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1.
The role of the magnetic fields in GRB outflows
N. Jordana-Mitjans, Carole G. Mundell, S. Kobayashi, R. J. Smith, Cristiano Guidorzi, Iain A. Steele, M. Shrestha, Andreja Gomboc, M. Marongiu, R. Martone, 2023, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Ključne besede: astronomija, izbruhi sevanja gama, magnetno polje
Objavljeno v RUNG: 15.01.2024; Ogledov: 855; Prenosov: 43
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Analysis of exhaled breath to identify critically ill patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia
T. W. Felton, Waqar Ahmed, Iain R. White, Pouline M. van Oort, Nicholas J. W. Rattray, C. Docherty, Jonathan Bannard-Smith, J.B. Morton, Ingeborg Welters, R. McMullan, 2023, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Ventilator-associated pneumonia commonly occurs in critically ill patients. Clinical suspicion results in overuse of antibiotics, which in turn promotes antimicrobial resistance. Detection of volatile organic compounds in the exhaled breath of critically ill patients might allow earlier detection of pneumonia and avoid unnecessary antibiotic prescription. We report a proof of concept study for non-invasive diagnosis of ventilator-associated pneumonia in intensive care (the BRAVo study). Mechanically ventilated critically ill patients commenced on antibiotics for clinical suspicion of ventilator-associated pneumonia were recruited within the first 24 h of treatment. Paired exhaled breath and respiratory tract samples were collected. Exhaled breath was captured on sorbent tubes and then analysed using thermal desorption gas chromatography–mass spectrometry to detect volatile organic compounds. Microbiological culture of a pathogenic bacteria in respiratory tract samples provided confirmation of ventilator-associated pneumonia. Univariable and multivariable analyses of volatile organic compounds were performed to identify potential biomarkers for a ‘rule-out’ test. Ninety-six participants were enrolled in the trial, with exhaled breath available from 92. Of all compounds tested, the four highest performing candidate biomarkers were benzene, cyclohexanone, pentanol and undecanal with area under the receiver operating characteristic curve ranging from 0.67 to 0.77 and negative predictive values from 85% to 88%. Identified volatile organic compounds in the exhaled breath of mechanically ventilated critically ill patients show promise as a useful non-invasive ‘rule-out’ test for ventilator-associated pneumonia.
Ključne besede: breath, diagnosis, ventilator-associated pneumonia
Objavljeno v RUNG: 05.04.2023; Ogledov: 1327; Prenosov: 15
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Breath and plasma metabolomics to assess inflammation in acute stroke
Waqar Ahmed, Iain R. White, Maxim Wilkinson, Craig Johnson, Nicholas J. W. Rattray, Amit K. Kishore, Royston Goodacre, Craig J. Smith, Stephen J. Fowler, 2021, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Inflammation is strongly implicated in both injury and repair processes occurring after stroke. In this exploratory study we assessed the feasibility of repeated sampling of exhaled volatile organic compounds and performed an untargeted metabolomic analysis of plasma collected at multiple time periods after stroke. Metabolic profiles were compared with the time course of the inflammatory markers C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Serial breath sampling was well-tolerated by all patients and the measurement appears feasible in this group. We found that exhaled decanal tracks CRP and IL-6 levels post-stroke and correlates with several metabolic pathways associated with a post-stroke inflammatory response. This suggests that measurement of breath and blood metabolites could facilitate development of novel therapeutic and diagnostic strategies. Results are discussed in relation to the utility of breath analysis in stroke care, such as in monitoring recovery and complications including stroke associated infection.
Ključne besede: stroke, metabolomics, breath, VOCs, inflammation
Objavljeno v RUNG: 18.11.2021; Ogledov: 1935; Prenosov: 62
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Detection and quantification of exhaled volatile organic compounds in mechanically ventilated patients–comparison of two sampling methods
Iain R. White, Pouline M. van Oort, Waqar Ahmed, Craig Johnson, Jonathan Bannard-Smith, Timothy Felton, Lieuwe D. Bos, Royston Goodacre, Paul Dark, Stephen J. Fowler, 2020, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Exhaled breath analysis is a promising new diagnostic tool, but currently no standardised method for sampling is available in mechanically ventilated patients. We compared two breath sampling methods, first using an artificial ventilator circuit, then in “real life” in mechanically ventilated patients on the intensive care unit. In the laboratory circuit, a 24-component synthetic-breath volatile organic compound (VOC) mixture was injected into the system as air was sampled: (A) through a port on the exhalation limb of the circuit and (B) through a closed endo-bronchial suction catheter. Sorbent tubes were used to collect samples for analysis by thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Realistic mechanical ventilation rates and breath pressure–volume loops were established and method detection limits (MDLs) were calculated for all VOCs. Higher yields of VOCs were retrieved using the closed suction catheter; however, for several VOCs MDLs were compromised due to the background signal associated with plastic and rubber components in the catheters. Different brands of suction catheter were compared. Exhaled VOC data from 40 patient samples collected at two sites were then used to calculate the proportion of data analysed above the MDL. The relative performance of the two methods differed depending on the VOC under study and both methods showed sensitivity towards different exhaled VOCs. Furthermore, method performance differed depending on recruitment site, as the centres were equipped with different brands of respiratory equipment, an important consideration for the design of multicentre studies investigating exhaled VOCs in mechanically ventilated patients.
Ključne besede: Volatile organic compounds, infection, breath, ventilator associated pneumonia
Objavljeno v RUNG: 10.12.2020; Ogledov: 2827; Prenosov: 0
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Atmospheric chemistry and physics in the atmosphere of a developed megacity (London): An overview of the REPARTEE experiment and its conclusions
Roy M Harrison, Manuel DallOsto, David C S Beddows, Alistair J Thorpe, William J Bloss, James D Allan, Hugh Coe, James R Dorsey, Martin W Gallagher, Claire Martin, John Whitehead, Paul I Williams, Roderick L Jones, Justin M Langridge, A K Benton, Stephen M Ball, Ben Langford, C Nicholas Hewitt, Brian Davison, Damien Martin, K Fredrik Peterson, Stephen J Henshaw, Iain R. White, Dudley E Shallcross, Janet F Barlow, Tyrone Dunbar, Fay Davies, Eiko Nemitz, Gavin J Phillips, Carole Helfter, Chiara F Di Marco, Steven Smith, 2012, pregledni znanstveni članek

Opis: The Regents Park and Tower Environmental Experiment (REPARTEE) comprised two campaigns in London in October 2006 and October/November 2007. The experiment design involved measurements at a heavily trafficked roadside site, two urban background sites and an elevated site at 160-190 m above ground on the BT Tower, supplemented in the second campaign by Doppler lidar measurements of atmospheric vertical structure. A wide range of measurements of airborne particle physical metrics and chemical composition were made as well as measurements of a considerable range of gas phase species and the fluxes of both particulate and gas phase substances. Significant findings include (a) demonstration of the evaporation of traffic-generated nanoparticles during both horizontal and vertical atmospheric transport; (b) generation of a large base of information on the fluxes of nanoparticles, accumulation mode particles and specific chemical components of the aerosol and a range of gas phase species, as well as the elucidation of key processes and comparison with emissions inventories; (c) quantification of vertical gradients in selected aerosol and trace gas species which has demonstrated the important role of regional transport in influencing concentrations of sulphate, nitrate and secondary organic compounds within the atmosphere of London; (d) generation of new data on the atmospheric structure and turbulence above London, including the estimation of mixed layer depths; (e) provision of new data on trace gas dispersion in the urban atmosphere through the release of purposeful tracers; (f) the determination of spatial differences in aerosol particle size distributions and their interpretation in terms of sources and physico-chemical transformations; (g) studies of the nocturnal oxidation of nitrogen oxides and of the diurnal behaviour of nitrate aerosol in the urban atmosphere, and (h) new information on the chemical composition and source apportionment of particulate matter size fractions in the atmosphere of London derived both from bulk chemical analysis and aerosol mass spectrometry with two instrument types.
Ključne besede: megacity, trace gas, urban atmosphere, atmospheric transport, chemical composition, aerosol
Objavljeno v RUNG: 18.07.2019; Ogledov: 3569; Prenosov: 0
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