Repozitorij Univerze v Novi Gorici

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Changes in exhaled volatile organic compounds following indirect bronchial challenge in suspected asthma
Adam Peel, Ran Wang, Waqar Ahmed, Iain R White, Max Wilkinson, Yoon K Loke, Andrew M Wilson, Stephen J Fowler, 2023, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Background Inhaled mannitol provokes bronchoconstriction via mediators released during osmotic degranulation of inflammatory cells, and, hence represents a useful diagnostic test for asthma and model for acute attacks. We hypothesised that the mannitol challenge would trigger changes in exhaled volatile organic compounds (VOCs), generating both candidate biomarkers and novel insights into their origin. Methods Participants with a clinical diagnosis of asthma, or undergoing investigation for suspected asthma, were recruited. Inhaled mannitol challenges were performed, followed by a sham challenge after 2 weeks in participants with bronchial hyper-responsiveness (BHR). VOCs were collected before and after challenges and analysed using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Results Forty-six patients (mean (SD) age 52 (16) years) completed a mannitol challenge, of which 16 (35%) were positive, and 15 of these completed a sham challenge. Quantities of 16 of 51 identified VOCs changed following mannitol challenge (p<0.05), of which 11 contributed to a multivariate sparse partial least square discriminative analysis model, with a classification error rate of 13.8%. Five of these 16 VOCs also changed (p<0.05) in quantity following the sham challenge, along with four further VOCs. In patients with BHR to mannitol distinct postchallenge VOC signatures were observed compared with post-sham challenge. Conclusion Inhalation of mannitol was associated with changes in breath VOCs, and in people with BHR resulted in a distinct exhaled breath profile when compared with a sham challenge. These differentially expressed VOCs are likely associated with acute airway inflammation and/or bronchoconstriction and merit further investigation as potential biomarkers in asthma.
Ključne besede: Asthma, Exhaled volatile organic compounds, Pulmonology, Breath metabolomics
Objavljeno v RUNG: 31.07.2023; Ogledov: 232; Prenosov: 1
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Non-covalent ligand-oxide interaction promotes oxygen evolution
Qianbao Wu, Junwu Liang, Mengjun Xiao, Chang Long, Lei Li, Zhenhua Zheng, Andraž Mavrič, Xia Zheng, Hai-Wei Liang, Hongfei Liu, Matjaž Valant, Wei Wang, Zhengxing Lv, Jiong Li, Chunhua Cui, 2023, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Strategies to generate high-valence metal species capable of oxidizing water often employ composition and coordination tuning of oxide-based catalysts, where strong covalent interactions with metal sites are crucial. However, it remains unexplored whether a relatively weak “non-bonding” interaction between ligands and oxides can mediate the electronic states of metal sites in oxides. Here we present an unusual non-covalent phenanthroline-CoO2 interaction that substantially elevates the population of Co4+ sites for improved water oxidation. We find that phenanthroline only coordinates with Co2+ forming soluble Co(phenanthroline)2(OH)2 complex in alkaline electrolytes, which can be deposited as amorphous CoOxHy film containing non-bonding phenanthroline upon oxidation of Co2+ to Co3+/4+. This in situ deposited catalyst demonstrates a low overpotential of 216 mV at 10 mA cm−2 and sustainable activity over 1600 h with Faradaic efficiency above 97%. Density functional theory calculations reveal that the presence of phenanthroline can stabilize CoO2 through the non-covalent interaction and generate polaron-like electronic states at the Co-Co center.
Ključne besede: water oxidation, cobalt hydroxide, ligand-metal interactions
Objavljeno v RUNG: 23.02.2023; Ogledov: 676; Prenosov: 9
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,77 MB)

Investigation of the effective transmittance of Mach-Zehnder interferometer in the multi-longitudinal-mode high-spectral-resolution lidar
Fei Gao, Fengjia Gao, Xiao Yang, Gaipan Li, Li Wang, Meng Wang, Dengxin Hua, Griša Močnik, Samo Stanič, 2022, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Effective transmittance is an important parameter of Mach-Zehnder interferometer in the retrieval of aerosol optical properties using the multi-longitudinal-mode high-spectral-resolution lidar, which is a function of the complex degree of coherence. In this paper, we retrieve the parameter of the complex degree of coherence for the multi-longitudinal-mode laser from the theoretical analysis, optical simulation and experimental measurements, which are 0.726, 0.678 and 0.453 using the Mach-Zehnder interferometer with the optimal optical path difference of two times of laser optical cavity length (∼1000 mm) and under the light illumination of the high power Nd:YAG laser with the mode number of 101 and mode interval of 300 MHz under the condition of laser linewidth of 1 cm−1 (30 GHz). The preliminary measurement results of aerosol optical properties using the constructing multi-longitudinal-mode high-spectral-resolution lidar show that the difference of the complex degree of coherence retrieved from the presented methods results in the relative error of 40% in the aerosol backscattering coefficient with thin cloud layer and 90% with the presence of dense aerosol layer.
Ključne besede: effective transmittance, Mach-Zehnder interferometer, Multi-logitudinal-mode laser, High-spectral-resolution lidar
Objavljeno v RUNG: 20.09.2022; Ogledov: 814; Prenosov: 0
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Investigation of Aerosol Types and Vertical Distributions Using Polarization Raman Lidar over Vipava Valley
Longlong Wang, Marija Bervida Mačak, Samo Stanič, Klemen Bergant, Asta Gregorič, Luka Drinovec, Zhenping Yin, Yang Yi, Detlef Müller, Xuan Wang, 2022, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Aerosol direct radiative forcing is strongly dependent on aerosol distributions and aerosol types. A detailed understanding of such information is still missing at the Alpine region, which currently undergoes amplified climate warming. Our goal was to study the vertical variability of aerosol types within and above the Vipava valley (45.87◦ N, 13.90◦ E, 125 m a.s.l.) to reveal the vertical impact of each particular aerosol type on this region, a representative complex terrain in the Alpine region which often suffers from air pollution in the wintertime. This investigation was performed using the entire dataset of a dual-wavelength polarization Raman lidar system, which covers 33 nights from September to December 2017. The lidar provides measurements from midnight to early morning (typically from 00:00 to 06:00 CET) to provide aerosol-type dependent properties, which include particle linear depolarization ratio, lidar ratio at 355 nm and the aerosol backscatter Ångström exponent between 355 nm and 1064 nm. These aerosol properties were compared with similar studies, and the aerosol types were identified by the measured aerosol optical properties. Primary anthropogenic aerosols within the valley are mainly emitted from two sources: individual domestic heating systems, which mostly use biomass fuel, and traffic emissions. Natural aerosols, such as mineral dust and sea salt, are mostly transported over large distances. A mixture of two or more aerosol types was generally found. The aerosol characterization and statistical properties of vertical aerosol distributions were performed up to 3 km.
Ključne besede: valley air pollution, aerosol vertical distributions, lidar remote sensing, aerosol identification
Objavljeno v RUNG: 21.07.2022; Ogledov: 873; Prenosov: 23
.pdf Celotno besedilo (5,57 MB)

Bora flow characteristics in a complex valley environment
Marija Bervida, Samo Stanič, Griša Močnik, Longlong Wang, Klemen Bergant, Xiaoquan Song, 2021, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: This paper complements the existing studies of Bora flow properties in the Vipava valley with the study of Bora turbulence in a lower region of the troposphere. The turbulence characteristics of Bora flow were derived from high resolution Doppler wind lidar measurements during eight Bora wind episodes that occurred in November and December 2019. Based on the vertical profiles of wind velocity, from 80 to 180 m above the valley floor, the turbulence intensity related to all three spatial directions and the along-wind integral length scales related to three velocity components were evaluated and compared to the approximations given in international standards. The resulting turbulence characteristics of Bora flow in a deep mountain valley exhibited interesting behaviour, differing from the one expected and suggested by standards. The intensity of turbulence during Bora episodes was found to be quite strong, especially regarding the expected values for that particular category of terrain. The specific relationship between along-wind, lateral and vertical intensity was evaluated as well. The scales of turbulence in the along-wind direction were found to vary widely between different Bora episodes and were rather different from the approximations given by standards, with the most significant deviations observed for the along-wind length scale of the vertical velocity component. Finally, the periodicity of flow structures above the valley was assessed, yielding a wide range of possible periods between 1 and 10 min, thus confirming some of the previous observations from the studies of Bora in the Vipava valley.
Ključne besede: doppler wind lidar, Bora wind, turbulence intensity, complex terrain, turbulence integral length scale
Objavljeno v RUNG: 05.11.2021; Ogledov: 1487; Prenosov: 41
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