time consuming, due to the requirement for prolonged cultural enrichment along with selective and differential plating steps. This results in delays in diagnosis which in such critically ill patients can have potentially life-threatening consequences. Therefore, a non-invasive and timely diagnostic method is required. Detection of microbial volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in exhaled breath is proposed as an alternative method for identifying these pathogens and may distinguish between mono- and poly-microbial infections. Objectives: To investigate volatile metabolites that discriminate between bacterial mono- and co-cultures. Methods: VAP-associated pathogens Enterobacter cloacae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were cultured individually and together in artificial sputum medium for 24 h and their headspace was analysed for potential discriminatory VOCs by thermal desorption gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Results: Of the 70 VOCs putatively identified, 23 were found to significantly increase during bacterial culture (i.e. likely to be released during metabolism) and 13 decreased (i.e. likely consumed during metabolism). The other VOCs showed no transformation (similar concentrations observed as in the medium). Bacteria-specific VOCs including 2-methyl-1-propanol, 2-phenylethanol, and 3-methyl-1-butanol were observed in the headspace of axenic cultures of E. cloacae, and methyl 2-ethylhexanoate in the headspace of P. aeruginosa cultures which is novel to this investigation. Previously reported VOCs 1-undecene and pyrrole were also detected. The metabolites 2-methylbutyl acetate and methyl 2-methylbutyrate, which are reported to exhibit antimicrobial activity, were elevated in co-culture only. Conclusion: The observed VOCs were able to differentiate axenic and co-cultures. Validation of these markers in exhaled breath specimens could prove useful for timely pathogen identification and infection type diagnosis.
Ključne besede: Bacteria, Enterobacter cloacae, Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry, Infection, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Volatile organic compounds
Objavljeno v RUNG: 18.07.2019; Ogledov: 4459; Prenosov: 114
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,29 MB)

4.
Headspace volatile organic compounds from bacteria implicated in ventilator-associated pneumonia analysed by TD-GC/MS
Oluwasola Lawal, Howbeer Muhamadali, Waqar M Ahmed, Iain R. White, Tamara M E Nijsen, Roy Goodacre, Stephen J Fowler, 2018, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a healthcare-acquired infection arising from the invasion of the lower respiratory tract by opportunistic pathogens in ventilated patients. The current method of diagnosis requires the culture of an airway sample such as bronchoalveolar lavage, which is invasive to obtain and may take up to seven days to identify a causal pathogen, or indeed rule out infection. While awaiting results, patients are administered empirical antibiotics; risks of this approach include lack of effect on the causal pathogen, contribution to the development of antibiotic resistance and downstream effects such as increased length of intensive care stay, cost, morbidity and mortality. Specific biomarkers which could identify causal pathogens in a timely manner are needed as they would allow judicious use of the most appropriate antimicrobial therapy. Volatile organic compound (VOC) analysis in exhaled breath is proposed as an alternative due to its non-invasive nature and its potential to provide rapid diagnosis at the patient's bedside. VOCs in exhaled breath originate from exogenous, endogenous, as well as microbial sources. To identify potential markers, VAP-associated pathogens Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus were cultured in both artificial sputum medium and nutrient broth, and their headspaces were sampled and analysed for VOCs. Previously reported volatile markers were identified in this study, including indole and 1-undecene, alongside compounds that are novel to this investigation, cyclopentanone and 1-hexanol. We further investigated media components (substrates) to identify those that are essential for indole and cyclopentanone production, with potential implications for understanding microbial metabolism in the lung.
Ključne besede: bacteria, exhaled breath, infection, ventilator-associated pneumonia, volatile organic compounds
Objavljeno v RUNG: 18.07.2019; Ogledov: 2839; Prenosov: 0

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