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Drought and temperature interaction on leaf hydraulic traits in grapevine
Elena Farolfi, Jan Reščič, Jacobs Spencer Harrison, Astrid Forneck, Jose Carlos Herrera, 2022, objavljeni povzetek znanstvenega prispevka na konferenci

Opis: Global warming and increased frequency and/or severity of drought events are among the most threatening consequences of climate change for agricultural crops. Understanding the mechanisms of plant responses to both stressors is pivotal to successfully implement management strategies. Here we explored the effect of temperature on the development of grapevine leaves with particular focus on hydraulic traits under well-watered and water deficit conditions. We grew grafted grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Pinot noir) in two different greenhouse chambers (20/15°C vs 25/20°C day/night) and monitored their gas exchange, leaf size, stomatal density, chlorophyll fluorescence, pressure-volume (PV) curves, osmotic potential and petiole xylem anatomy. PV curves provided clear evidence that both, temperature and water availability, strongly affected the turgor loss point (TLP) as well as the connected physiological traits. Leaves developing at higher temperature exhibited a more conservative behaviour characterised by a lower gs max and a tighter stomatal closure in response to drought. The study further discusses the results considering the coordination of traits changing in tandem and implications in the face of climate change. Key message: The ambient temperature at which leaves develop impacts on its hydraulic traits and therefore on their successive response to drought
Ključne besede: drought, temperature, grapevine, xylem
Objavljeno v RUNG: 05.07.2024; Ogledov: 248; Prenosov: 1
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Atmospheric chemistry and physics in the atmosphere of a developed megacity (London): An overview of the REPARTEE experiment and its conclusions
Roy M Harrison, Manuel DallOsto, David C S Beddows, Alistair J Thorpe, William J Bloss, James D Allan, Hugh Coe, James R Dorsey, Martin W Gallagher, Claire Martin, John Whitehead, Paul I Williams, Roderick L Jones, Justin M Langridge, A K Benton, Stephen M Ball, Ben Langford, C Nicholas Hewitt, Brian Davison, Damien Martin, K Fredrik Peterson, Stephen J Henshaw, Iain R. White, Dudley E Shallcross, Janet F Barlow, Tyrone Dunbar, Fay Davies, Eiko Nemitz, Gavin J Phillips, Carole Helfter, Chiara F Di Marco, Steven Smith, 2012, pregledni znanstveni članek

Opis: The Regents Park and Tower Environmental Experiment (REPARTEE) comprised two campaigns in London in October 2006 and October/November 2007. The experiment design involved measurements at a heavily trafficked roadside site, two urban background sites and an elevated site at 160-190 m above ground on the BT Tower, supplemented in the second campaign by Doppler lidar measurements of atmospheric vertical structure. A wide range of measurements of airborne particle physical metrics and chemical composition were made as well as measurements of a considerable range of gas phase species and the fluxes of both particulate and gas phase substances. Significant findings include (a) demonstration of the evaporation of traffic-generated nanoparticles during both horizontal and vertical atmospheric transport; (b) generation of a large base of information on the fluxes of nanoparticles, accumulation mode particles and specific chemical components of the aerosol and a range of gas phase species, as well as the elucidation of key processes and comparison with emissions inventories; (c) quantification of vertical gradients in selected aerosol and trace gas species which has demonstrated the important role of regional transport in influencing concentrations of sulphate, nitrate and secondary organic compounds within the atmosphere of London; (d) generation of new data on the atmospheric structure and turbulence above London, including the estimation of mixed layer depths; (e) provision of new data on trace gas dispersion in the urban atmosphere through the release of purposeful tracers; (f) the determination of spatial differences in aerosol particle size distributions and their interpretation in terms of sources and physico-chemical transformations; (g) studies of the nocturnal oxidation of nitrogen oxides and of the diurnal behaviour of nitrate aerosol in the urban atmosphere, and (h) new information on the chemical composition and source apportionment of particulate matter size fractions in the atmosphere of London derived both from bulk chemical analysis and aerosol mass spectrometry with two instrument types.
Ključne besede: megacity, trace gas, urban atmosphere, atmospheric transport, chemical composition, aerosol
Objavljeno v RUNG: 18.07.2019; Ogledov: 3597; Prenosov: 0
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