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11.
Search for Anisotropy in the Ultra High Energy Cosmic Ray Spectrum using the Telescope Array Surface Detector
J. P. Lundquist, R.U. Abbasi, 2017, drugi članki ali sestavki

Opis: The Telescope Array (TA) experiment is located in the western desert of Utah, USA, and observes ultra high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) in the Northern hemisphere. At the highest energies, E>10~EeV, the shape of cosmic ray energy spectrum may carry an imprint of the source density distribution along the line of sight different in different directions of the sky. In this study, we search for such directional variations in the shape of the energy spectrum using events observed with the Telescope Array's surface detector. We divide the TA field of view into two nearly equal-exposure regions: the "on-source" region which we define as ±30∘ of the supergalactic plane containing mostly nearby structures, and the complementary "off-source" region where the sources are further away on average. We compare the UHECR spectra in these regions by fitting them to the broken power law and comparing the resulting parameters. We find that the off-source spectrum has an earlier break at highest energies. The chance probability to obtain such or larger difference in statistically equivalent distributions is estimated as 6.2±1.1×10−4 (3.2σ) by a Monte-Carlo simulation. The observed difference in spectra is in a reasonable quantitative agreement with a simplified model that assumes that the UHECR sources trace the galaxy distribution from the 2MRS catalogue, primary particles are protons and the magnetic deflections can be neglected.
Najdeno v: osebi
Ključne besede: cosmic radiation: UHE, detector: surface, cosmic radiation: spectrum, cosmic radiation: energy spectrum, deflection: magnetic, numerical calculations: Monte Carlo, anisotropy
Objavljeno: 27.04.2020; Ogledov: 1137; Prenosov: 42
.pdf Polno besedilo (169,05 KB)

12.
The energy spectrum of cosmic rays above 1017.2 eV measured by the fluorescence detectors of the Telescope Array experiment in seven years
J. P. Lundquist, R.U. Abbasi, 2016, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: The Telescope Array (TA) experiment is the largest detector to observe ultra-high-energy cosmic rays in the northern hemisphere. The fluorescence detectors at two stations of TA are newly constructed and have now completed seven years of steady operation. One advantage of monocular analysis of the fluorescence detectors is a lower energy threshold for cosmic rays than that of other techniques like stereoscopic observations or coincidences with the surface detector array, allowing the measurement of an energy spectrum covering three orders of magnitude in energy. Analyzing data collected during those seven years, we report the energy spectrum of cosmic rays covering a broad range of energies above 10^17.2eV measured by the fluorescence detectors and a comparison with previously published results.
Najdeno v: osebi
Ključne besede: Cosmic rays, Ultra-high energy, Fluorescence detector, Energy spectrum, Ankle, GZK cutoff
Objavljeno: 27.04.2020; Ogledov: 1162; Prenosov: 0
.pdf Polno besedilo (1,23 MB)

13.
First upper limits on the radar cross section of cosmic-ray induced extensive air showers
J. P. Lundquist, R.U. Abbasi, 2017, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: TARA (Telescope Array Radar) is a cosmic ray radar detection experiment colocated with Telescope Array, the conventional surface scintillation detector (SD) and fluorescence telescope detector (FD) near Delta, Utah, U.S.A. The TARA detector combines a 40 kW, 54.1 MHz VHF transmitter and high-gain transmitting antenna which broadcasts the radar carrier over the SD array and within the FD field of view, towards a 250 MS/s DAQ receiver. TARA has been collecting data since 2013 with the primary goal of observing the radar signatures of extensive air showers (EAS). Simulations indicate that echoes are expected to be short in duration (∼ 10 µs) and exhibit rapidly changing frequency, with rates on the order 1 MHz/µs. The EAS radar cross-section (RCS) is currently unknown although it is the subject of over 70 years of speculation. A novel signal search technique is described in which the expected radar echo of a particular air shower is used as a matched filter template and compared to waveforms obtained by triggering the radar DAQ using the Telescope Array fluorescence detector. No evidence for the scattering of radio frequency radiation by EAS is obtained to date. We report the first quantitative RCS upper limits using EAS that triggered the Telescope Array Fluorescence Detector.
Najdeno v: osebi
Ključne besede: Cosmic ray, Radar, Digital signal processing, Radar cross-section
Objavljeno: 27.04.2020; Ogledov: 1086; Prenosov: 0
.pdf Polno besedilo (6,16 MB)

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15.
The hybrid energy spectrum of Telescope Array’s Middle Drum Detector and surface array
J. P. Lundquist, R.U. Abbasi, 2015, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: The Telescope Array experiment studies ultra high energy cosmic rays using a hybrid detector. Fluorescence telescopes measure the longitudinal development of the extensive air shower generated when a primary cosmic ray particle interacts with the atmosphere. Meanwhile, scintillator detectors measure the lateral distribution of secondary shower particles that hit the ground. The Middle Drum (MD) fluorescence telescope station consists of 14 telescopes from the High Resolution Fly’s Eye (HiRes) experiment, providing a direct link back to the HiRes measurements. Using the scintillator detector data in conjunction with the telescope data improves the geometrical reconstruction of the showers significantly, and hence, provides a more accurate reconstruction of the energy of the primary particle. The Middle Drum hybrid spectrum is presented and compared to that measured by the Middle Drum station in monocular mode. Further, the hybrid data establishes a link between the Middle Drum data and the surface array. A comparison between the Middle Drum hybrid energy spectrum and scintillator Surface Detector (SD) spectrum is also shown.
Najdeno v: osebi
Ključne besede: Cosmic rays, Energy spectrum, Telescope Array, Hybrid, Ultra high energy
Objavljeno: 27.04.2020; Ogledov: 1091; Prenosov: 0
.pdf Polno besedilo (3,12 MB)

16.
Indications of Proton-Dominated Cosmic-Ray Composition above 1.6 EeV
J. P. Lundquist, R.U. Abbasi, 2010, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: We report studies of ultrahigh-energy cosmic-ray composition via analysis of depth of air shower maximum (Xmax), for air shower events collected by the High-Resolution Fly’s Eye (HiRes) observatory. The HiRes data are consistent with a constant elongation rate d⟨Xmax⟩/d[log(E)] of 47.9 ± 6.0 (stat) ± 3.2 (syst) g/cm^2/decade for energies between 1.6 and 63 EeV, and are consistent with a predominantly protonic composition of cosmic rays when interpreted via the QGSJET01 and QGSJET-II high-energy hadronic interaction models. These measurements constrain models in which the galactic-to-extragalactic transition is the cause of the energy spectrum ankle at 4×10^18 eV.
Najdeno v: osebi
Ključne besede: Cosmic rays, Energy spectrum, Telescope Array, Hybrid, Ultra high energy
Objavljeno: 27.04.2020; Ogledov: 1123; Prenosov: 0
.pdf Polno besedilo (314,89 KB)

17.
Search for point sources of ultra-high-energy photons with the Telescope Array surface detector
J. P. Lundquist, R.U. Abbasi, 2020, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: The surface detector (SD) of the Telescope Array (TA) experiment allows us to detect indirectly photons with energies of the order of 10^18 eV and higher, and to separate photons from the cosmic ray background. In this paper, we present the results of a blind search for point sources of ultra-high-energy (UHE) photons in the Northern sky using the TA SD data. The photon-induced extensive air showers are separated from the hadron-induced extensive air shower background by means of a multivariate classifier based upon 16 parameters that characterize the air shower events. No significant evidence for the photon point sources is found. The upper limits are set on the flux of photons from each particular direction in the sky within the TA field of view, according to the experiment’s angular resolution for photons. The average 95 per cent confidence level upper-limits for the point-source flux of photons with energies greater than 10^18, 10^18.5, 10^19, 10^19.5 and 10^20 eV are 0.094, 0.029, 0.010, 0.0073 and 0.0058 km−2yr−1, respectively. For energies higher than 10^18.5 eV, the photon point-source limits are set for the first time. Numerical results for each given direction in each energy range are provided as a supplement to this paper.
Najdeno v: osebi
Ključne besede: methods: data analysis, cosmic rays, gamma-rays: general
Objavljeno: 29.04.2020; Ogledov: 1096; Prenosov: 0
.pdf Polno besedilo (1,05 MB)

18.
Constraints on the diffuse photon flux with energies above 10^18 eV using the surface detector of the Telescope Array experiment
J. P. Lundquist, R.U. Abbasi, 2018, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: We present the results of the search for ultra-high-energy photons with nine years of data from the Telescope Array surface detector. A multivariate classifier is built upon 16 reconstructed parameters of the extensive air shower. These parameters are related to the curvature and the width of the shower front, the steepness of the lateral distribution function, and the timing parameters of the waveforms sensitive to the shower muon content. A total number of two photon candidates found in the search is fully compatible with the expected background. The 95% CL limits on the diffuse flux of the photons with energies greater than 10^18.0, 10^18.5, 10^19.0, 10^19.5 and 10^20.0 eV are set at the level of 0.067, 0.012, 0.0036, 0.0013, correspondingly.
Najdeno v: osebi
Ključne besede: Ultra-high-energy photons, Telescope array experiment, Extensive air showers
Objavljeno: 30.04.2020; Ogledov: 1176; Prenosov: 0
.pdf Polno besedilo (1,33 MB)

19.
The Cosmic Ray Energy Spectrum between 2 PeV and 2 EeV Observed with the TALE Detector in Monocular Mode
J. P. Lundquist, R.U. Abbasi, 2018, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: We report on a measurement of the cosmic ray energy spectrum by the Telescope Array Low-Energy Extension (TALE) air fluorescence detector (FD). The TALE air FD is also sensitive to the Cherenkov light produced by shower particles. Low-energy cosmic rays, in the PeV energy range, are detectable by TALE as Cherenkov events. Using these events, we measure the energy spectrum from a low energy of ~2 PeV to an energy greater than 100 PeV. Above 100 PeV, TALE can detect cosmic rays using air fluorescence. This allows for the extension of the measurement to energies greater than a few EeV. In this paper, we describe the detector, explain the technique, and present results from a measurement of the spectrum using ~1000 hr of observation. The observed spectrum shows a clear steepening near 10^17.1 eV, along with an ankle-like structure at 10^16.2 eV. These features present important constraints on the origin of galactic cosmic rays and on propagation models. The feature at 10^17.1 eV may also mark the end of the galactic cosmic ray flux and the start of the transition to extragalactic sources.
Najdeno v: osebi
Ključne besede: astroparticle physics, cosmic rays, UHECR, energy spectrum
Objavljeno: 30.04.2020; Ogledov: 1137; Prenosov: 0
.pdf Polno besedilo (4,40 MB)

20.
Gamma Ray Showers Observed at Ground Level in Coincidence With Downward Lightning Leaders
J. P. Lundquist, R.U. Abbasi, 2018, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Bursts of gamma ray showers have been observed in coincidence with downward propagating negative leaders in lightning flashes by the Telescope Array Surface Detector (TASD). The TASD is a 700‐km^2 cosmic ray observatory located in southwestern Utah, USA. In data collected between 2014 and 2016, correlated observations showing the structure and temporal development of three shower‐producing flashes were obtained with a 3‐D lightning mapping array, and electric field change measurements were obtained for an additional seven flashes, in both cases colocated with the TASD. National Lightning Detection Network information was also used throughout. The showers arrived in a sequence of 2–5 short‐duration (≤10 μs) bursts over time intervals of several hundred microseconds and originated at an altitude of ≃3–5 km above ground level during the first 1–2 ms of downward negative leader breakdown at the beginning of cloud‐to‐ground lightning flashes. The shower footprints, associated waveforms and the effect of atmospheric propagation indicate that the showers consist primarily of downward‐beamed gamma radiation. This has been supported by GEANT simulation studies, which indicate primary source fluxes of ≃10^12–10^14 photons for 16° half‐angle beams. We conclude that the showers are terrestrial gamma ray flashes, similar to those observed by satellites, but that the ground‐based observations are more representative of the temporal source activity and are also more sensitive than satellite observations, which detect only the most powerful terrestrial gamma ray flashes.
Najdeno v: osebi
Ključne besede: gamma rays, lightning, gamma ray bursts, surface detector
Objavljeno: 30.04.2020; Ogledov: 1327; Prenosov: 0
.pdf Polno besedilo (1,14 MB)

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